Ciudad de México
Skyline of Mexico City at night
|Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios (City of Palaces) (given by Alexander von Humboldt)|
Location of Mexico City
|Federal entity||Federal District|
|Boroughs||The 16 delegaciones|
|Founded||c. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. (September 14 1769 &ndash May 6 1859 was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister philosopher and linguist Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Mexico City —politically and administratively constituted as the Federal District—is divided into sixteen boroughs ( Spanish: delegaciones) for administrative Mexico City —politically and administratively constituted as the Federal District—is divided into sixteen boroughs ( Spanish: delegaciones) for administrative March 18, 1325|
|Municipality of the New Spain||1524|
|- Head of Government||Marcelo Ebrard (PRD)|
|- City||1,499 km² (578. Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor There are some towns in Mexico which are spelled "Tenochtitlán" like San Lorenzo A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The Head of Government (Jefe de Gobierno wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District. Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b October 10, 1959 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 77 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,240 m (7,349 ft)|
|- Density||5,741/km² (14,869. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 1/sq mi)|
|- Demonym||capitalino (formal), defeño (informal), chilango (colloquial)|
|Time zone||Central Standard Time (UTC-6)|
|- Summer (DST)||Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)|
|1 Area of the Federal District that includes non-urban areas at the south. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving Areas using UTC−6 Single zone countries Belize Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Daylight saving time ( DST The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico|
Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D. F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. It is the most important economic, industrial and cultural center in the country, and the most populous city with 8,720,916 inhabitants in 2005. Greater Mexico City (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México) incorporates 58 adjacent municipalities of Mexico State and 1 municipality of the state of Hidalgo, according to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments. Greater Mexico City refers to the Conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Mexico City Metropolitan Area ( Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the  In 2006 Greater Mexico City had a population of 19. 2 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in the western hemisphere and the second largest in the world. The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West The question of which are the World's largest cities is a complex one to which there is no single correct answer simply because there are many different ways of defining a "city" In 2005, it ranked the eighth in terms GDP (PPP) among urban agglomerations in the world.  Along with São Paulo it is the only Beta global city with 8 points in Latin America. São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world
Mexico City is also the Federal District (Distrito Federal in Spanish, and hence the abbreviation D. F. ). The Federal District is coextensive with Mexico City: both are governed by a single institution and are constitutionally considered to be the same entity. This has not always been the case. The Federal District, created in 1824, was integrated by several municipalities, one of which was the municipality of Mexico City. As the city began to grow, it engulfed all other municipalities into one large urban area. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or In 1928, all municipalities within the Federal District were abolished, an action that left a vacuum in the legal status of Mexico City vis-à-vis the Federal District, even though for most practical purposes they were traditionally considered to be the same entity. In 1993, to end the sterile discussions about whether one concept had engulfed the other, or if any of the two entities had any existence in lieu of the other, the 44th Article of the Constitution of Mexico was reformed to clearly state that Mexico City is the Federal District, seat of the Powers of the Union and capital of the United Mexican States. The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1917 is the present Constitution of Mexico. Powers of the Union ( Poderes de la Unión, in Spanish) is a constitutional term to refer to the three branches of the Mexican government jointly The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. 
Mexico City is located in the Valley of Mexico, also called the Valley of Anáhuac, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,349 ft). Valley of Mexico is a highland Plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State Valley of Mexico is a highland Plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting It was originally built by the Aztecs in 1325 on an island of Lake Texcoco. Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco was a natural Lake formation within the Valley of Mexico, a basin with an average Elevation of 2236 m Above The city was almost completely destroyed in the siege of 1521, and was redesigned and rebuilt in the following years following the Spanish urban standards. In 1524 the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenustitlán, and as of 1585 it is officially known as ciudad de México. 
Mexico (in Spanish pronounced "Me-hee-co") City was founded as Mexico-Tenochtitlan on March 18, 1325 by the Nahua Aztec or Mexican tribe, which rapidly became the capital of a sophisticated growing empire. There are some towns in Mexico which are spelled "Tenochtitlán" like San Lorenzo Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political  Located on a small island on the middle of Lake Texcoco, the layout of the city forced the Aztecs to build an artificial island with a series of canals to allow the growth of the metropolis. Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco was a natural Lake formation within the Valley of Mexico, a basin with an average Elevation of 2236 m Above  A number of causeways were also constructed from the shoreline to the central island. These causeways are the foundation of the various calzadas which are today principal avenues in Mexico City. In fact, although the lake was salty, dams built by the Aztecs kept the city surrounded by clear water from the rivers that fed the lake. Two double aqueducts provided the city with fresh water; this was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another 
After centuries of pre-Columbian civilization, the Spanish conquistador (conqueror) Hernán Cortés first arrived in the area in 1519. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2,  He did not succeed in conquering the city until August 13, 1521, after a 79-day siege that destroyed most of the old Aztec city. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán 
In 1524 the rebuilt city served as the capital of the viceroyalty of New Spain and the political and cultural center of Mexico. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America,  The importance of the city was such that the Captaincy General of Guatemala, Yucatán, Cuba, Florida, and the Philippines were administered from it. A captaincy is a historical Administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese Colonial empires Each was governed by a Captain Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Yucatán is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP This colonial period culminated with the construction of the baroque Metropolitan Cathedral and the Basilica of Guadalupe. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc The name Basilica of Guadalupe (also Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe in Spanish) may refer to one of the 
The outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810, and the eventual independence of the country in 1821 were unable to hamper the influence of the city even though it shook internal politics. The Torre Latinoamericana (literally "Latin American Tower" is a Building in downtown Mexico City, Mexico. The Mexican War of Independence (1810 - 1821 was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities which started on September 16 1810  The capital became host of the first ruler of the Mexican Empire, Agustin de Iturbide, who abdicated a year later in 1823. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu ( September 27, 1783 &ndash July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico as Augustin The nation became a federal republic in October 1824. 
