Michael Psellos or Psellus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ψελλός, Mikhaēl Psellos) was a Byzantine writer, philosopher, politician, and historian. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly He was born in 1017 or 1018, and died some time after 1078.
The main source of information about Psellos' life comes from his own works, which contain extensive autobiographical passages. Michael Psellos was probably born in Constantinople. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS His family hailed from Nicomedia and, according to his own testimony, counted members of the consular and patrician elite among its ancestors. Nicomedia ( Greek: Νικομήδεια modern İzmit) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens His baptismal name was Constantine; Michael was the monastic name he chose when he entered a monastery later in life. Psellos ('the stammerer') probably was a personal by-name referring to a speech defect.
Michael Psellos was educated in Constantinople. At around the age of ten, he was sent to work outside the capital as a secretary of a provincial judge, in order to help his family raise the dowry for his sister. When his sister died, he gave up that position and returned to Constantinople to resume his studies. While studying under John Mauropus, he met the later Patriarchs Constantine Leichoudes and John Xiphilinos, and the later emperor Constantine X Doukas. John Mauropous ( Greek: Ιωάννης Μαυρόπους "Ioannes Mauropous" was a Byzantine Greek poet Hymnographer and author of letters Constantine III was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1059 to 1063. Joannes Xiphilinus, a native of Trebizond, also known as John Xiphilinus or John VIII, was Patriarch of Constantinople from 1064 For some time, he worked in the provinces again, now serving as a judge himself.  Some time before 1042 he returned again to Constantinople, where he got a junior position at court as a secretary (ὑπογραμματεύς) in the imperial chancellery. From there he began a rapid court career. He became an influential political advisor to emperor Constantine IX Monomachos (reigned 1042-1055). Constantine IX Monomachos ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος Kōnstantinos IX Monomakhos) c During the same time, he became the leading professor at the newly founded University of Constantinople, bearing the honorary title of "Consul of the Philosophers" (ὕπατος τῶν φιλοσόφων). The University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the palace hall of Magnaura in the Byzantine Empire was recognised as a University
Towards the end of Monomachos' reign, Psellos found himself under political pressure for some reason and finally decided to leave the court, entering the Olympus monastery in Bithynia in 1054. Description Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara) Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius After Monomachos' death, however, he was soon recalled to court by his successor, Empress Theodora (reigned 1055-1056). Throughout the following years, he remained active in politics, serving as a high-ranking political advisor to several successive emperors. He played a decisive political role in the transition of power from Michael VI to Isaac I Komnenos in 1057; then from Isaac Komnenos to Constantine X Doukas (1059); and then again from Romanos IV Diogenes to Michael VII Doukas (1071). Isaac I Komnenos or Comnenus ( Greek: Ισαάκιος Α΄ Κομνηνός Isaakios I Komninos; Սահակ Ա Կոմնինոս Sahag Ayp Gomninos As Psellos had served as Michael's personal teacher during the reign of Michael's father Constantine, and as he had played an important role in helping Michael gain power against his adversary and step-father Romanos, Psellos probably entertained hopes of an even more influential position as a teacher and advisor under him. However, Michael seems to have been less inclined towards protecting Psellos and after the mid-1070s there is no more information about any role played by Psellos at court. As his own autobiographic accounts cease at this point, there is little reliable information about his later years. Some scholars believe that Psellos had to retreat into a monastery again at some time during the 1070s.  Following a remark by Psellos' fellow historian John Zonaras, it is believed by most scholars that Psellos died soon after the fall of Michael VII in 1078, although some scholars have also proposed later dates. Joannes (John Zonaras ( Greek:; ''fl'' 12th century was a Byzantine chronicler and theologian, who lived at Constantinople.  What is known is that Theophylaktos of Bulgaria wrote a letter to Psellos's brother comforting him on the death of his brother saying that, "Your brother has not died, but has departed to God released of both a painful life and disease 
Probably Psellos' best known and most accessible work is the Chronographia. It is a history of the Byzantine emperors during the century leading up to Psellos' own time. It covers the reigns of fourteen emperors and empresses, beginning with the almost 50-year-long reign of Basil II, the "Bulgar-Slayer" (976-1025), and ending some time during the reign of Michael VII (1071-1078). Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025 It is structured mainly as a series of biographies. Unlike most other historiographical works of the period, it places much more emphasis on the description of characters than on details of political and military events. It also includes very extensive autobiographical elements about Psellos' political and intellectual development, and it gives far greater weight to those periods where Psellos held an active position in politics (especially the reign of Constantine IX), giving the whole work almost the character of political memoirs. It is believed to have been written in two parts. The first covers the emperors up to Isaac I Komnenos. The second, which has a much more strongly apologetic tone, is in large parts an encomium on Psellus' current protectors, the emperors of the Doukas dynasty. Encomium is a Latin word deriving from the Classical Greek ἐγκώμιον ( encomion) meaning the praise of a person or thing
Psellos left a large amount of other writings too:
Psellos was a universally educated personality and had a reputation as being one of the most learned men of his time. He prided himself of having single-handedly re-introduced to Byzantine scholarship a serious study of ancient philosophy, especially of Plato. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece His predilection for Plato and other heathen philosophers led to doubts about his orthodox faith among some of his contemporaries, and he was at one point forced to make a public profession of faith in his defense. He also prided himself as being a master of rhetoric, combining the wisdom of the philosopher and the persuasiveness of the rhetorian into an ideal model of a political leader and advisor. Among modern commentators, Psellos' penchant for long autobiographical digressions in his works has earned him accusations of vanity and ambition. At the same time, his political career and the contents of his Chronographia have led commentators to characterize him as servile and opportunistic, because of his ostentively uncritical stance towards some of the emperors and because of his many shifts of political loyalty during his life. However, some other commentators argue that there is a powerful ironic undercurrent throughout his work, especially the Chronographia, transmitting highly critical and subversive messages about the emperors portrayed, or even about Byzantine Christian beliefs and morality at large. 
It was once thought that there was another Byzantine writer of the same name, Michael Psellos the Elder (now also called Pseudo-Psellos), who lived on the island of Andros in the 9th century, and who was a pupil of Photius and teacher of emperor Leo VI the Wise. Andros, or Andro (Άνδρος an Island of the Greek Archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 10 km This article is about the Byzantine Emperor There is also an article on Pope Leo VI Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" Michael Psellos himself was also called "the younger" by some authors. This belief was based on an entry in a medieval chronicle, the Σύνοψις Κεδρηνοῦ-Σκυλίτση, which mentions the name in that context. It is now believed that the inclusion of the name Psellos in this chronicle was the mistake of an ignorant copyist at a later time, and that no "Michael Psellos the elder" ever existed. 
The term Pseudo-Psellos is also used in modern scholarship to describe the authorship of several later works that are believed to have been falsely ascribed to Psellos in Byzantine times.
In the sidenotes of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's famous poem The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner, there is a reference to "the Platonic Constantinopolitan, Michael Psellus" as an authority on "the invisible inhabitants of this planet, neither departed souls nor angels". Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 21 October 1772 &ndash 25 July 1834) was an English Poet, Critic and philosopher The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (original The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major Poem by the English Poet