|Michael VIII Palaiologos|
Μιχαῆλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος
|Emperor of Nicaea and Emperor of the Byzantine Empire|
Hyperpyron of Michael VIII
|Reign||1259 – 1261|
(as Emperor of Nicaea, with John IV Laskaris)
1261 – 1282 (with Andronikos II Palaiologos from 1272)
|Died||11 December 1282|
|Place of death||Constantinople|
|Predecessor||John IV Laskaris|
|Successor||Andronikos II Palaiologos|
|Consort||Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina|
Andronikos II Palaiologos
|Father||Andronikos Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos|
|Mother||Theodora Angelina Palaiologina|
Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1223 – December 11, 1282) reigned as Byzantine emperor 1259–1282. The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians The hyperpyron ( was a Byzantine Coin in use in the latter Middle Ages. John IV Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris ( Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris) December 25 Andronikos II Palaiologos or Andronicus II Palaeologus ( Greek:) ( 25 March 1259, Constantinople &ndash February 13 Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS John IV Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris ( Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris) December 25 Andronikos II Palaiologos or Andronicus II Palaeologus ( Greek:) ( 25 March 1259, Constantinople &ndash February 13 Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina (c 1240 - 4 March, 1303) was the Empress consort of Michael VIII Palaiologos. Andronikos II Palaiologos or Andronicus II Palaeologus ( Greek:) ( 25 March 1259, Constantinople &ndash February 13 Eudokia Palaiologina or Eudocia Palaeologina ( Greek: Ευδοκία Παλαιολογίνα (c The Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Παλαιολόγος pl Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Michael VIII was the founder of the Palaeologan dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Παλαιολόγος pl The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar He recovered Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261 and transformed the Empire of Nicaea into a restored Byzantine Empire. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine
Michael VIII Palaiologos was the son of the megas domestikos Andronikos Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos by Theodora Angelina Palaiologina, the granddaughter of Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina. The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of Aristocracy and Bureaucracy, which was inherited from the Roman Empire. Alexios III Angelos ( Greek: Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος (c Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina or better Kamatera ( Greek: Ευφροσύνη Δούκαινα Καματερίνα ή Καματηρά, Euphrosynē Even with our imperfect knowledge of Byzantine genealogy, no less than eleven emperors may be traced among his ancestors. He was one of the noblest men among the Byzantine aristocracy, and might have succeeded to the throne in regular fashion if the Fourth Crusade had not been diverted to Constantinople in 1203. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS At an early age he rose to distinction, and ultimately became commander of the Latin mercenaries in the employment of the emperors of Nicaea. The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine A few days after the death of Emperor Theodore II Doukas Laskaris in 1258, Michael Palaiologos replaced the influential bureaucrat George Mouzalon (when the latter was murdered), becoming joint guardian for the eight-year old Emperor John IV Doukas Laskaris together with the patriarch Arsenios. Theodore II Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Β΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις Theodōros II Doukas Laskaris) (1221/1222 &ndash August 18 John IV Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris ( Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris) December 25 Arsenius Autorianus ( 13th century) Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, lived about the middle of the 13th century Michael was invested with the titles of megas doux and, in November 1258, of despotēs. Despot (from δεσπότης despotēs; plural δέσποτες despotes; feminine δέσποινα despoina; in Bulgarian and Serbian On January 1, 1259 Michael VIII Palaiologos was proclaimed co-emperor at Nymphaion with the help of the Republic of Genoa. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC The Most Serene Republic of Genoa (Repubblica di Genova was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from the 11th century
On July 25, 1261, Michael VIII's general Alexios Strategopoulos captured Constantinople from its last Latin Emperor, Baldwin II. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Alexios Strategopoulos ( was a Byzantine general during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, rising to the rank of megas domestikos and Caesar Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Baldwin II of Courtenay (French Baudouin II de Courtenay, 1217 &ndash October 1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople Michael VIII entered the city on August 15 and had himself crowned together with his infant son Andronikos II Palaiologos. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Andronikos II Palaiologos or Andronicus II Palaeologus ( Greek:) ( 25 March 1259, Constantinople &ndash February 13 When Michael VIII entered the city, its population was 35,000 people, but he succeeded in increasing it to 70,000 people by the end of his reign. In December John IV, who had been left behind at Nicaea, was blinded and relegated to a monastery. In 1263, the emperor sent 15,000 men (which included 5,000 Seljuk mercenaries) to conquer Achaia, then a mixed imperial and Genoese fleet of 48 ships was defeated by a smaller Venetian force at the Battle of Spetsai. Seljuk ( Arabic: السلاجقة Turkish: Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the eponymous hero of the Seljuks A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by Achaea (Αχαΐα Achaïa, axaˈia in Polytonic orthography) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern Spetses (Modern Greek: Σπέτσες, Ancient/ Katharevousa: Σπέτσαι, Spetsai) is an island of Greece Patriarch Arsenios excommunicated Michael VIII, and the ban was not removed until six years later (1268) on the appointment of new patriarch Joseph I. After rendering John IV ineligible for the throne, Michael VIII quickly married off John's sisters to foreigners, so their descendants could not threaten his own children's claim to the imperial succession. On his entrance in Constantinople, Michael VIII Palaiologos abolished all Latin customs and reinstated most Byzantine ceremonies and institutions as they had existed before the Fourth Crusade, repopulating the capital and restoring damaged churches, monasteries, and public buildings. