Midsummer celebration, Åmmeberg, Sweden
|Also called||Summer Solstice, St. John's Feast Day, Līgo, Litha, Ivan Kupala Day|
|Observed by||Northern Europeans and Anglophones|
|Type||Cultural, Christian, Pagan|
|Significance||Marks the Ancient middle of Summer, Astronomical beginning of Summer, and the nativity of St. Åmmeberg is a small Swedish locality (pop circa 600 in Askersund Municipality, Örebro County in the southern part of the province of Närke Saint Jonas' Festival (aka Rasos (Dew Holiday Joninės Kupolė Midsummer Day or St Jāņi (jaːɲi is a Latvian festival held in the night from 23 June to 24 June to celebrate the summer Solstice, the shortest night and longest Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world John the Baptist.|
|Date||June 21, 24, 25 or a date close to the Summer Solstice on June 20-23|
|Celebrations||Festivals, Bonfires, Feasting, Singing, Maypole Dancing|
|Related to||Summer Solstice, Quarter days, Nativity of St. John the Baptist|
Midsummer may simply refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, but more often refers to specific European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice, or that take place 24 June and the preceding evening, related to the birthday of Saint John the Baptist. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of Maple ( Acer) hawthorn or Birch) sometimes erected with several long coloured Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes In British and Irish tradition the quarter days were the four dates in each year on which servants were hired and rents and rates were due The Nativity of St John the Baptist (or Birth of John the Baptist, or Nativity of the Forerunner) is a Christian Feast day celebrating Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. European midsummer-related holidays, traditions and celebrations, many of which are pre-Christian in origin and have been Christianised as celebrating the Nativity of St. John the Baptist as "Saint John's Day" festivals, are particularly important in Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Estonia, but found also in Ireland, parts of Britain (Cornwall especially), France, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain, in other parts of Europe and elsewhere, such as Canada, the United States, and even in the Southern Hemisphere (Brazil), where this imported European celebration would be more appropriately called Midwinter. The Nativity of St John the Baptist (or Birth of John the Baptist, or Nativity of the Forerunner) is a Christian Feast day celebrating Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Southern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is South of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun 's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the
Midsummer is also sometimes referred to by neo-pagans and some others as Litha, stemming from Bede's De temporum ratione in which he gave the Anglo-Saxon names for the months roughly corresponding to June and July as "se Ærra Liþa" and "se Æfterra Liþa" (the "early Litha month" and the "later Litha month") with an intercalary month of "Liþa" appearing after se Æfterra Liþa on leap years. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c De temporum ratione ( English: On The Reckoning Of Time) is a treatise written in Latin by the Northumbrian Anglo-Saxon Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases The fire festival or Lith- Summer solstice is a tradition for may pagans.
Solstitial celebrations still centre upon 24 June, which is no longer the longest day of the year. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place The difference between the Julian calendar year (365. The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita 2500 days) and the tropical year (365. A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons as seen from Earth 2422 days) moved the day associated with the actual astronomical solstice forward approximately three days every four centuries, until Pope Gregory XIII changed the calendar bringing the solstice to around 21 June. Pope Gregory XIII (January 7 1502 &ndash April 10 1585 born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585 Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. In the Gregorian calendar, the solstice moves around a bit but in the long term it moves only about one day in 3000 years. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today
In the 7th century, Saint Eligius (died 659/60) warned the recently-Christianized inhabitants of Flanders against these pagan solstitial celebrations. Saint Eligius or Loye ( French: Éloi) (ca 588-590 - December 1, 659 or 660 is the Patron saint of goldsmiths and other According to the Vita by his companion Ouen, he would say:
Indeed, as Saint Eligius demonstrates, midsummer has been Christianized as the nativity feast of Saint John the Baptist: notably, unlike all other saints' days, this feast is celebrated on his birthday and not on the day of his martyrdom, which is separately observed as the "Decollation of John the Baptist" on 29 August. The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity The Nativity of St John the Baptist (or Birth of John the Baptist, or Nativity of the Forerunner) is a Christian Feast day celebrating Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) That more conventional day of Saint John the Baptist is not marked by Christian churches with the emphasis one might otherwise expect of such an important saint.
As for his solsticial birthday, the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the Nativity of John the Baptist (June 24) as a Solemnity, which is the highest degree a liturgical feast can have. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place It is even one of the few saint's feasts that is celebrated even when it falls on a Sunday; typically the feast of a saint is superseded when it falls on a Sunday. There is hardly any way that the feast of St John the Baptist could be given more emphasis in the liturgical calendar.