In 1824, the Mexican Federal District was established by the new government and by the signing of their new constitution, where the concept of a federal district was adapted from the American constitution. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico  Before this designation, Mexico City had served as the seat of government for both the State of Mexico and the nation as a whole. Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the Texcoco and then Toluca became the capital of the state of Mexico. 
The war with the United States led to an invasion into Mexico City by U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the S. General Winfield Scott on September 14, 1847, and obligated Mexico to cede the provinces of Nuevo Mexico and Alta California, what are today the States of California, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and parts of Utah and Wyoming to the U. Winfield Scott ( June 13, 1786 &ndash May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general Diplomat, and presidential candidate Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. S. and recognize Texas as independent. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. This was formally recognized in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which was signed in what is now the suburb of the city of the same name. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish) is the Peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to The invasion culminated at Chapultepec Castle, the military center of the country where, according to the legend, 13 young Mexican cadets (see Niños Héroes) fought helpless and outnumbered to keep the Americans from taking the symbolic castle. Chapultepec Castle ( Castillo de Chapultepec in Spanish is located on top of Chapultepec Hill. Los Niños Héroes (the "Boy Heroes" or "Heroic Cadets" were six teenage military cadets who died defending Mexico at Mexico City 's Chapultepec This event is remembered by a series of monolithic columns that bear their names at the base of the Castle. A short-lived monarchy in 1864-1867, under Emperor Maximilian I, left its mark on the reconstruction of Chapultepec Castle and other urban planning that was said to have been modeled after the Champs-Élysées to help his consort Empress Carlota adjust to the city. Maximilian I Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México (6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867 (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph was a member of Austria Chapultepec Castle ( Castillo de Chapultepec in Spanish is located on top of Chapultepec Hill. The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (ʃɑ̃zeliˈze) is the most prestigious avenue in Paris. Charlotte of Belgium ( Princess Marie Charlotte Amélie Augustine Victoire Clémentine Léopoldine of Belgium) ( 7 June, 1840 &ndash 19 January
A three decade long dictatorship under Porfirio Díaz left a French influence upon Mexico City. José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican politician ( September 15, 1830 – 2 July 1915) that would later become the president of Mexico The stunning, bronze Angel of Independence was built under his administration to celebrate the first centenary of the beginning of the War of Independence. El Ángel de la Independencia ("The Angel of Independence" most commonly known by the shortened name El Ángel and officially known as Other urban highlights built at the time were the Palacio de Bellas Artes and the expansion of Paseo de la Reforma à la Champs-Élysées. Palacio de Bellas Artes (" Palace of Fine Arts " is the premier Opera house of Mexico City. Paseo de la Reforma ( English: "Reform's Walk" is a 12 kilometer long grand avenue in Mexico City, Mexico. The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (ʃɑ̃zeliˈze) is the most prestigious avenue in Paris. Following the initial phase of the Mexican Revolution, whereby president Díaz was forced to resign and a new president was elected, Mexico City suffered from what has been called La decena trágica ("The Tragic Ten Days") in February 1913. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I La decena trágica was a coup d'état orchestrated by Victoriano Huerta in complicity with the United States Ambassador to Mexico Henry Lane Wilson. José Victoriano Huerta Márquez ( Colotlán, Jalisco, December 22, 1850, &ndash January 13, 1916 in El Paso The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Mexico since 1823 when Andrew Jackson was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Henry Lane Wilson (1857 &ndash 1932 was an American diplomat.
The post-revolutionary government of Mexico following the Mexican Revolution of 1910 reinforced the importance of the city which saw an important influx of immigrants during the rest of the 20th century. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I Most of the growth of Mexico City in population occurred in the late 20th century. In 1950, the city had about 3 million inhabitants. By 2000, the estimated population for the metropolitan area was around 18 million.
