|Michael Madhusudan Dutt|
Michael Madhusudan Dutt
Kolkata, British India
Michael Madhusudan Dutt (Datta), (Bengali: মাইকেল মধুসূদন দত্ত Maikel Modhushudôn Dôtto) (1824-1873), born Madhusudan Dutt, is a famous 19th century Bengali poet and dramatist. Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Jessore (or Jashahor) is a district in south western Bangladesh with a population of 154000 in 1991 Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He was born in Sagardari, a village in Jessore , East Bengal (now in Bangladesh). Jessore (or Jashahor) is a district in south western Bangladesh with a population of 154000 in 1991 East Bengal ( Bengali: পূর্ববঙ্গ Purbobôngo) was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly corresponded ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially He was a pioneer of Bengali drama. His famous work Meghnadh Badh Kabya (Bengali: মেঘনাদবধ কাব্য), is a tragic epic. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation It consists of nine cantos and is quite exceptional in Bengali literature both in terms of style and content. He also wrote poems about the sorrows and afflictions of love as spoken by women.
From an early age, Madhusudan desired to be an Englishman in form and manner. Born to a Hindu landed gentry family, he converted to Christianity to the ire of his family and adopted the first name, Michael. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings However, he was to regret his desire for England and the [[[Occident]] in later life when he talked ardently of his homeland as is seen in his poems and sonnets from this period. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
Madhusudan is widely considered to be one of the greatest poets in Bengali literature and the father of Bangla sonnet. The term Bengali literature refers to literary works written in Bengali language particularly from Bangladesh and Indian province of West Bengal The sonnet is one of the poetic forms that can be found in Lyric poetry from Europe. He pioneered what came to be called amitrakshar chhanda (unrhyming rhythm). Dutt died in Kolkata, India on 29 June 1873. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
His childhood education started from his neibour village name Shekpura, There an old mosque, where he went to learn Persian, He was an exceptionally gifted student. Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Ever since his childhood, young Madhusudan was recognized by his teachers and professors as being a precocious child with a gift of literary expression. He was very imaginative from his boyhood. Early exposure to English education and European literature at home and in Kolkata made him desire to emulate the proverbially stiff upper-lip Englishman in taste, manners and intellect. In this respect, he was an early Macaulayite without even knowing it. He dreamt of achieving great fame the moment he landed abroad. His adolescence, coupled with the spirit of intellectual enquiry convinced him that he was born on the wrong side of the planet, and that conservative Hindu society in early nineteenth century Bengal (and by extension Indian society) had not yet developed the spirit of rationalistic enquiry and appreciation of greater intellectual sophistry to appreciate his myriad talents. An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, He espoused the view that free thinking and post Enlightenment West would be more receptive to his intellectual acumen and creative genius. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century This article refers to the cardinal direction for other uses see West (disambiguation. In this, perhaps he forgot the colour of his skin, as he was to realize later on in life, much to his consternation and disgust. He composed his early works--poetry and drama--almost entirely in English. Plays like Sermista, Ratnavali and translations like Neel Durpan and poems like Captive Ladie which was written on the mother of his close friend Sri Bhudev Mukhopadhyay, indicate a high level of intellectual sophistication.
|“||Where man in all his truest glory lives,|
And nature's face is exquisitely sweet;
Madhusudan embraced Christianity at the church of Fort William in spite of the objections of his parents and relatives on February 9, 1843. Fort William is a Fort built in Calcutta on the Eastern banks of the river Hooghly, the major distributary of river Ganges during the Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1843 ( MDCCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Later, he escaped to Madras to escape persecution. He describes the day as:
|“||Long sunk in superstition's night,|
By Sin and Satan driven,
On the eve of his departure to England:
|“||Forget me not, O Mother,|
Should I fail to return
(Translated from the original Bengali by the poet. )
Dutt was particularly inspired by both the life and work of the English Romantic poet Lord Byron. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the The life of Dutt closely parallels the life of Lord Byron in many respects. Like Byron, Dutt was a spirited bohemian and like Byron, Dutt was a Romantic, albeit being born on the other side of the world, and as a recipient subject of the British imperialist enterprise. Bohemians are the people of Bohemia, in the Czech Republic, inhabitants of the former Kingdom of Bohemia located in the modern day Czech Republic However, the lives of the two can be summed up in one word: audacity. These two mighty poets at once remind us of the saying of Georges Danton, the French revolutionist: "L'audace, encore l'audace, toujours l'audace!"