The celebration of Midsummer's Eve was from ancient times linked to the summer solstice. People believed that mid-summer plants had miraculous and healing powers and they therefore picked them on this night. Bonfires were lit to protect against evil spirits which were believed to roam freely when the sun was turning southwards again. In later years, witches were also thought to be on their way to meetings with other evil powers. Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers
In Sweden Mid-summer celebration originates from the time before Christianity; it was celebrated as a sacrifice time in the sign of the fertility. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
The solstice itself has remained a special moment of the annual cycle of the year since Neolithic times. The concentration of the observance is not on the day as we reckon it, commencing at midnight or at dawn, but the pre-Christian beginning of the day, which falls on the previous eve. In Sweden, Finland and Estonia, Midsummer's Eve is considered the greatest festival of the year, comparable only with Walpurgis Night, Christmas Eve, and New Year's Eve. Walpurgis Night is a traditional religious holiday (celebrated by Pagans Roman Catholics and Satanists ref> About the Church of Satan alike celebrated Christmas Eve, December 24, is the day before Christmas Day, the celebrated birthday of Jesus. The New Year is an event that happens when a Culture celebrates the end of one Year and the beginning of the next year
Cornish migrants in South Australia at one time celebrated the traditional European Midsummer with a bonfire on the traditional date of 24 June, which in Australia is the middle of winter. The Cornish people (Kernowyon are regarded as an Ethnic group of the United Kingdom originating in Cornwall. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country See also Campfire. bonfire is a large controlled outdoor Fire. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place The earliest recorded bonfire was lit for this celebration in Moonta, the night leading into June 24, 1862. Moonta ( is a town located on the Yorke Peninsula of South Australia, 165 kilometres north-northwest of the state capital of Adelaide. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Year 1862 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Monday Similar celebrations began in Burra soon after. Burra ( Old Norse: Barrey) is the collective name for two of the Shetland Islands, West (pop 
The Portuguese Midsummer Day (St John's Day) brought to Brazil during colonial times has become a very important popular event that is celebrated during a period that starts one week before St John's Day and ends one week after. As this nationwide festival, called "Festa Junina" (Saint John Festival), happens during the European midsummer, it takes place in the Brazilian midwinter and is most associated with Northeastern Brazil, but today celebrated in the whole country. Festa Junina, typically termed São João (Saint John as it is centered on that saint's day is the name of annual
As the northeast is largely arid or semi-arid these popular festivals not only coincide with the rainy seasons of most states in the northeast but they also provide the people with an opportunity to give thanks to Saint John for the rain. They also celebrate rural life and feature typical clothing, food, dance (particularly quadrilha, which is similar to square dancing). Like Midsummer and Saint John's Day in Portugal and Scandinavian countries, São João celebrates marital union. The "quadrilha" features couple formations around a mock wedding whose bride and groom are the central attraction of the dancing. A maypole, called "mastro de São João", is also raised.
Usually taking place in an arraial, a large, open space outdoors, men dress up as farm boys with suspenders and large straw hats and women wear pigtails, freckles, painted gap teeth and red-checkered dresses, all in a loving tribute to the origins of Brazilian country music and of themselves, some of whom are recent immigrants from the countryside to cities such as Olinda, Recife, Maceió and Salvador, and some return to the rural areas during the festival to visit their families. Olinda is a historic city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, located on the country's northeastern Atlantic Recife ( heˈsifi is the fifth largest Metropolitan area in Brazil and the capital of the state of Pernambuco. Maceió ( Mah-say-oh) is the capital and the largest city of the Coastal state Alagoas, Brazil. Salvador (historic name São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, in English "Holy Savior of All Saints' Bay" is a City on the northeast coast of However, nowadays, Saint John festivities are extremely popular in all urban areas and among all social classes. In the Northeast, they are as popular as Carnival. It should be noted that, like during Carnival, these festivities involve costume-wearing (in this case, peasant costumes), dancing, heavy drinking, and visual spectacles (bonfires, fireworks display, and folk dancing).
Two northeastern towns in particular have competed with each other for the title of "Biggest Saint John Festival in the World", namely Caruaru (in the state of Pernambuco), and Campina Grande, in Paraíba state. Caruaru is a city in Pernambuco, Brazil. Caruaru and Recife are the biggest and most important cities in Pernambuco 's countryside Pernambuco (pɛxnɐ̃ˈbuku is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country Campina Grande ( Portuguese "Great Plain" is the second most populous Brazilian city in the State of Paraíba after João Pessoa, the Paraíba (paɾaˈiba is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast where lies the easternmost In fact, Caruaru features in the Guinness Book of World Records for holding the biggest outdoor country festival. As Saint John festivities also coincide with the corn harvest, dishes served during this period are commonly made with corn, such as canjica and pamonha; dishes also include peanuts, potatoes sausages and also sweet rice. Canjica is a white variety of corn very typical of Brazilian cuisine Pamonha ( pron paˈmoɲɐ is a traditional Brazilian food It is a paste made from corn and milk boiled wrapped in corn husk The celebrations are very colorful and festive and include amazing pyrotechnics. Bonfires and fire in general are thus one of the most important features of these festivities, a feature that is among the remnants of midsummer pagan rituals in the Iberian Peninsula. A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra
In Quebec, Canada, the celebration of June 24 was brought to New France by the first French colonists. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Great fires were lit at night. According to the Jesuit Relations, the first celebrations of St John's day in New France took place around 1638. The Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France, commonly abbreviated as the Jesuit Relations, are the annual reports which were issued by the superior In 1834, Ludger Duvernay, printer and editor of La Minerve took the leadership of an effort to make June 24 the national holiday of the Canadiens (French Canadians). Ludger Duvernay ( January 22 1799 &ndash November 28 1852) was born in Verchères, Quebec, Canada. La Minerve (French for "The Minerva" was a newspaper founded in Montreal, Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) by Augustin-Norbert Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place
In 1908, Pope Pius X designated John the Baptist as the patron saint of the French-Canadians. Saint Pius X ( Latin: Pius PP X) ( June 2, 1835 &mdash August 20, 1914) born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the In 1925, June 24 became a legal holiday in Quebec and in 1977, it became the secular National Holiday of Quebec. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place It still is the tradition to light great fires on the night of the 24th of June.