In 1968, the city hosted the Olympic Games, an event marred by the massacre of hundreds of students in what came to be known as the Tlatelolco Massacre, which occurred only a couple of days before the inauguration ceremony. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games The Tlatelolco Massacre, also known as The Night of Tlatelolco (from a book title by the Mexican writer Elena Poniatowska) took place on the afternoon and night of Two other sporting events hosted by the city were the 1970 FIFA World Cup and the 1986 FIFA World Cup, the final matches of which took place in the Estadio Azteca. The 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth staging of the World Cup was held in Mexico, from May 31 to June 21. The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. Estadio Azteca is a Stadium in Mexico City Mexico. It is the official home stadium of the Mexico national football team and the Mexican team
At 07:19 on September 19, 1985, the city was struck by an earthquake of magnitude 8.1 on the Richter scale which resulted in the deaths of between 5,000 (government estimate) and 20,000 people and rendered 50,000-90,000 people homeless. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) The 1985 Mexico City earthquake was one of the most devastating Earthquakes in the history of the Americas The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude M L scale assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released One hundred thousand housing units were destroyed, together with many government buildings. Up to USD $4 billion of damage was caused in three minutes. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been There was an additional magnitude 7. The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude M L scale assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released 5 aftershock 36 hours later. An aftershock is an Earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake (the main shock  When Mexico City hosted the FIFA World Cup again in 1986, the event was seen as an evidence of its rapid recovery. The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football
During the 1990s, Mexico City continued to grow as an economic and cultural center of international importance, which has spurred the construction of new skyscrapers such as Latin America's tallest building, the Torre Mayor (a literal translation of which is Greater Tower) and a remodelled World Trade Center México, originally the Hotel de México built during the 1960s and early 70's. The Torre Mayor is a Skyscraper in Mexico City, Mexico. With a height of 225 meters (740 feet to the top floor and 55 stories it is the tallest The World Trade Center México is a building complex located in Mexico City, Mexico. The World Trade Center México is a building complex located in Mexico City, Mexico.
Mexico City is ranked 8th among North America’s Top Ten Major Cities of the Future 2007-2008. It is ranked 4th in Economic Potential and 4th as Most Cost Effective. Mexico City was the one of the two Mexican cities that made the top ten, along with Guadalajara, which ranked 5th place. 
|Climate chart for Mexico City|
|temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm|
The Federal District is located in central-South Mexico. It is bounded by the state of Mexico on the west, north and east, and by the state of Morelos on the south. Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the Morelos is one of the constituent States of Mexico. Morelos has an area of about, making it the second-smallest of the country's states Mexico City and its metropolitan area, which extends over the state of Mexico, are located in the Valley of Mexico or Anáhuac, a 9,560 km² (3,691 sq mi) valley that lies at an average of 2,240 m (7,349 ft) above sea level. Valley of Mexico is a highland Plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State This valley is a basin surrounded by mountains on all four sides, with only one small opening at the north. At the southern part of the basin, the mountain range reaches an altitude of 3,952 m (12,966 ft) above sea level; and to the east the volcanoes reach an altitude of more than 5,000 m (16,000 ft). The region receives anti-cyclonic systems, whose weak winds do not allow for the dispersion, outside the basin, of the air pollutants which are produced by the 50,000 industries and 4 million vehicles operating in the metropolitan area.  The federal and local governments have implemented numerous plans to alleviate the problem of air pollution, including the constant monitoring and reporting of environmental conditions, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. If the levels of these two pollutants reach critical levels, contingency actions are implemented which may include closing factories, changing school hours, and extending the A day without a car program to two days of the week. Hoy No Circula (literally in Spanish: "today it car does not circulate" though known abroad academically as One Day Without a Car) is the name of an To control air pollution, the government has instituted industrial technology improvements, a strict biannual vehicle emission inspection and the reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels). Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum
In 1986, the non-urban forest areas of the southern boroughs were declared National Ecological Reserves by president de la Madrid. Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (born December 12, 1934) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI who served Other areas of the Federal District became protected in the following years.
Mexico City has a temperate highland climate (Koppen Cwb), due to its tropical location and high elevation. The lower region of the valley receives less rainfall than the upper regions of the south; the lower boroughs of Iztapalapa, Iztacalco, Venustiano Carranza and the west portion of Gustavo A. Madero are usually drier and warmer than the upper southern boroughs of Tlalpan and Milpa Alta, a mountainous region of pine and oak trees known as the range of Ajusco. Iztapalapa is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided Iztacalco is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided Venustiano Carranza is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided Gustavo A Madero is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided Tlalpan is the largest of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District ( Mexico City) is divided Milpa Alta is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Ajusco (3930m is a Volcano located in the south of Mexico City, Mexico in the Tlalpan burrough of the city The average annual temperature varies from 12 to 16°C (53 to 60°F), depending on the altitude of the borough. Lowest temperatures, usually registered during January and February, may reach -2 to -5°C (28 to 23°F), usually accompanied by snow showers on the southern regions of Ajusco, and the maximum temperatures of late spring and summer may reach up to 32°C (90°F). Overall precipitation is heavily concentrated in the summer months.
