Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim, lit. "study") is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact, but comparative (homiletic) method of exegesis (hermeneutic) of Biblical texts, which is one of four methods cumulatively called Pardes. Homiletics ( Gr homiletikos, from homilos, to assemble together in Theology the application of the general principles of Rhetoric Exegesis (from the Greek 'to lead out' involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a Holy Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of Theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts The Pardes typology describes four different approaches to Biblical Exegesis in rabbinic Judaism (or - simpler - interpretation of text in The term midrash can also refer to a compilation of homiletic teachings (commentaries) on the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), in the form of legal and ritual (Halakha) and legendary, moralizing, folkloristic, and anecdotal (Haggadah) parts. See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law The Haggadah (הגדה is a Jewish religious text that sets out the order of the Passover Seder.
—— Tannaitic ——
According to the Pardes system of exegesis (interpretation), the approach to understand Biblical texts in Judaism is realized through peshat (literal meaning, lit. word /š n/ and /t n/ --> Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense can mean the entire spectrum of Rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Tosefta ( Aramaic: תוספתא is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. The Jerusalem Talmud or Talmud Yerushalmi (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשָׁלְמִי often the Yerushalmi for short is a collection The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history The minor tractates (Hebrew מסכתות קטנות masechtot qetanot) are essays from the Tannaitic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal The Midrashim are mostly derived from and based upon the teachings of the Tannaim: Mekhilta or Mekilta ( Hebrew: מכילתא) is the Halakic midrash to the Book of Exodus. The Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon ( Hebrew: מכילתא דרבי שמעון בר יוחאי) is a Halakic midrash on Exodus from the school of Sifra ( Aramaic: סִפְרָא) is the Halakic midrash to Leviticus. Sifre ( סִפְרֵי siphrēy, Sifre Sifrei, also Sifre debe Rab or Sifre Rabbah) refers to either of two Sifre Zutta ( Hebrew: ספרי זוטא) is a Midrash on the Book of Numbers. The Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim ( Hebrew: מכילתא לספר דברים) is a Halakic midrash to Deuteronomy from the school of Rabbi Ishmael The Baraita of Rabbi Ishmael ( Hebrew: ברייתא דרבי ישמאל) is a Baraita which explains the 13 rules of R Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical Seder Olam Rabbah ( Hebrew: סדר עולם רבה) is the earliest post-exilic chronicle preserved in the Hebrew language. Alphabet of Akiba ben Joseph, or Otiot (Midrash Aggadah de-Rabbi Akiba ( Hebrew: אותיות דרבי עקיבא) is the title of a Midrash The Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules ( Hebrew: ברייתא מ"ט מדות) is a work of Rabbinical literature which is no longer in existence except The Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules or Baraita of R Eliezer ben Jose ha-Gelili is a Baraita giving the 32 hermeneutic rules according to which the Bible is interpreted Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle is a Baraita cited several times by Hai Gaon, by Nathan ben Jehiel in the Aruk, as well as in Genesis Rabba ( Bereshit Rabba in Hebrew: בראשית רבה) is a religious text from Judaism 's classical period The Midrash on Lamentations or Eichah (Lamentations Rabbah ( Hebrew: מדרש איכה רבה) like Bereshit Rabbah and the Pesikta de-Rab Kahana ( Hebrew: פסיקתא דרב כהנא) is a collection of Aggadic midrash which exists in two editions those of Solomon Buber Esther Rabbah ( Hebrew: אסתר רבה) is the Midrash to the Book of Esther in the current Midrash editions Midrash Iyyob ( Hebrew: מדרש איוב) or Midrash to Job is an Aggadic midrash that is no longer extent Leviticus Rabbah, Vayikrah Rabbah, or Wayikra Rabbah is a homiletic Midrash to the Biblical book of Leviticus ( Vayikrah in Hebrew Seder Olam Zutta ( Hebrew: סדר עולם זוטא) is an anonymous chronicle called "Zuṭa" (= "smaller" or "younger" to distinguish Midrash Tanhuma ( Hebrew: מדרש תנחומא) is the name given to three different collections of Pentateuch Haggadot; two are extant while Megillat Antiochus (מגילת אנטיוכוס - "The Scroll of Antiochus " also "Megillat HaHashmonaim" or "Megillat Hanukkah" is a work recounting Avot de-Rabbi Nathan (אבות דרבי נתן) usually printed together with the Minor tractates of the Talmud, is a Jewish Aggadic work