In Denmark, the solstitial celebration is called Sankt Hans aften ("St. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe John's Eve"). It was an official holiday until 1770, and in accordance with the Danish tradition of celebrating a holiday on the evening before the actual day, it takes place on the evening of 23 June. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish It is the day where the medieval wise men and women (the doctors of that time) would gather special herbs that they needed for the rest of the year to cure people.
It has been celebrated since the times of the Vikings, by visiting healing water wells and making a large bonfire to ward away evil spirits. Today the water well tradition is gone. Bonfires on the beach, speeches, picnics and songs are traditional, although bonfires are built in many other places where beaches may not be close by (i. e. on the shores of lakes and other waterways, parks, etc. ). In the 1920s a tradition of putting a witch made of straw and cloth (probably made by the elder women of the family) on the bonfire emerged as a remembrance of the church's witch burnings from 1540 to 1693. (Unofficially a witch was lynched as late as 1897. ) This burning sends the "witch" away from us, to Bloksbjerg, the mountain 'Brocken' in the Harz region of Germany where the great witch gathering was thought to be held on this day. The Brocken, or Blocksberg, is the highest peak in the Harz Mountains in Germany and also the highest peak of Northern Germany; it is located The Harz is a mountain range in central Germany It is the highest mountain chain in northern Germany occupying parts of the German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Holger Drachmann and P. Holger Henrik Herholdt Drachmann ( October 9, 1846 – January 14, 1908) was a Danish Poet and Dramatist E. Lange-Müller wrote a midsommervise (Midsummer hymn) in 1885 called "Vi elsker vort land. . . " ("We Love Our Country") that is sung at every bonfire on this evening.
"Jaanipäev" ("John's Day" in English) was celebrated long before the arrival of Christianity in Estonia, although the day was given its name by the crusaders. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region The arrival of Christianity, however, did not end pagan beliefs and fertility rituals surrounding this holiday. In 1578, Balthasar Russow wrote in his Livonian Chronicle about Estonians who placed more importance on the festival than going to church. Balthasar Russow (1536 &ndash 1600 was one of the most important Livonian and Estonian Chroniclers Russow was born in Reval (Tallinn. Estonians ( Estonian: eestlased, previously maarahvas) are a Finnic people closely related to the Finns and inhabiting primarily the country He complained about those who went to church, but did not enter, and instead spent their time lighting bonfires, drinking, dancing, singing and following pagan rituals.
Midsummer marks a change in the farming year, specifically the break between the completion of spring sowing and the hard work of summer hay-making.
Understandably, some of the rituals of Jaanipäev have very strong folkloric roots. The best-known Jaanik, or midsummer, ritual is the lighting of the bonfire and the jumping over it. This is seen as a way of guaranteeing prosperity and avoiding bad luck. Likewise, to not light the fire is to invite the destruction of your house by fire. The fire also frightened away mischievous spirits who avoided it at all costs, thus ensuring a good harvest. So, the bigger the fire, the further the mischievous spirits stayed away.
Estonians celebrate "Jaaniõhtu" ("John's Night" in English) on the eve of the Summer Solstice (June 23) with bonfires. In Estonia, aside from Christmas Jaaniõhtu ( Midsummer's Eve, also called Jaanilaupäev) and Jaanipäev (" On the islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, old fishing boats may be burnt in the large pyres set ablaze. Saaremaa is the largest Island belonging to Estonia, measuring 2673 km². Hiiumaa is the second largest Island (989 km² belonging to Estonia. On Jaaniõhtu, Estonians all around the country will gather with their families, or at larger events to celebrate this important day with singing and dancing, as Estonians have done for centuries. The celebrations that accompany Jaaniõhtu are the largest and most important of the year, and the traditions mirror those of southern neighbour Latvia and northern Finland.
Before 1316, the summer solstice was called Ukon juhla, after an old Finnish god Ukko. In Finnish mythology, Ukko (Estonian spelling Uku) is a god of sky weather crops (harvest and other natural things In Karelia, people had many bonfires side by side, the biggest of which was called Ukko-kokko (the "bonfire of Ukko"). Karelia ( Karelian and Finnish Karjala, Карелия ( Kareliya) Karelen the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in At present, the midsummer holiday is known as juhannus (or midsommar, for the Swedish-speaking minority), and is the year's most notable occasion for drunkenness and revelry.