Originally much of the valley lay beneath the waters of Lake of Texcoco, a system of interconnected saline and freshwater lakes. Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco was a natural Lake formation within the Valley of Mexico, a basin with an average Elevation of 2236 m Above The Aztecs built dikes to separate the fresh water used to raise crops in chinampas and to prevent recurrent floods. Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political Chinampa is a term describing a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small Rectangle -shaped areas of Fertile Arable land These dikes were destroyed during the siege of Tenochtitlan, and during colonial times the Spanish regularly drained the lake to prevent floods. Only a small section of the original lake remains, located outside the Federal District, in the State of Mexico, in the municipality of Atenco. Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the San Salvador Atenco is the Municipal seat of Atenco, in the Mexican state of Mexico.
|Geophysical maps of the Federal District|
In 1824, when the United Mexican States were born as a federation, the Congress of the Union decided to create a Federal District containing the capital of the federation, Mexico City. Congress (formally Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the Legislative branch of the Mexican government. Mexico City and the surrounding territories that became the Federal District originally belonged to the state of Mexico, and the city was also the capital of the state. Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the Being now the capital of the federation, and not of a single state, the city had to be administered directly by all the states through the power vested upon the powers of the Union. The Federal District was thus created on November 18, 1824, as a perfect circle with its center at the Central Square (Plaza de la Constitución, popularly known as "el Zócalo") and a radius of 8. Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year In many cities in Mexico, a zócalo is the main plaza or square set in the heart of the town Remote Authentication Dial In User Service ( RADIUS) is a networking protocol that provides centralized access authorization and accounting management for people or computers 38 km (5. 21 mi). The Federal District was constituted by the municipality of Mexico City, and six additional municipalities: Tacuba, Tacubaya, Azcapotzalco, Mixcoac, Iztacalco, and Villa de Guadalupe. Tacuba is a Municipality in the Ahuachapán department of El Salvador. Azcapotzalco (Āzcapotzalco|aːskapo'ʦaɬko From Nahuatl Azcalli=ant Potzulli=ant hill co= place Lteraly "In the place of the ant hills" is one of the Iztacalco is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided
In 1854, president Antonio López de Santa Anna, enlarged the area of the Federal District almost eightfold from the original 220 km² (80 sq mi) to 1,700 km² (660 sq mi), annexing the rural and mountainous areas in order to secure the strategic mountain passes to the south and southwest to protect the city should a foreign invasion occur again. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ( February 21, 1794 &ndash June 21, 1876) often known as Santa (The Mexican-American War had just been fought). The last changes to the limits of the Federal District were made between 1898 and 1902, reducing the area to the current 1,499 km² (579 sq mi) by adjusting the southern border with the state of Morelos. Morelos is one of the constituent States of Mexico. Morelos has an area of about, making it the second-smallest of the country's states By that time, the total number of municipalities within the Federal District was twenty-two.
While the Federal District was ruled by the federal government through an appointed governor, the municipalities within it were autonomous, and this duality of powers created constant tensions between the municipalities and the federal government for more than a century. In 1903 already, Porfirio Díaz largely reduced the powers of the municipalities within the Federal District. Eventually, in December 1928, the federal government decided to abolish all the municipalities of the Federal District. In place of the municipalities, the Federal District was divided into one "Central Department" and 13 delegaciones (boroughs) administered directly by the government of the Federal District. The Central Department was integrated by the former municipalities of Mexico City, Tacuba, Tacubaya and Mixcoac.
In 1941, the General Anaya borough was merged to the Central Department, which was then renamed "Mexico City" (thus reviving the name, but not the autonomous municipality). Pedro Bernardino María de Anaya ( June 16 1794 &ndash May 21 1854) was twice interim president of Mexico in 1847 to 1848 From 1941 to 1970, the Federal District was comprised by 12 delegaciones and Mexico City. In 1970 Mexico City was split into four different delegaciones: Cuauhtémoc, Miguel Hidalgo, Venustiano Carranza and Benito Juárez, thus increasing the number of delegaciones to sixteen. Cuauhtémoc (also known as Cuauhtemotzin, Guatimozin or Guatemoc; c Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo y Costilla Gallaga Mondarte Villaseñor ( May 8 1753 &ndash July 30 1811) also known as Miguel Benito Pablo Juárez García (benit̪o paβ̞lo xwaɾes gaɾsia ( March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Amerindian Since then, in a de facto manner, the whole Federal District, whose delegaciones had by then almost formed a single urban area, began to be considered a synonym of Mexico City. However, the lack of a de jure stipulation left a legal vacuum that led to a number of sterile discussions about whether one concept had engulfed the other or if the latter had ceased to exist altogether. In 1993 this situation was solved by an amendment to the 44th article of the Constitution whereby Mexico City and the Federal District were set to be the same entity. The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1917 is the present Constitution of Mexico. This amendment was later introduced into the second article of the Statute of Government of the Federal District. 