probably Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer ( Aramaic: פרקי דרבי אליעזר) is a Aggadic-midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few Tanna Devei Eliyahu ( Hebrew: תנא דבי אליהו; alternate Transliterations include Tana D'vei Eliyahu and Tana D'vei Eliahu The Alphabet of Ben-Sira ( Alphabetum Siracidis, Othijoth ben Sira) is an anonymous Medieval text attributed to Ben Sira (Sirach the author Ecclesiastes Rabbah or Kohelet Rabbah ( קהלת רבה) is an Haggadic commentary on Ecclesiastes, included in the collection of the Midrash Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah ( Hebrew: שיר השירים רבה) is a Haggadic midrash on Canticles, quoted by Rashi under the title "Midrash Deuteronomy Rabbah ( Hebrew: דברים רבה) is an Aggadic midrash or homiletic commentary on the Book of Deuteronomy. Pesikta Rabbati ( Hebrew: פסיקתא רבתי) is a collection of Aggadic Midrash (homilies on the Pentateuchal and prophetic lessons Midrash Samuel ( Hebrew: מדרש שמואל) a Haggadic midrash on the Books of Samuel, is quoted for the first time by Rashi in Midrash Proverbs ( Hebrew: מדרש משלי) is the Haggadic midrash to Book of Proverbs, first mentioned under the title "Midrash Ruth Rabbah ( Hebrew: רות רבה) is an Haggadic and homiletic interpretation of the Book of Ruth, which like that of the four other scrolls A Baraita of Samuel ( Hebrew: בריתא דרבי שמואל) was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the 10th century to The Targum Sheni ( "Second Targum") is an Aramaic translation ( Targum) and elaboration of the Book of Esther, that embellishes Midrash Tehillim ( Hebrew: מדרש תהלים) or Midrash to Psalms is a Haggadic midrash known since the 11th century when it was quoted by Midrash Hashkem, also known as Midrash ve-Hizhir is a purely Haggadic midrash on the Pentateuch. Exodus Rabbah ( Hebrew: שמות רבה) is the Midrash to Exodus, containing in the printed editions 52 parashiyyot Shir ha-Shirim Zutta ( Hebrew: שיר השירים זוטא) is a Midrash, or rather homiletic commentary on Canticles; referred to in Midrash Tadshe ( Hebrew: מדרש תדשא) is a Small midrash which begins with an interpretation of Gen Sefer haYashar (midrash, a Hebrew Midrash known in English translation mostly as The Book of Jasher. The Yalkut Shimoni ( Hebrew: ילקוט שמעוני) or simply Yalkut is an Aggadic compilation on the books of the Old Testament Machir ben Abba Mari ( Hebrew: מכיר בן אבא מרי) was the author of a work entitled Yalkut ha-Makiri (ילקוט המכירי but about whom Midrash Jonah is the Midrash to the Book of Jonah, read on the Day of Atonement as Hafṭarah during the Minḥah prayer and containing Ein Yaakov (עין יעקב is a compilation of all the Aggadic material in the Talmud together with commentaries Midrash ha-Gadol or The Great Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש הגדול) is an anonymous late (14th century compilation of Aggadic midrashim on the Numbers Rabbah (or Bamidbar Rabbah in Hebrew) is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. A number of Midrashim exist which are smaller in size and generally later in date than those dealt with in the articles Midrash Haggadah and Midrash Halakah. A targum ( Hebrew: תרגום plural targumim, lit "translation interpretation" is an Aramaic Translation of the Hebrew term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Targum Onkelos (or Unkelus) is the official eastern ( Babylonian) Targum to the Torah. Targum Pseudo-Jonathan is a western Targum (translation of the Torah (Pentateuch from the Land of Israel. Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים "Prophets" is the second of the three major sections in the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, between the Targum Jonathan (תרגום יונתן בן עוזיאל - otherwise referred to as Targum Yonasan/Yonatan is the official eastern ( Babylonian) Targum Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים "writings" is the third and final section of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible) after Torah and Nevi'im The Targum Sheni ( "Second Targum") is an Aramaic translation ( Targum) and elaboration of the Book of Esther, that embellishes The Pardes typology describes four different approaches to Biblical Exegesis in rabbinic Judaism (or - simpler - interpretation of text in Exegesis (from the Greek 'to lead out' involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a Holy "plain" or "simple"), remez (deep meaning, lit. "hints"), derash (comparative meaning, from Hebrew darash - "to inquire" or "to seek") and sod (hidden meaning or philosophy, lit. "secret" or "mystery"). The Midrash concentrates somewhat on remez but mostly on derash (Some thinkers divide PaRDeS into pshat, remez, din (law) and sod. In this understanding, midrash aggada deals with remez and midrash halakha deals with din).