In the Finnish midsummer celebration tradition, bonfires (kokko) are burnt at lakesides. In the coastal areas that are the stronghold of the Swedish speaking Finns, these are supplanted by a maypole tradition, transferred from Sweden, and pickled herring. Finland Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of Dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Swedish-speaking Finns as their The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of Maple ( Acer) hawthorn or Birch) sometimes erected with several long coloured
When Finland was Christianized, the holiday was named after John the Baptist (Johannes) in order to give a Christian meaning to the pagan holiday. Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. The traditions, however, remain quite unchanged and survive in modern-day Finland, although they have lost their original purposes. In folk magic, still well known but no longer seriously practiced, midsummer was a very potent night and the time for many small rituals, mostly for young maidens seeking suitors. Folk religion consists of Beliefs Superstitions and Rituals transmitted from generation to generation in a specific Culture. Will o wisps were believed to be seen at midsummer night, marking a treasure. The will-o'-the-wisp, sometimes will-o'-wisp or ignis fatuus (modern Latin, from ignis ("fire" + fatuus
A great many people get very drunk and happy. Many music festivals of all sizes are organized on the Midsummer weekend. It is also an occasion when many people look for a relationship (often a rather short one). The statistics for the number of people drowned and killed in road accidents and other mishaps are morbidly counted every year while the number of assaults also peaks. It's also common to start summer holidays on Midsummer day.
Midsummerday is also the Day of the Finnish Flag. By law the Finnish flag must be flown from public buildings on the following days February 28, day of Kalevala; the occasion is also celebrated List of flags of Finland The flag of Finland, also called Siniristilippu ("Blue Cross Flag" dates from the beginning of the 20th century The flag is hoisted at 6 pm on Midsummer eve and flown all night till 9 pm the following evening.
In France, the "Fête de la Saint-Jean" (feast of St John), traditionally celebrated with bonfires (le feu de la Saint-Jean) that are reminiscent of Midsummer's pagan rituals, is a catholic festivity in celebration of Saint John the Baptist. Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. It takes place on June 24, on Midsummer day (St John's day). Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place In medieval times, this festival was celebrated with cat-burning rituals. Cat burning was a form of zoosadistic entertainment in 16th century Paris, France.
In certain French towns, a tall bonfire is built by the inhabitants in order to be lit on St John's Day. In the Vosges region and in the Southern part of Meurthe-et-Moselle, this huge bonfire is named "chavande".
The 21 June is also known as the Fête de la Musique. This article refers to a music festival which began in France but which is now international in various cities
On June 20, 1653 the Nuremberg town council issued the following order: :"Whereas experience heretofore hath shown, that after the old heathen use, on John's day in every year, in the country, as well in towns as villages, money and wood hath been gathered by young folk, and thereupon the so-called sonnenwendt or zimmet fire kindled, and thereat winebibbing, dancing about the said fire, leaping over the same, with burning of sundry herbs and flowers, and setting of brands from the said fire in the fields, and in many other ways all manner of superstitious work carried on---Therefore the Hon. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Council of Nürnberg town neither can nor ought to forbear to do away with all such unbecoming superstition, paganism, and peril of fire on this coming day of St. John. "
In the Irish calendar, Midsummer is one of the four Irish Quarter days that divide the official calendar, and the evening before (St. John's Eve). The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning in the Northern Hemisphere on the Equinoxes and Solstices, or the meteorological seasons In British and Irish tradition the quarter days were the four dates in each year on which servants were hired and rents and rates were due The evening of June 23, St John's Eve, is the eve of celebration before the Feast Day of St Many towns and cities have 'Midsummer Carnivals' with fairs, concerts and fireworks either on or on the weekend nearest to Midsummer. A fair is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated Carnival or Funfair entertainment A concert is a live Performance, usually of Music, before an Audience. A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes In some rural spots, bonfires are occasionally lit on hilltops. This tradition harks back to Pagan times. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Irish deities connected with Midsummer include Áine and Manannán mac Lir, to whom Midsummer offerings were traditionally made in County Limerick. The Gods and Goddesses or deities of the Celts are known from a variety of sources these include written Celtic mythology, ancient In Irish mythology, Áine (pronounced "awnya" or "eye-na" is a goddess of love growth and Cattle, also perhaps associated with the sun In Celtic mythology, Manannán mac Lir is the god of the sea He is often seen as a Psychopomp, and considered to have strong connections to the Otherworld County Limerick ( Contae Luimnigh in Irish) is a County in the Province of Munster, located in the mid-west of Ireland with County
In Italy, the feast of Saint John the Baptist has been celebrated in Florence from medieval times, certainly in the Renaissance, with festivals sometimes lasting the three days from 21 to 24 June. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of Florence and Turin where a fireworks display takes place at the celebration on the river.
In Jersey most of the former midsummer customs are largely ignored nowadays. The Bailiwick of Jersey ( Jèrriais: Jèrri) is a British Crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. The custom known as Les cônes d'la Saint Jean was observed as late as the 1970s - horns or conch shells were blown. Ringing the bachîn (a large brass preserving pan) at midsummer to frighten away evil spirits survived as a custom on some farms until the 1940s and has been revived as a folk performance in the 21st century.