Mexico City, being the seat of the powers of the Union, did not belong to any particular state but to all. Therefore, it was the president, representing the federation, who used to designate the head of government of the Federal District, a position which is sometimes presented outside Mexico as the "Mayor" of Mexico City. In the 1980s, given the dramatic increase in population of the previous decades, the inherent political inconsistencies of the system—like in 1988, when the opposition candidate had received the majority of votes in the Federal District, but the president, however designated a governor form the party in power at the federal level—as well as the dissatisfaction with the inadequate response of the federal government to assist the city after the 1985 earthquake, the residents began to request political and administrative autonomy in order to manage their own local affairs. Some political groups even proposed that the Federal District be converted into the 32nd state of the federation.
In response to the demands, in 1987 the Federal District received a greater degree of autonomy, with the elaboration the first Statute of Government (Estatuto de Gobierno), and the creation of an Assembly of Representatives. In the 1990s this autonomy was further expanded and, starting from 1997, residents can directly elect the head of government of the Federal District and the representatives of a unicameral Legislative Assembly (which succeeded the previous Assembly) by popular vote. The first elected head of government was Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas. Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician Cárdenas resigned in 1999 in order to run in the 2000 presidential elections and designated Rosario Robles to succeed him, who became the first woman (elected or otherwise) to govern Mexico City. Rosario Robles Berlanga (b 1956) is a left-wing Mexican politician who was appointed substitute Head of Government of the Federal District (" In 2000 Andrés Manuel López Obrador was elected, and resigned in 2005 to run in the 2006 presidential elections, Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez being designated by the Legislative Assembly to finish the term. Andrés Manuel López Obrador, (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez is a left-wing Mexican politician affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution. In 2006, Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon was elected for the 2006–2012 period. Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b October 10, 1959 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic
The Federal District does not have a constitution, like the states of the Union, but rather a Statute of Government, and as part of its recent changes in autonomy, the budget is administered locally: it is proposed by the head of government and approved by the Legislative Assembly. Nonetheless, it is the Congress of the Union that sets the ceiling to internal and external public debt issued by the Federal District. Congress (formally Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the Legislative branch of the Mexican government. 
According to the 44th article of the Mexican Constitution, in case the powers of the Union move to another city, the Federal District will be transformed into a new state, which will be called "State of the Valley of Mexico", with the new limits set by the Congress of the Union.
In 2006, elections were held for the post of head of government and the representatives of the Legislative Assembly. The elected and incumbent head of government is now Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon, candidate of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b October 10, 1959 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. Heads of government are elected for a 6-year period without the possibility of reelection. Traditionally, this position has been considered as the second most important executive office in the country. 
The Legislative Assembly of the Federal District is formed, as it is the case in all legislatures in Mexico, by both single-seat and proportional seats, making it a system of parallel voting. The Legislative Assembly of the Federal District (Asamblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal is the Legislative branch of government of the Mexican Federal District Parallel voting describes a mixed Voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections using different systems and where the results in one election have The Federal District is divided into 40 electoral constituencies of similar population which elect one representative by first-past-the-post plurality (FPP), locally called "uninominal deputies". The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member The Federal District as a whole constitutes a single constituency for the parallel election of 26 representatives by proportionality (PR) with closed-party lists, locally called "plurinominal deputies. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes " Even though proportionality is only confined to the proportional seats, to prevent a part from being overrepresented, several restrictions apply in the assignation of the seats; namely, that no party can have more than 63% of all seats, both uninominal and plurinominal. In the 2006 elections leftist PRD got the absolute majority in the direct uninominal elections, securing 34 of the 40 FPP seats. As such, PRD was not assigned any plurinominal seat to comply with the law that prevents overrepresentation. The overall composition of the Legislative Assembly is:
The politics pursued by the administrations of heads of government in Mexico City since the second half of the 20th century have usually been more liberal than those of the rest of the country, whether with the support of the federal government —as was the case with the approval of several comprehensive environmental laws in the 1980s— or through laws recently approved by the Legislative Assembly. Legislative Assembly is the name given in some countries to either a Legislature, or to one of its chambers. The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. The National Action Party ( Spanish Partido Acción Nacional) known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian democratic The Institutional Revolutionary Party ( Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican Political party that wielded This article is about the Mexican Party for other political parties of the same name see New Alliance Party (disambiguation The New Alliance The Ecologist Green Party of Mexico ( Spanish: Partido Verde Ecologista de México known by the abbreviation PVEM)is one of the six political parties The Labor Party ( Partido del Trabajo, abbreviated as "PT" is a nationally recognized Political party in Mexico. Convergence ( Spanish:) is a political party in Mexico. It was previously known as Convergence for Democracy (Convergencia por la Democracia In 2007, the Federal District became the second federal entity in the country, after the state of Coahuila, to approve same-sex unions, and the first to allow conjugal visits for homosexual prisoners In April of the same year, the Legislative Assembly expanded provisions on abortions, becoming the first federal entity to expand abortion in Mexico beyond cases of rape and economic reasons, to permit it regardless of the reason should the mother request it before the twelfth week of pregnancy. Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of Mexico 's 31 component states. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Legislative Assembly is the name given in some countries to either a Legislature, or to one of its chambers. Abortion in Mexico is allowed at the national level for cases of Rape, health conditions or fetal defects 