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. He was acutely aware of the danger posed by the possibility that the Latin West, particularly his neighbors in Italy (Charles I of Sicily, Pope Martin IV, and the Venetians) would unite against him and attempt the restoration of Latin rule in Constantinople. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest Pope Martin IV (between 1210 and 1220 &ndash March 28, 1285) born Simon de Brion, held the Papacy from February 21, 1281 The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica
In 1259 Michael VIII had defeated the alliance of William II Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, and Michael II Komnenos Doukas of Epirus at the Battle of Pelagonia. William II of Villehardouin, (Guillaume II de Villehardouin (died May 1, 1278) was the last Villehardouin prince of Achaea and ruled the principality The Principality of Achaea or of the Morea was one of the three Vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire Michael II Komnenos Doukas or Comnenus Ducas ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Β΄ Κομνηνός Δούκας Mikhaēl II Komnēnos Doukas) often called Michael The Principality of Epirus can also refer to the pashalik of Ali Pasha The Despotate or Principality of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της The Battle of Pelagonia took place in September of 1259, between the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus, Sicily and the Principality After a severe naval defeat, Michael VIII dismissed the 60 Genoese galleys that he had hired earlier. With the help of Pope Urban IV Michael VIII concluded peace with his former enemies in 1263 and 1264, respectively. By the terms of the treaties, William II was obliged to cede Mystras, Monemvasia and Maina in the Morea to the Byzantines. Mystras (also Mistra, Mystra and Mistras Greek: Μυστράς Μυζηθράς Mizithras or Myzithras in the Monemvassia (Μονεμβασία Μονεμβάσια Μονεμβασιά and known by the Franks as Malvasia, is a well-known Medieval fortress with an adjacent Morea ( Greek: Μορέας or Μοριάς) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages Michael VIII relied on an alliance with Genoa against Venice and the Latin states of the Aegean Sea, but in the end made treaties with both Genoa and Venice, seeking to maintain a balance of power advantageous to the Empire. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. He also signed a treaty in 1263 with the Egyptian Mamluk sultan Baibars, and the Mongol Khan of Kipchak. Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري 
To drive a wedge between the pope and supporters of the Latin Empire, Michael VIII decided to unify the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world A tenuous union between the Greek and Latin church was signed at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274. The First Council of Lyon, the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council took place in 1245 Michael VIII's concession was met with determined opposition at home, and prisons filled with many opponents to the union. At the same time the unionist controversy helped drive Byzantium's Orthodox neighbors Serbia and Bulgaria into the camp of Michael VIII's opponents. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian This threat did not materialize in a significant way during Michael VIII's reign, and the emperor took advantage of a civil war in Bulgaria to conquer the Bulgarian portion of Thrace in the late 1270s and to temporarily impose his son-in-law Ivan Asen III on the Bulgarian throne. Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Ivan Asen III ( Bulgarian: Иван Асен III also Йоан Асен III Ioan Asen III, and in English John Asen III) ruled as emperor ( Tsar For a while the diplomatic intent of the union worked out in the West, but in the end Pope Martin IV, an ally of Charles of Anjou, excommunicated Michael VIII. Pope Martin IV (between 1210 and 1220 &ndash March 28, 1285) born Simon de Brion, held the Papacy from February 21, 1281 Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community In 1275, Michael VIII sent a fleet of 73 ships to harass the Latin states in Greece.
As a rare manifestation of truly "Byzantine" diplomacy, Michael VIII secretly incited the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion against Charles of Anjou in Palermo, and the invasion of the Sicily by the Catalans of King Peter III of Aragon. The term Byzantine was first applied to the eastern Roman Empire by historians in the 16th century decades after the Fall of Constantinople to the forces The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I of Naples, who had taken control Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Peter the Great ( Catalan: Pere el Gran, Spanish: Pedro el Grande; 1239 &ndash 2 November 1285) was the King of Aragon Michael VIII was forced to drain the treasury to pay the enormous bribe of 60,000 gold coins to King Peter III.  This halved the kingdom of Charles of Anjou, who was forced to spend the remainder of his life unsuccessfully trying to reassert his control over Sicily.
In reconstituting the Byzantine Empire Michael VIII restored the old administration without endeavouring to correct its failures. In recovering Constantinople and investing in the defense of his European provinces, Michael VIII began to denude the Anatolian frontier of its troops and was forced to lower their pay or cancel their tax exemptions. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black This policy led to the gradual collapse of the frontier, which was infiltrated by Turkish bands even before the death of Michael VIII in Pachomios village, Thrace in December 1282. The Palaiologan dynasty he established ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two centuries, longer than any other in Roman history. Also, during his reign there was a temporary naval revival in which the Byzantine navy consisted of 80 ships.