In Latvia, Midsummer is called Jāņi (Jānis being Latvian for John) or Līgo Svētki (Svētki = festival). Jāņi (jaːɲi is a Latvian festival held in the night from 23 June to 24 June to celebrate the summer Solstice, the shortest night and longest Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. Jāņi (jaːɲi is a Latvian festival held in the night from 23 June to 24 June to celebrate the summer Solstice, the shortest night and longest Jāņi (jaːɲi is a Latvian festival held in the night from 23 June to 24 June to celebrate the summer Solstice, the shortest night and longest It is a national holiday celebrated on a large scale by almost everyone in Latvia and by people of Latvian origin abroad. This is a list of Holidays in Latvia. Celebrations consist of a lot of traditional elements - eating Jāņu cheese, drinking beer, singing hundreds of Latvian folk songs dedicated to Jāņi, burning bonfire to keep light all through the night and jumping over it, wearing wreaths of flowers (for the women) and leaves (for the men) together with modern commercial products and ideas. Oak wreaths are worn by men named Jānis in honor of their name day. Small oak branches with leaves are attached to cars in Latvia during the festivity.
In the western town of Kuldīga, revellers mark the holiday by running naked through the town at three in the morning. Kuldīga ( is a city in western Latvia. It is the center of Kuldigas County with a population of approximately 13500 The event has taken place for the past seven years. Runners are rewarded with beer, and police are on hand in case any "puritans" attempt to interfere with the naked run. 
At the beginning of the 20th century, solstitial bonfires were common all over Lithuania, but Soviet years have repressed such customs. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with the Feast of St John the Baptist (Joninės). Lithuanian mythology had many different gods and deities It is hard to reconstruct the full list of names because the sources are scant and contradictory
As in Denmark, Sankthansaften is celebrated on 23 June in Norway. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The day is also called Jonsok, which means "John's wake", important in Catholic times with pilgrimages to churches and holy springs. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance For instance, right up to 1840, there was a pilgrimage to the stave church in Røldal (southwest Norway) whose crucifix was said to have healing powers. A stave church is a Medieval wooden church with a Post and beam construction related to Timber framing. Røldal is a former municipality in Hordaland county Norway The parish of Suldal had to be divided into two Formannskapsdistrikt January 1 Today, however, Sankthansaften is largely regarded as a secular event. Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion.
Most places the main event is the burning of a large fire. In parts of Norway a custom of arranging mock marriages, both between adults and between children, is still kept alive. The wedding was meant to symbolise the blossoming of new life. Such weddings are known to have taken place in the 1800s, but the custom is believed to be older.
Especially in northern Poland – the Eastern Pomeranian and Kashubian regions (but also in the whole country), midsummer is celebrated on June 23. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish People dress in traditional Polka dress, and girls throw wreaths made of flowers into the Baltic Sea, and into lakes or rivers. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The midsummer day celebration starts at about 8:00 p. m. and lasts all night until sunrise. People celebrate this special day every year and call it Noc Świętojańska which means St. John's Night. On that day in big Polish cities (like Warsaw and Kraków) there are many organized events, the most popular event being the Wianki, which means wreaths. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland
In Portugal, Midsummer festivities are included in what is known today as "Santos Populares" (Popular Saints celebrations), now corresponding to different municipal holidays: St Anthony's Day in Lisbon (June 13), St John's Day in Oporto, Braga, and Almada (June 24), St Peter's day in Seixal, Sintra, Póvoa do Varzim, and Barcelos (June 29). Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Braga (ˈBrag-uh a city and municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the district of Braga, the oldest archdiocese Almada - Arabic: حصن المعدن ( pron aɫ'madɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 70 Seixal ( pron sɐj'ʃaɫ is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 96 Sintra ( pron 'sĩtɾɐ is both a town and a municipality in Portugal, located in the district of Lisbon. Póvoa de Varzim (ˈpɔvuɐ dɨ vɐɾˈzĩ locally ˈpɔβuɐ dɨ bɐɾˈziŋ is a Portuguese city in the Northern Region and sub-region of Greater Porto Barcelos ( pron bɐɾ'sɛluʃ is a municipality located in the district of Braga, in the north of Portugal. The actual Midsummer, St John's day, is celebrated traditionally more in Oporto.
Saints’ days are full of fun and merriment. The streets are decorated with balloons and arches made out of brightly-coloured paper; people dance in the city's small squares, and altars, dedicated to the saints, are put up as a way of asking for good fortune. These holidays are days of festivities with good food and refreshments, people eat Caldo Verde (cabbage and potato soup), Sardinha Assada (grilled sardines), bread and drink red wine and água-pé (grape juice with a small percentage of alcohol).
In Lisbon, in Avenida da Liberdade, there are the Marchas, a parade of the inhabitants from the city's different traditional quarters, with hundreds of singers and dancers and a vast audience applauding their favourite participants. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. As St Anthony is the matchmaker saint, it is still the tradition in Lisbon to celebrate multiple marriages (200 to 300) and still following the tradition, if you are attracted to someone, one can declare himself in the heat of the festivities by offering to the loved person a manjerico (a flower-pot with a sweet basil plant) and a love poem. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal.
In Oporto St John's is a festival that is lived to the full in the streets, where anything is permitted. People carry a whole plant of flowering garlic with them (or a little plastic hammer), which they use to bang their neighbours over the head for good luck. According to one Portuguese Grandmother, the tradition is that St John was a scalliwag in his youth and the people hit him on the head with the garlic saying "return to the right path". There is also dancing, while the highlight of the night is the firework display over the River Douro.
Across the country the traditional midsummer bonfire is also built, and following an ancient pagan tradition, revelers try to jump over the bonfire, this in order to gain protection during the rest of the year.