For administrative purposes, the Federal District is divided into 16 "delegaciones" or boroughs. Colonia Roma is a neighborhood in the central borough of Cuauhtémoc in Mexico City. Mexico City —politically and administratively constituted as the Federal District—is divided into sixteen boroughs ( Spanish: delegaciones) for administrative While not fully equivalent to a municipality, the 16 boroughs have gained significant autonomy, and since 2000 their heads of government are elected directly by plurality (they were previously appointed by the head of government of the Federal District). A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or A borough is an Administrative division of various countries In principle the term borough designates a self-governing Township although in practice Given that Mexico City is organized entirely as a Federal District, most of the city services are provided or organized by the Government of the Federal District and not by the boroughs themselves, while in the constituent states these services would be provided by the municipalities. A constituent state is a government that is part of a larger Political entity. The 16 boroughs of the Federal District are:
1. Álvaro Obregón
9. Iztacalco is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided Iztapalapa
The boroughs are composed by hundreds of colonias or neighborhoods, which have no jurisdictional autonomy or representation. Xochimilco is one of the sixteen ''delegaciones'' or boroughs within Mexican Federal District. A borough is an Administrative division of various countries In principle the term borough designates a self-governing Township although in practice In Mexico, the neighborhoods of large Metropolitan areas are known as colonias. A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised Community within a larger City, Town or It is plausible that the name, which literally means colony, arose in the late 19th, early 20th centuries, when one of the first urban developments outside the city's core was inhabited by a French colony in the city. Some colonias have identifiable attributes: Historic Center is the oldest quarter in the city, some of the buildings dating back to the 16th century; la Condesa is known for its Art Deco architecture, and for being the newest artistic center of the city; Santa Fe is a growing business and financial district (built over areas where tons of trash used to be thrown); Roma is a beaux arts neighborhood and probably one of the oldest in the city; Polanco and Bosques de las Lomas are important commercial and economic centers known for their large and powerful Jewish communities, and Tepito and La Lagunilla are known for its impressively large flea market. Condesa is a neighborhood in the central borough of Cuauhtémoc in Mexico City. Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Mexico Dic 06 209jpg|thumb|250px|Partial view of Santa Fe]] Santa Fe is one of Mexico City's major business districts located in the west part of the city in the delegaciones Colonia Roma is a neighborhood in the central borough of Cuauhtémoc in Mexico City. This article is about a neighborhood of Mexico City for other uses read Polanco (disambiguation. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Tepito is a Barrio located at Delegación Cuauhtémoc, in Mexico City. A flea market or swap meet is a type of Bazaar where inexpensive or secondhand goods are sold or bartered
Mexico City is one of the most important economic hubs of Latin America. The World Trade Center México is a building complex located in Mexico City, Mexico. The city proper (Federal District) produces 21. 8% of the country's Gross domestic product.  According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, Greater Mexico City (with a population of 19. PricewaterhouseCoopers (or PwC is one of the world's largest Professional services firms Greater Mexico City refers to the Conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Mexico City Metropolitan Area ( Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad 2 million) had a GDP of $315 billion in 2005 (at purchasing power parity), ranking as the eighth-richest urban agglomeration in the world after the greater areas of Tokyo, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Paris, London and Osaka/Kobe, and the richest in Latin America; in 2020 it is expected to rank seventh with a $608 billion GDP, displacing Osaka/Kobe. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power.  Mexico City alone would be the 30th largest economy in the world with a higher GDP than countries like Sweden or Switzerland. Mexico City is also one of the largest financial and commercial hubs in Latin America (it should be remembered that Carlos Slim, who has been ranked, in the last few months, as either the richest or the second richest person in the world, was born and has always lived in Mexico City). Carlos Slim Helú (born January 28 1940) is a Mexican Businessman born to Lebanese parents largely focused on the Telecommunications The Mexican stock exchange (Bolsa Mexicana de Valores) and the country's largest banks and insurers, as well as many international financial services conglomerates for Latin America, are headquartered in the city.
In terms of GDP per sector, the Federal District is the greatest contributor to the country's industrial GDP (15. 8%) and also the greatest contributor to the country's GDP in the service sector (25. 3%). Due to the limited non-urbanized space at the south—most of which is protected through environmental laws—the contribution of the Federal District in agriculture is the smallest of all federal entities in the country.  The city proper's nominal GDP per capita is $22,696, the highest of any city in Latin America.  Mexico City's Human Development Index (HDI) is the highest in the country at 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 8830, higher than the national average. Amongst other welfare indicators, 50% of the habitants of Mexico City have access to the Internet, 58% own a cell phone, with virtually each household having a phone line. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks While 36% of Mexicans nationwide live in poverty, about 15% of the residents of Mexico City live in poverty.
Over the last two decades the economic base has shifted strongly, as the manufacturing activities move to the state of Mexico (Mexico city suburbs) and even to other states, partly due to an environmental program of tax incentives offered by the government to manufacturers: existing companies could be eligible to tax-certificates if they installed pollution control equipment. New plants, on the other hand, were only eligible to the same benefits if they were to be located outside Mexico City. 
