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|Articles on Neoplatonism|
|Theory of forms|
|Platonic doctrine of recollection|
|Form of the Good|
|Participants in Dialogues|
|Discussions of Plato's works|
|Dialogues of Plato|
|Metaphor of the sun|
|Analogy of the divided line|
|Allegory of the cave|
|Third Man Argument|
|Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?|
Middle Platonism was the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato from approximately 130 B. Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it The phrase Platonic idealism usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas the exact philosophical meaning of which is perhaps one of the most disputed questions Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Platonic Epistemology holds that knowledge is innate so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul often under the mid-wife-like guidance of The Socratic Method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate) named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates, is a form of Socratic dialogue ( Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος) is a genre of prose literary works developed in Plato 's Theory of Forms asserts that Forms (or Ideas) and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess Platonic Epistemology holds that knowledge is innate so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul often under the mid-wife-like guidance of Plato describes "The Idea of the Good" in his Dialogue, The Republic, speaking through the character of Socrates. SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (ˌælsɨˈbaɪədiːz (pronunciation Greek:, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs) meaning Alcibiades Protagoras ( Greek:) (ca 490&ndash 420 BC was a pre-Socratic Greek Philosopher and is numbered as one of the Sophists by Parmenides of Elea ( Greek:, early 5th century BC was an Ancient Greek Philosopher born in Elea, a Greek city on the southern coast of Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his Proclus Lycaeus ( February 8, c 411 &ndash April 17, 485) called "The Successor" or "Diadochos" ( Greek Próklos Plato, in ''The Republic'' (507b-509c uses the sun as a Metaphor for the source of "illumination" arguably intellectual illumination which he held to Plato, in his dialogue The Republic Book 6 (509D–513E has Socrates explain the literary device of a divided line to teach basic philosophical The Allegory of the Cave is an Allegory used by the Greek Philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Plato, in his dialogue Phaedrus (sections 246a - 254e uses the Chariot Allegory to explain his view of the human soul The Third Man Argument (commonly referred to as TMA) first offered by Plato in his dialogue Parmenides, is a Philosophical criticism of Plato's la ''Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?'' is a Latin phrase from the Roman poet Juvenal, variously translated as "Who watches the watchmen?" "Who watches Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece C. (the birth of Antiochus of Ascalon) up to and including late 2nd century A. Antiochus (Άντίοχος ὁ Ἀσκαλώνιος of Ascalon, (lived c D. Numenius of Apamea. Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century AD Plotinus is thought to have inaugurated the next Platonic school of Neoplatonism. Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by
After Plato's death in 348 B. C. , the leadership of his Academy passed over his greatest pupil, Aristotle, to Plato's nephew, Speusippus. An academy ( Greek Ἀκαδημία is an institution of higher learning research or honorary membership Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Speusippus (407 BC-339 BC was an ancient Greek Philosopher. Speusippus was Plato 's nephew by his sister Potone. Speusippus was succeeded by Xenocrates, Polemon, Crantor, and Crates of Athens. Xenocrates () of Chalcedon (396–314 BC was a Greek Philosopher, Mathematician, and leader (scholarch of the Platonic Academy Polemon (Πολέμων of Athens was an eminent Platonic philosopher and Plato 's third successor as Scholarch or head of the Academy from 314/313 to 270/269 Crantor (Κράντωρ was a Greek Philosopher of the Old Academy, born probably about the middle of the 4th century BC, at Soli Crates of Athens ( Greek: Κράτης died 268-265 BC was the son of Antigenes of the Thriasian Deme, the pupil and friend of Polemo, and his successor
Following Crates, in 268 B. C. , was Arcesilaus of Pitane who founded the New Academy, under the influence of Pyrrhonian scepticism. Arcesilaus (Ἀρκεσίλαος (ca 316-ca 241 BC was a Greek Philosopher and founder of the Second or Middle Academy &mdashthe skeptical Arcelisaus modeled his philosophy after the Socrates of Plato's early dialogues, "suspending judgment" (epokhê peri pantôn εποχὴ περὶ πάντων). SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Like Socrates, the leaders of the New Academy wrote nothing and instead of dogmatically stating their opinions, led their interlocutors to use their reason. The brand of scepticism expounded by the New Academy is a matter of some controversy, but it seems to have been mainly in reaction to the strong dogmatising of the Stoics.
Antiochus of Ascalon, who was head of the Academy from 79-78 B. Antiochus (Άντίοχος ὁ Ἀσκαλώνιος of Ascalon, (lived c C. , was able to intellectually maneuver around the scepticism of the New Academy by way of agreement with, and return to, the dogmata of Plato and the Old Academy philosophers. Antiochus, through his argument that the Platonic Forms are not transcendent but immanent to rational minds (including that of God), and his treatment of the Platonic Demiurge (from the Theaetetus) and the World-Soul (a notion from the Timaeus that the physical world was a living, ensouled being), provided the framework in which both other middle Platonists (such as Philo of Alexandria) and later Platonists would work. Demiurge (the Latinized form of Greek demiourgos, δημιουργός, literally "public or skilled worker" from demos The Theætetus ( Greek: Θεαίτητος is one of Plato 's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge. Timaeus ( Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written Philo (20 BC - 50 AD) known also as Philo of Alexandria (gr Φίλων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς Philo Judaeus, Philo Judaeus of Alexandria
During the second and first centuries B. C. , works on Pythagorean philosophy emerged, and became intertwined with Platonic theories and Aristotelian cosmology. These works were penned under the names of Ocellus Lucanus, Archytas, and Timaeus Locrus. This trend in Platonism countered the sceptical turn of the official Platonic Academy.
Philo, a later Middle Platonist, synthesized Stoic and Platonic philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the Septuagint. Philo (20 BC - 50 AD) known also as Philo of Alexandria (gr Φίλων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς Philo Judaeus, Philo Judaeus of Alexandria Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation The Septuagint (ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt or simply " LXX " is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the Philo argued that God was beyond all being, and brought the cosmos into being first through a purely intellectual act of will, and then, via his Logos (word), the physical cosmos was brought forth, thus according the Logos a role comparable to that of Plato's World-Soul.
Plutarch of Chaeronea, Numenius of Apamea, and Albinus (mid-2nd century C. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century AD Albinus (Ἀλϐίνος lived c 150 AD) was a Platonist philosopher who lived at Smyrna, and was a contemporary of Galen. E. , identified by some scholars with Alkinoos) are middle Platonists who inherited the cosmology of Plato's Timaeus and the various philosophical problems in the Platonic tradition of One and Dyad, the World-Soul (in the case of Numenius, two World-Souls), the parts of the Soul, and the nature of God and Gods. __FORCETOC__ Alcinous ( Greek) or Alcinoos or Alkinoos was a Middle Platonist philosopher
Dillon, John, M. (1977), The Middle Platonists, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. John Myles Dillon is an Irish classicist and Philosopher who was Regius Professor of Greek in Trinity College Dublin between 1980