In Romania, the Midsummer celebrations are named Drăgaica or Sânziene. Drăgaica is celebrated by a dance performed by a group of 5-7 young girls of which one is chosen as the Drăgaica. She is dressed as a bride, with wheat wreath, while the other girls, dressed in white wear a veil with bedstraw flowers. Participants in wedding ceremonies, also known as the wedding party, include the bride and groom (or bridegroom) the maid of honor Galium verum ( Lady's Bedstraw or Yellow Bedstraw) is a herbaceous Perennial plant of the family Rubiaceae, native to Europe
Midsummer fairs are being held in many Romanian villages and cities. The oldest and best known midsummer fair in Romania is the Drăgaica fair, held in Buzău between 10 and 24 June every year. Drăgaica is the traditional Midsummer Fair held annually in Buzău, Romania. The city of Buzău (bu'zəw is the county seat of Buzău County, Romania, in the historical region of Wallachia. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place
Ivan Kupala was the old Russian name for John the Baptist. Up to the present day, the Russian Midsummer Night (or Ivan's Day) is known as one of the most expressive Russian folk and pagan holidays. Ivan Kupala Day is the day of summer solstice celebrated in Russia and Ukraine on June 23 OS and July 6 NS. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England This is a pagan fertility rite, which has been accepted into the Orthodox Christian calendar. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
Many rites of this holiday are connected with water, fertility and autopurification. Fertility is the natural capability of giving life As a measure "Fertility Rate" is the number of children born per couple person or population The girls, for example, would float their flower garlands on the water of rivers and tell their fortunes from their movement. Lads and girls would jump over the flames of bonfires. Nights on the Eve of Ivan Kupala inspired Modest Mussorgsky to create his Night on Bald Mountain. Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский Modest Petrovič Musorgskij) ( March 21 March 9 1839 &ndash March A Night on the Bald Mountain usually refers to one of two compositions—either a seldom performed early (1867 ' musical picture ' by Modest Mussorgsky,
The Yakut people of the Sakha Republic celebrate a solstitial ceremony, Ysyakh, involving tethering a horse to a pole and circle dancing around it. Yakuts, self-designation Sakha, are a Turkic -speaking people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia Republic. The Sakha Republic (Yakutia (Респу́блика Саха́ (Яку́тия Саха Республиката is a federal subject of Russia (a Republic Circle dance, is the most common name for a style of traditional dance usually done in a circle without partners to musical accompaniment Betting on Reindeer or horse racing would often take place afterward. This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. The traditions are derived from Tengriism, the ancient sun religion of the region which has since been driven out by the Russian empire, Russian Orthodox Church and finally the Communist Party. Tengriism ( Tengerism, Tengrianism, Tengrianizm, Tengricilik) was the major belief of the Mongols and Turkic peoples before The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure The traditions have since been encouraged. 
While not as grand as in other European countries, the traditional midsummer party in Spain is the celebration in honour of San Juan (St. Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. John the Baptist) and takes place in late June. Parties are organised usually at beaches, where bonfires are lit and a set of firework displays usually take place. These events are accompanied usually by alcoholic drinks and some snacks.
In Alicante, since 1928, the bonfires of Saint John were developed into elaborate constructions inspired by the Fallas of Valencia. ||-||} Alicante ( Spanish language) or Alacant ( Valencian) is a city in Spain, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the Bonfires of Saint John (Hogueras de San Juan is a popular festival celebrated in June from the 19th to the 24th in Spain. The Falles (in Valencian) are a Valencian traditional celebration in praise of Saint Joseph in Valencia Spain.
In modern Sweden, Midsummer's Eve and Midsummer's Day (Midsommarafton and Midsommardagen) are celebrated from the eve of the Friday between June 19 - 25. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians It is arguably the most important holiday of the year, and one of the most uniquely Swedish in the way it is celebrated, even if it has been influenced by other countries long ago. The main celebrations take place on the Friday, and the traditional events include raising and dancing around a huge maypole. The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of Maple ( Acer) hawthorn or Birch) sometimes erected with several long coloured One typical dance is the frog dance. Små grodorna ( Swedish for "The Little Frogs" is a traditional Swedish dance and song traditionally performed at Midsummer, where the participants Before the maypole is raised, greens and flowers are collected and used to cover the entire pole.
Raising and dancing around a maypole (majstången or midsommarstången) is an activity that attracts families and many others. The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of Maple ( Acer) hawthorn or Birch) sometimes erected with several long coloured People dancing around the pole listen to traditional music and many wear traditional folk costumes. National costume, also known as national dress, regional costume or folk dress, expresses an identity through Costume which usually The year's first potatoes, pickled herring, sour cream, and possibly the first strawberries of the season are on the menu. Herring are small Oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow temperate waters of the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea, the North Sour cream is a Dairy product rich in Fats obtained by fermenting a regular Cream by certain kinds of Lactic acid bacteria. Drinking songs are also important at this feast, and many drink heavily.