Historically, and since pre-Hispanic times, the valley of Anáhuac has been one of the most densely populated areas in Mexico. Valley of Mexico is a highland Plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State When the Federal District was created in 1824, the urban area of Mexico City extended approximately to the area of today's Cuauhtémoc borough. Cuauhtémoc (also known as Cuauhtemotzin, Guatimozin or Guatemoc; c A borough is an Administrative division of various countries In principle the term borough designates a self-governing Township although in practice At the beginning of the twentieth century, the elites began migrating to the south and west and soon the small towns of Mixcoac and San Ángel were incorporated by the growing conurbation. San Ángel is a neighborhood ( colonia) in the borough ( delegación) of Álvaro Obregón in the Mexican Federal District Today the city could be clearly divided into a middle and high-class area (south and west, including Polanco, Chapultepec and Santa Fe), and a lower class area to the east (Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Pantitlán, Chalco and Moctezuma). Chapultepec ( Chapoltepēc "at the grasshopper hill" in the Nahuatl language; c Mexico Dic 06 209jpg|thumb|250px|Partial view of Santa Fe]] Santa Fe is one of Mexico City's major business districts located in the west part of the city in the delegaciones Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl (aka Ciudad Neza is a city and seat of the municipality of Mexico State adjacent to the northeast corner of Mexico Chalco de Díaz Covarrubias is a city that is municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of Chalco.
Up to the 1980s, the Federal District was the most populated federal entity in Mexico, but since then its population has remained stable at around 8. 7 million. The growth of the city has extended beyond the limits of the Federal District to 58 municipalities of the state of Mexico and to the state of Hidalgo and, with a population of approx. Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the 28. 5 million inhabitants, it is one of the most populated conurbations in the world. Nonetheless, the annual rate of growth of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City is much lower than that of other large urban agglomerations in Mexico, a phenomenon most likely attributable to the environmental policy of decentralization. Greater Mexico City refers to the Conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Mexico City Metropolitan Area ( Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad The net migration rate of the Federal District from 1995 to 2000 was negative. Net migration rate is the difference of Immigrants and Emigrants of an area in a period of time divided (usually per 1000 inhabitants (considered on midterm population 
While they represent around 1. 3% of the city's population, indigenous peoples from different regions of Mexico have immigrated to the capital in search of better economic opportunities. Mexico, in the second article of its Constitution, is defined as a "pluricultural" nation in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it Náhuatl, Otomí, Mixteco, Zapoteco, and Mazahua are the indigenous languages with the greatest number of speakers in Mexico City. Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are an indigenous Mesoamerican people inhabiting the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla Zapotec language(s describes a group of closely-related indigenous Mesoamerican languages spoken by the Zapotec people from Mexico's southwestern-central The Mazahua are an indigenous people of Mexico, inhabiting the northwestern portion of the State of Mexico and southeastern Michoacán, with a presence 
On the other hand, Mexico City is home to large communities of expatriates, most notably from South America (mainly from Argentina, but also from Chile, Colombia, Brazil and Venezuela), from Europe (mainly from Spain but also Germany, Italy, France and Poland), the Middle East (mainly from Lebanon, Turkey, and Syria), and recently from Asia (mainly from China and South Korea). An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː  While no official figures have been reported, population estimates of each of these communities are quite significant. Mexico City is home to the largest population of Americans living outside the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Some estimates are as high as 600,000 Americans living in Mexico City, while in 1999 the U. S. Bureau of Consular Affairs estimates over 440,000 Americans lived in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. 
The majority (90. 5%) of the residents in Mexico City are Roman Catholic, higher than the national percentage, even though it has been decreasing over the last decades.  However, many other religions and philosophies are also practiced in the city: many different types of Protestant groups, different types of Jewish communities, Buddhist and other philosophical groups, as well as atheism. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices
|Historic Center of Mexico City and Xochimilco*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||ii, iii, iv, v|
|Region†||Latin America and the Caribbean|
|Inscription||1987 (11th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Historic Center (Centro Histórico) and the "floating gardens" of Xochimilco in the southern borough have been declared World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. Xochimilco is one of the sixteen ''delegaciones'' or boroughs within Mexican Federal District. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Xochimilco is one of the sixteen ''delegaciones'' or boroughs within Mexican Federal District. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 Famous landmarks in the Historic Center include the Plaza de la Constitución (Zócalo), the main central square with its time clashing Spanish-era Metropolitan Cathedral and Palacio Nacional, and ancient Aztec temple ruins Templo Mayor ("Major Temple") are all within a few steps of one another. La Plaza de la Constitución, informally called El Zócalo, is the main square in Mexico City. Mexico Dic 06 044jpg|thumb|right|300px|The Cathedral as seen from Francisco I The Templo Mayor (commonly known by this Spanish name meaning " Great Temple " was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (The Templo Mayor was discovered in 1978 while workers were digging to place underground electric cables. The Templo Mayor (commonly known by this Spanish name meaning " Great Temple " was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan )
The most recognizable icon of Mexico City is the golden Angel of Independence, found on the wide, elegant avenue Paseo de la Reforma, modeled by the order of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico after the Champs-Élysées in Paris. El Ángel de la Independencia ("The Angel of Independence" most commonly known by the shortened name El Ángel and officially known as Paseo de la Reforma ( English: "Reform's Walk" is a 12 kilometer long grand avenue in Mexico City, Mexico. Maximilian I Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México (6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867 (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph was a member of Austria The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (ʃɑ̃zeliˈze) is the most prestigious avenue in Paris. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This avenue was designed in the XIX Century to connect the National Palace (seat of government) with the Castle of Chapultepec, the imperial residence. Chapultepec Castle ( Castillo de Chapultepec in Spanish is located on top of Chapultepec Hill. Today, this avenue is an important financial district in which the Mexican Stock Market is located. Another important avenue is the Avenida de los Insurgentes, which extends 28. Avenida de los Insurgentes ( English: Insurgents' Avenue) sometimes known simply as Insurgentes, is the longest Avenue in Mexico City 8 km (18 miles) and is one of the longest single avenues in the world.