Michael VIII Palaiologos established an alliance with the Mongols, who themselves were highly favorable to Christianity, many of them being Nestorian Christians. Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern In 1265, Mongols and Balkan bulgars invaded thrace of the empire. Michael barely escaped without fighting Mongols. He signed a treaty in 1265 with the Mongol Khan Berke of the Kipchak (the Golden Horde), and he married two of his daughters (conceived through a mistress, a Diplovatatzina) to Mongol kings: Euphrosyne Palaiologina, who married Nogai Khan of the Golden Horde, and Maria Palaiologina, who married Abaqa Khan of Ilkhanid Persia. Berke Khan (Бэрх was the Khan of the Kipchak or Golden Horde who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Hordes This article refers to the medieval Turkic state For the Irish rock band see The Golden Horde (band. Nogai Khan (died 1299 also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai was a General and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis This article refers to the medieval Turkic state For the Irish rock band see The Golden Horde (band. Abaqa Khan (1234&ndash1282 also Abaga or Abagha Khan, was the second Mongol ruler (Il-khan of the Persian Ilkhanate The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia  In 1282, Nogai Khan provided Michael VIII with 4,000 Mongols whom he sent against Thessaly. Thessalia redirects here For the Butterfly Genus, see Thessalia (butterfly.  His alliance with the Mongols would also benefit his son Andronicus II; in 1305 Ilkhan Oljeitu promised Andronicus II 40,000 men, and in 1308 dispatched 30,000 men to recover many Byzantine towns in Bithynia from Ottomans. The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in Öljaitü, Oljeitu or Uljeitu, also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh, ( Persian محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو Description Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara) Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish 
According to Salikh Zakirov (Also J. Bor, R. Khara-Davan), Michael paid tributes to the Horde of Mongols after the treaty of 1265.
The Fourth Crusade had degraded the position of the Jews of the Byzantine Empire. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The juridical standing of the Jews of the Byzantine Empire was unique during the entire history of the Empire they did not belong to the Eastern Orthodox Theodore Doukas, who crowned himself emperor of Epiros after he conquered Thessaloniki, was known for his persecution of the Jews beginning in 1229, a year before the end of his reign. Theodore Komnenos Doukas or Theodore Comnenus Ducas ( Greek: Θεόδωρος Κομνηνός Δούκας Theodōros Komnēnos Doukas) ruler of Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia Theodore's persecutions were most notable in their expropriations of Jewish property, but tended to avoid persecution for its own sake. Expropriation refers to Confiscation of Private property with the stated purpose of establishing social equality.
John Vatatzes, the emperor of Nicea, commenced legal persecution of the Jews in 1253. John III Doukas Vatatzes or Ducas Vatatzes ( Greek: Ιωάννης Γ΄ Δούκας Βατάτζης Iōannēs III Doukas Batatzēs) (c The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine Unlike Theodore, Vatatzes ordered that the Jews within the Empire of Nicea be converted to Christianity, though he did not order the expropriation of Jewish property. Although these measures began only a year before Vatatzes’ death, they seemed to have set a precedent of persecution which his son, Theodore II Lascaris, followed. Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific Theodore II Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Β΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις Theodōros II Doukas Laskaris) (1221/1222 &ndash August 18
It was in this environment of persecution that the Palaiologi rose to the imperial throne. The Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Παλαιολόγος pl Michael VIII Palaiologos largely ended persecution of the Jews. Bowman writes the following:
Michael’s unorthodox ascent to the throne earned him many enemies. Additionally, he oversaw an empire which was strongly dependent on foreign powers, and had an immense need for gold to fund its great military expenses. It is not surprising, therefore, that he turned to the Jews and other minorities (most notably the Armenians) as a source of support in an embattled state of affairs, and when the ethnic majority and the mainstream elite had grown unfriendly toward him.
In 1253, Michael VIII Palaiologos married Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina, a grandniece of John III Doukas Vatatzes, Emperor of Nicaea. Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina (c 1240 - 4 March, 1303) was the Empress consort of Michael VIII Palaiologos. John III Doukas Vatatzes or Ducas Vatatzes ( Greek: Ιωάννης Γ΄ Δούκας Βατάτζης Iōannēs III Doukas Batatzēs) (c The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine Orphaned in childhood, she was raised by her great-uncle John III, who was said to have "loved her like a daughter", and who arranged for her marriage to Michael. Their children were:
By a mistress, a Diplovatatzina, Michael VIII also had two illegitimate daughters:
Michael VIII Palaiologos
Palaiologos dynastyBorn: Unknown 1224 Died: 11 December 1282
John IV Doukas Laskaris
|Emperor of Nicaea|
with John IV Doukas Laskaris (1258–1261)
Restoration of the Byzantine Empire
Baldwin II of the Latin Empire
with Andronikos II Palaiologos (1272–1328)
Andronikos II Palaiologos