Because Midsummer was thought to be one of the times of the year when magic was strongest, it was considered a good night to perform rituals to look into the future. Anders Leonard Zorn ( February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter sculptor and Printmaker in Etching Traditionally, young people pick bouquets of seven or nine different flowers and put them under their pillow in the hope of dreaming about their future spouse. In the past it was believed that herbs picked at Midsummer were highly potent, and water from springs could bring good health. Greenery placed over houses and barns were supposed to bring good fortune and health to people and livestock; this old tradition of decorating with greens continues, even though most don't take it seriously. To decorate with greens was called att maja (to "may") and may be the origin of the word majstång, maja coming originally from the month May. Other researchers say the term came from German merchants who raised the maypole in June because the Swedish climate made it impossible to find the necessary greens and flowers in May, and continued to call it a maypole. Today, however, it is most commonly called a midsommarstång. In earlier times, small spires wrapped in greens were erected; this probably predates the maypole tradition, which is believed by many to have come from the continent in the Middle Ages. Others argue that some form of Midsummer pole occurred in Sweden during the pre-Christian times, and was a phallic fertility symbol, meant to impregnate the earth, but as there were no records from those times it cannot be proven, and this idea might just be a modern interpretation of the poles form. The earliest historical mention of the maypole in Sweden is from the Middle Ages. Midsummer was however linked to an ancient fertility festival which was adapted into St. Johans day by the church, even though it retained many pagan traditions, as the Swedes were slow to give up the old heathen customs. The connection to fertility is naturally linked to the time of year. Many young people became passionate at Midsummer, and this was accepted, probably because it resulted in more childbirths in March which was a good time for children to be born.
Midsummer is one of the only pagan holidays that are still celebrated in Europe (if not the only). Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world In Denmark and Norway it is referred to as the eve of St. Hans but it's only in Sweden that it has kept its original name. Midsummer rivals Christmas as the most important holiday of the year due to the copious amounts of alcohol consumed.
In Great Britain from the 13th century Midsummer was celebrated on Midsummer Eve (St. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands John's Eve, June 23) and St. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Peter's Eve (June 28) with the lighting of bonfires, feasting and merrymaking. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul.
In late fifteenth-century England, John Mirk of Lilleshall Abbey, Shropshire, gives the following description of the way in which early Christians attempted to Christianize a pagan holiday. "At first, men and women came to church with candles and other lights and prayed all night long. In the process of time, however, men left such devotion and used songs and dances and fell into lechery and gluttony turning the good, holy devotion into sin. " The church fathers decided to put a stop to these practices and ordained that people should fast on the evening before, and thus turned waking into fasting (Festial 182).
Mirk adds that at the time of his writing, "in worship of St John the Baptist, men stay up at night and make three kinds of fires: one of is clean bones and no wood and is called a "bonnefyre" [bonfire]; another is of clean wood and no bones, and is called a "wakefyre", because men stay awake by it all night; and the third is made of both bones and wood and is called, "St. John's fire" (Festial 182).
These tradition largely fell to the Reformation, but persisted in rural areas up until the nineteenth century before petering out. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time
Other Midsummer festivities had uneasy relations with the Reformed establishment. The Chester Midsummer Watch Parade, begun in 1498, was held at every Summer Solstice in years when the Chester Mystery Plays were not performed. History The monk Lucian told of a Chester procession of clerics in the year 1195 and the annals mention a parade in 1397/8 but it was not until the mayorality of Richard Goodman The Chester Mystery Plays is a cycle of Mystery plays dating back to at least the early part of the 15th century Despite the cancellation of the plays in 1575, the parade continued; in 1599, however, the Lord Mayor ordered the parades banned and the costumes destroyed. The parade was permanently banned in 1675.
Traditional Midsummer bonfires are still lit on some high hills in Cornwall (see Carn Brea and Castle an Dinas, St. Columb Major). Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Carn Brea (Karnbre is a Civil parish and hilltop site near Redruth in Cornwall, England, UK, famous for its long history of human This tradition was revived by the Old Cornwall Society in the mid 20th century. The Federation of Old Cornwall Societies (FOCS was formed in 1924 with the objective of collecting and maintaining "all those ancient things that make the spirit of Cornwall Another Cornish midsummer celebration is Golowan, which takes place at Penzance, Cornwall which normally starts on the Friday nearest St John's Day. Golowan (sometimes also Goluan or Gol-Jowan is the Cornish language word for the Midsummer celebrations in Cornwall, UK Widepsread prior to Penzance (Pensans also Penzans, IPA: /pɛnˈzæns/ is a town Civil parish, and Port in the Penwith district of Cornwall Golowan lasts several days and culminates in Mazey Day. This is a revival of the Feast of St John (Gol-Jowan) with fireworks and bonfires.