Many different exegetical methods are employed to derive deeper meaning from a text. This is not limited to the traditional thirteen textual tools attributed to the Tanna Rabbi Ishmael, which are used in the interpretation of halakha (Jewish law). word /š n/ and /t n/ --> Ishmael ben Elisha (90-135 CE commonly known as Rabbi Ishmael, Hebrew: רבי ישמעאל) was a Tanna of the first and second Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Presence of superfluous words or letters, chronology of events, parallel narratives or other textual anomalies are often a springboard for interpretation of segments of Biblical text. In many cases, a dialogue is expanded manifold: handfuls of lines in the Biblical narrative may become long philosophical discussions. It is unclear whether the Midrash assumes these dialogues took place in reality or if this refers only to subtext or religious implication.
The "classical" Midrash starts off with a seemingly unrelated sentence from the Biblical books of Psalms, Proverbs or the Prophets. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh, and thus also one of the books of the Old Testament. Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים "Prophets" is the second of the three major sections in the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, between the This sentence later turns out to metaphorically reflect the content of the rabbinical interpretation offered.
Some Midrash discussions are highly metaphorical, and many Jewish authors stress that they are not intended to be taken literally. Rather, other midrashic sources may sometimes serve as a key to particularly esoteric discussions. Later authors maintain that this was done to make this material less accessible to the casual reader and prevent its abuse by detractors.
In general the Midrash is focused on either halakha (legal) or Aggadic (non-legal and chiefly homiletical) subject matter. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical Both kinds of Midrashim were at first preserved only orally; but their writing down commenced in the 2nd century, and they now exist in the shape chiefly of exegetical or homiletical commentaries on Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). An oral law is a Code of conduct in use in a given Culture, Religion or community application by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is Midrashic literature is worthwhile reading not only for its insights into Judaism and the history of Jewish thought, but also for the more incidental data it provides to historians, philologists, philosophers, and scholars of either historical-critical Bible study or comparative religion.
Midrash halakha are the works in which the sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) of the traditionally received laws are identified. The Midrashim are mostly derived from and based upon the teachings of the Tannaim: See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is These Midrashim often predate the Mishnah. The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Midrash linking a verse to a halakha will often function as a proof of a law's authenticity; a correct elucidation of the Torah carries with it the support of the halakhah, and often the reason for the rule's existence (although many rabbinical laws have no direct Biblical source). The term is applied also to the derivation of new laws, either by means of a correct interpretation of the obvious meaning of scriptural words themselves or by the application of certain hermeneutic rules.
After the return of Jewish refugees from their diaspora in Babylon, some argue that the Torah was central to Jewish life at home and abroad. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to This is certainly the case in some strains of Judaism, although scholars agree the period was marked by wide diversity, so the centrality of Torah would vary greatly for different groups. A significant concern of Jewish authorities was to ensure compliance with the Torah's commandments, the enactments of the Mosaic Law; yet, as these laws had been written in circumstances of the past, they seemed to call for adaptation or explication if they were to fit the circumstances of contemporary life. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Explanations of the terms of the Mosaic legislation are legal, or halakhic Midrashim. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Relatedly, the Mishnah does not generally cite a scriptural basis for its laws; connecting the Mishnaic law with the Torah law is also undertaken by the later Midrash (and Talmuds).
The homiletical midrashim embrace the interpretation of the non-legal portions of the Hebrew Bible. Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical These midrashim are sometimes referred to as aggadah or haggadah, a loosely-defined term that may refer to all non-legal discourse in classical rabbinic literature. Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical
Aggadic explanations of the non-legal parts of Scripture are characterized by a much greater freedom of exposition than the halakhic Midrashim (midrashim on Jewish law. ) Aggadic expositors availed themselves of various techniques, including sayings of prominent rabbis. These aggadic explanations could be philosophical or mystical disquisitions concerning angels, demons, paradise, hell, the messiah, Satan, feasts and fasts, parables, legends, satirical assaults on those who practice idolatry, etc. An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition Paradise is a word of Persian origin ( Persian: پردیس Pardìs) that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions Satan, ( Standard Hebrew Satan'el, English accuser) is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally A parable is a brief succinct story in Prose or verse, that illustrates a Moral or Religious lesson Idolatry is usually defined as Worship of any Cult image, Idea, or object, as opposed to the worship of a monotheistic God.
Some of these midrashim entail mystical teachings. The presentation is such that the Midrash is a simple lesson to the uninitiated, and a direct allusion, or analogy, to a Mystical teaching for those educated in this area.
An example of a Midrashic interpretation:
A wealth of literature and artwork has been created in the 20th and 21st centuries by people aspiring to create "Contemporary Midrash. " Forms include poetry, prose, Bibliodrama (the acting out of Bible stories), murals, masks, and music, among others. The Institute for Contemporary Midrash was formed to facilitate these reinterpretations of sacred texts. The institute hosted several week-long intensives between 1995 and 2004, and published eight issues of "Living Text: The Journal of Contemporary Midrash" from 1997 to 2000.