If Lord Byron won over the British literary establishment with Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, a comparative analogy may be made for Dutt's heroic epic Meghnadh Badh Kabya, although the journey was far from smooth. Georges Jacques Danton ( October 26, 1759 &ndash April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is a lengthy Narrative poem written by the poet George Gordon Lord Byron when at Kinsham. However, with its publication, the Indian poet distinguished himself as a serious composer of an entirely new genre of heroic poetry, that was Homeric and Dantesque in technique and style, and yet so fundamentally Indian in theme. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country To cite the poet himself: "I awoke one morning and found myself famous. " Nevertheless, it took a few years for this epic to win recognition all over the country.
Madhusudan was a gifted linguist and polyglot. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Besides Indian languages like Bengali, Sanskrit and Tamil, he was well versed in classical languages like Greek and Latin. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. He also had a fluent understanding of modern European languages like Italian and French and could read and write the last two with perfect grace and ease. Most of the many Languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European Language family. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
"What say you to this, my good friend? In my humble opinion, if cultivated by men of genius, our sonnet in time would rival the Italian. The sonnet is one of the poetic forms that can be found in Lyric poetry from Europe. Rajnarayan Basu (রাজনারায়ণ বসু (1826-1899 was a writer and intellectual of the Bengal Renaissance. "
When Madhusudan later stayed in Versailles, France, the third centenary of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri was being celebrated all over the Europe. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. He composed a poem in memory of the immortal poet and translated it into French and Italian and sent it to court of the king of Italy. Victor Emmanuel II, the then monarch, was so enamored by the poem and wrote back to the poet:
"It will be a ring which will connect the Orient with the Occident. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of "
Sharmistha (spelt as Sermista in English) was Madhusudan's first attempt at blank verse in Bengali literature. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, while paying a glowing tribute to Madhusudan's blank verse, observed:
"As long as the Bengali race and Bengali literature would exist, the sweet lyre of Madhusudan would never cease playing. Sir Asutosh Mookerjee (আশুতোষ মুখোপাধ্যায় 1864-1924 CIE, PhD, DSc, LLD was an Indian educator "
He further added:
"Ordinarily, reading of poetry causes a soporific effect, but the intoxicating vigour of Madhusudan's poems makes even a sick man sit up on his bed. "
In his The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian, Nirad C. Chaudhuri has remarked that during his childhood days in Kishoreganj, a common standard for testing the level of erudition in the Bengali language during family gatherings (like for example, testing the vocabulary stock of a would-be bridegroom as a way of teasing him) was the ability to pronounce and recite the poetry of Dutt, without the trace of an accent. The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian is an autobiographical work of one of the most controversial writers of India -- Nirad C Nirad C Chaudhuri ( Bangla: নীরদ চন্দ্র চৌধুরী Nirod Chôndro Choudhuri) ( 23 November 1897 &ndash Participants in wedding ceremonies, also known as the wedding party, include the bride and groom (or bridegroom) the maid of honor
In his trip to Versailles, France during the 1860s, Madhusudan had to suffer the ignominy of penury and destitution. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. His friends back home, who had inspired him to cross the ocean in search of recognition, started ignoring him altogether. Perhaps his choice of a lavish lifestyle, coupled with a big ego that was openly hostile to native tradition, was partly to blame for his financial ruin. Except for a very few well-wishers, he had to remain satisfied with many fair-weather friends. It may be argued, not without some obvious irony that during those days, his life oscillated, as it were, between the Scylla of stark poverty and the Charybdis of innumerable loans. Scylla (ˈsɪlə Σκύλλα Skulla) also known as Scylle (ˈsɪli Σκύλλη Skullē) was one In Greek mythology, Kharybdis or Charybdis (kəˈrɪbdɨs in Greek, Χάρυβδις) was a Sea monster, the daughter of Poseidon He was head over heels in debt. As he was not in a position to clear off his debts, he was very often threatened by imprisonment. Dutt was able to return home only due to the munificent generosity of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (ঈশ্বর চন্দ্র বিদ্যাসাগর Ishshor Chôndro Biddashagor) (1820-1891 born Ishwar Chandra Bandopadhyaya For this, Dutt was to regard Vidyasagar as Dayar Sagar (meaning the ocean of kindness) for as long as he lived. For it should not be forgotten here, that Madhusudan had cut off all connections with his parents, relatives and at times even with his closest friends, who more often than not were wont to regard him as an iconoclast and an outcast. It was during the course of his sojourn in Europe that Madhusudan then realized his true identity. Perhaps for the first time in his life, he became aware of the colour of his skin and his native language. What he wrote to his friend Gour Bysack from France neatly sums up his eternal dilemma:
|“||If there be any one among us anxious to leave a name behind him, and not pass away into oblivion like a brute, let him devote himself to his mother-tongue. That is his legitimate sphere his proper element.||”|
One of the reasons for his decision to leave the religion of his family was his refusal to enter into an arranged marriage that his father had decided for him. Arranged marriage (also called prearranged marriage) is a Marriage arranged by someone other than the persons getting married curtailing or avoiding the process He had no respect for that tradition and wanted to break free from the confines of caste-based endogamous marriage. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. Cultures who practice endogamy require marriage between specified social groups classes or ethnicities NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** His knowledge of the European tradition convinced him of the superiority of marriages made by mutual consent (or love marriages). A love marriage is a union of two parties based upon affection and a mutual attraction between the individuals
Madhusudan married twice. When he was in Madras, he married Rebecca Mactavys. Later, that marriage ended, and Michael married a French woman named Henrietta. His second marriage was to last till the end of his life. From his second marriage, he had four children. The tennis player Leander Paes is a direct descendant. Leander Adrian Paes (born June 17 1973 is an Indian professional tennis player who currently features in the doubles events in the ATP tour and
Madhusudan died in Calcutta General Hospital on 27 June 1873. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Just three days prior to his death, Madhusudan recited a passage from Shakespeare's Macbeth to his dear friend Gour, to express his deepest conviction of life:
|“||. William Shakespeare ( baptised Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between . . out, out, brief candle!|
Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player,
Gour responded with a passage from Longfellow:
|“||Tell me not in mournful numbers,|
Life is but an empty dream.
After Dutt's death, he was not paid a proper tribute for fifteen years. The belated tribute took the form of a shabby makeshift tomb. Madhusudan's life was a mixture of joy and sorrow. Although it could be argued that the loss of self-control was largely responsible for his pitiable fate, his over-flowing poetic originality for joy was to become forever immortalized in his oeuvre.
His epitaph, a verse of his own, reads:
|“||Stop a while, traveller!|
Should Mother Bengal claim thee for her son.
it can be argued that michael Madhusudan's popularit was widely influenced by the west where is writing style and much of his life originated. whether he is the greatest modern poet of Bengal is debatable. It is more truthful to say that he introduced Bengali ideas to western writing styles. whether he himself can be considered an idol of Bengali poetry is unlikely because of his rejection to much of Bengali culture and preference to western materialism. Like the Bengali language, Bengali poetry traces its lineage to Pāli and other Prakrit socio-cultural traditions
In the words of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, the father of modern Bengali prose, the poet of Meghnad Badh Kabya thus:
". Bankim Chandra Chatterjee ( 27 June[[ 838]] - 8 April[[ 894]] (বঙ্কিম চন্দ্র চট্টোপাধ্যায় Bôngkim . . to Homer and Milton, as well as to Valmiki, he is largely indebted, and his poem is on the whole the most valuable work in modern Bengali literature. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Valmiki ( Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि vālmīki) (ca 400 BCE northern India is celebrated as the poet harbinger in Sanskrit literature "
In word of Tagore:
"The Epic Meghnad-Badh is really a rare treasure in Bengali literature. Through his writings, the richness of Bengali literature has been proclaimed to the wide world. "
Vidyasagar's lofty praise runs:
"Meghnad Badh is a supreme poem. "
Rabindranath Tagore would later declare:
"It was a momentous day for Bengali literature to proclaim the message of the universal muse and not exclusively its own parochial note. The genius of Bengal secured a place in the wide world overpassing the length and breadth of Bengal. And Bengali poetry reached the highest status. "
|“||This should have been a noble creature: he|
Hath all the energy which should have made
In the words of Sri Aurobindo:
"All the stormiest passions of man's soul he [Madhusudan] expressed in gigantic language. Sri Aurobindo (শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo) ( August 15, 1872 – December 5, 1950) was an Indian "