See also Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. A Midsummer Night's Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare, suggested by " The Knight's Tale " from
June 24, Midsummer Day, the feast of St John the Baptist, is one of the quarter days in England. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. In British and Irish tradition the quarter days were the four dates in each year on which servants were hired and rents and rates were due
In recent years on Summer Solstice, English Heritage runs a "Managed Open Access" to Stonehenge for the Summer Solstice celebrations. English Heritage is a Non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government ( Department for Culture Media and Sport) with a broad remit of Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury
Midsummer celebrations are held throughout the US. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern The NYC Swedish Midsummer celebrations in Battery Park, New York City, attracts some 3,000-5,000 people annually, which makes it one of the largest celebrations after the ones held in Leksand and at the Skansen Park in Stockholm. NYC Midsummer or Swedish Midsummer is a Swedish midsummer celebration organized since 1996 in one of New York City 's parks on the Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 hectare public park located at the Battery the southern tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, facing The City of New York Leksand is a town (pop 5861 in Dalarna, Sweden and the seat of Leksand Municipality, Dalarna County. Skansen is the first Open air museum and Zoo in Sweden and is located on the island Djurgården in Stockholm, Sweden. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the This event is cohosted by the Swedish Consulate in NYC and the Battery Park City Parks Conservancy. Swedish Midsommar is also celebrated in other places with large Swedish and Scandinavian populations, such as Chicago, Minneapolis, and Lindsborg, Kansas. The Swedish "language village" (summer camp) Sjölunden, run by Concordia College in Minnesota, also celebrates Midsommar. Concordia College in Moorhead Minnesota is a private four year liberal arts college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA
Geneva, Illinois, hosts a Swedish Day (Svenskarnas Dag) festival on the third Sunday of June. Geneva is a suburb of Chicago located in extreme eastern Kane County Illinois. The event, featuring maypole-raising, dancing, and presentation of an authentic Viking ship, dates back to 1911.
The Seattle, Washington neighborhood of Fremont puts on a large Summer Solstice Parade & Pageant, which for many years has controversially included painted naked cyclists. Fremont is a neighborhood in Seattle Washington. Originally a separate city it was annexed to Seattle in 1891 PaintedCyclists2005 4jpg|thumb|right| Solstice Cyclists during the 2005 Solstice Parade]]The Summer Solstice Parade and Pageant is an annual event sponsored and produced by the The Solstice Cyclists (also known as The Painted Cyclists of the Solstice Parade, or The Painted Cyclists) is an artistic non-political clothing-optional bike In St. Edwards Park in Kenmore, Washington, the Skandia Folkdance Society hosts Midsommarfest, which includes a Scandinavian solstice pole. Kenmore, occasionally known as "Kenmore by the Lake" is a city in the United States located on the northernmost shores of Lake Washington in King County
A solstitial celebration is held on Casper Mountain in Wyoming at Crimson Dawn park. Casper Mountain is a long mountain at the north end of the Laramie Mountains overlooking Casper Wyoming along the North Platte River. Crimson Dawn is known in the area for the great stories of mythical creatures and people that live on Casper Mountain. The Crimson Dawn is a fictional mystical substance which has appeared in the Comic books published by Marvel Comics ''X-Men'' and part of the Marvel The celebration is attended by many people from the community, and from around the country. A large bonfire is held and all are invited to throw a handful of red dirt into the fire in hopes that they get their wish granted. 
As forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably, despite the shared name. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how they believe the Ancient Germanic pagans observed the tradition, while others observe the holiday with rituals culled from numerous other unrelated sources, Germanic culture being only one of the sources used. In Neo-druidism, the term Alban Hefin is used for the summer solstice. Neo-druidism or neo-druidry (referred to simply as Druidry by some adherents is a form of modern Spirituality or Religion that promotes The name was invented by the late-18th century Welsh Romantic author and prolific literary forgerer Iolo Morganwg. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Iolo Morganwg (or Morgannwg in modern spelling ˈjolo morˈganːug was the Bardic name of Edward Williams ( March 10 1747 &ndash 
Midsummer or Litha is listed on the reconstructed Germanic calendar used by some Germanic Neopagans. The Germanic calendars were the regional agricultural Almanacs used amongst the Germanic peoples prior to the adoption of the Julian and later the Gregorian Germanic Neopaganism, Heathenism or Heathenry is the modern revival of historical Germanic paganism. In modern times, Litha is celebrated by Germanic Neopagans or Heathens who emphasize the reconstruction of Anglo-Saxon Germanic paganism. Germanic Neopaganism, Heathenism or Heathenry is the modern revival of historical Germanic paganism. Polytheistic reconstructionism, or simply Reconstructionism, is an approach to Neopaganism first emerging in the late 1960s to early 1970s and gatherig momentum Germanic paganism refers to the religious beliefs of the Germanic peoples preceding Christianization.
Litha is one of the eight solar holidays or sabbats observed by Wiccans, though the New Forest traditions (those referred to as British Traditional Wicca) tend to use the traditional name Midsummer. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. Wheel of the Year is a Wiccan and Neopagan term for the annual cycle of the Earth 's Seasons It consists of eight festivals spaced at approximately British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW is a term used to describe some Wiccan traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England It is celebrated on the Summer Solstice, or close to it. The holiday is considered the turning point at which summer reaches its height and the sun shines longest. Among the Wiccan sabbats, Midsummer is preceded by Beltane, and followed by Lughnasadh or Lammas. Beltane is the anglicized spelling of Bealtaine ( or Bealltainn ( the Gaelic names for either the month of May or the festival that takes place on Lughnasadh ( Old Irish, pronounced luɣnəsəð Modern Irish Lá Lúnasa; Modern Gaelic Lùnastal) is a Gaelic In some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, August 1 is Lammas Day (loaf-mass day the Festival of the first Wheat