The Chapultepec park houses the Castle of Chapultepec, now a museum on a hill that overlooks the park and its numerous museums, monuments and the national zoo and the National Museum of Anthropology (which houses the Aztec Calendar Stone). Chapultepec ( Chapoltepēc "at the grasshopper hill" in the Nahuatl language; c Chapultepec Castle ( Castillo de Chapultepec in Spanish is located on top of Chapultepec Hill. The Museo Nacional de Antropología ( MNA, or National Museum of Anthropology) is a National museum of Mexico. The Aztec sun stone, Stone of the Sun ( Spanish: Piedra del Sol) or Aztec calendar stone is a large monolithic sculpture that was excavated Another magnificent piece of architecture is the Fine Arts Palace, a stunning white marble theatre/museum whose weight is such that it has gradually been sinking into the soft ground below. Palacio de Bellas Artes (" Palace of Fine Arts " is the premier Opera house of Mexico City. Its construction began during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz and ended, after being interrupted by the Mexican Revolution in the 1920s. José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican politician ( September 15, 1830 – 2 July 1915) that would later become the president of Mexico The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I The Plaza of the Three Cultures in the Tlatelolco neighbourhood, and the shrine and Basilicas of Our Lady of Guadalupe are also important sites. The Plaza de las Tres Culturas ("Square of the Three Cultures" is the main square within the Tlatelolco neighbourhood of Mexico City. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman Our Lady of Guadalupe, also called the Virgin of Guadalupe (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe or Virgen de Guadalupe is a 16th century Roman Catholic Mexican There is a double decker bus, known as the "Turibus", that circles most of these sites, and has timed audio describing the sites in multiple languages as they are passed.
In addition, the city has around 160 museums, over 100 art galleries, and some 30 concert halls, all of which maintain a constant cultural activity during the whole year. It has the fourth highest number of theatres in the world after New York, London and Toronto, and it is the city with the highest number of museums in the world. The City of New York London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario In many locales (Palacio Nacional and the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, to name a few), there are murals painted by Diego Rivera. Diego Rivera (December 8 1886 &ndash November 24 1957 was born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez He and his wife Frida Kahlo lived in the southern suburb of Coyoacán, where several of their homes, studios, and art collections are open to the public. Frida Kahlo (July 6 1907 – July 13 1954 was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity Coyoacán is one of the 16 Delegaciones ' (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided The house where Leon Trotsky was initially granted asylum and finally murdered in 1940 is also in Coyoacán. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij
In addition, there are several restored haciendas that are now restaurants, such as the San Ángel Inn, the Hacienda de Tlalpan and the Hacienda de los Morales, all of which are stunning remnants of Mexican history and house some of the best food in the world.
Soccer is Mexico's most televised sport. Lucha libre ( Spanish for "free wrestling" is a term used in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking areas to refer to a certain form of Professional wrestling Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Several first division teams, including Club América and its Primera División A youth team Socio Águila, Cruz Azul and Pumas, are based in Mexico City. Club América, most commonly known as just América, is a professional Mexican football club playing in the Primera División. Current teams Champions Socio Águila is a Mexican football club which plays in the Primera División A, particularly serving as the reserve team for Club América. Club Deportivo Social y Cultural Cruz Azul, also known as Cruz Azul, is a popular Mexican professional Football (soccer club Club Universidad Nacional AC, also referred to as Pumas de la UNAM, is a Mexican professional football club The Aztec Stadium (Estadio Azteca) has capacity to seat approximately 126,000 fans. Estadio Azteca is a Stadium in Mexico City Mexico. It is the official home stadium of the Mexico national football team and the Mexican team Mexico City also has an Olympic Stadium in Ciudad Universitaria, which is home of the Pumas football team. Estadio Olímpico Universitario is a Stadium located in Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City. Ciudad Universitaria (University City Mexico is UNAM 's main campus located in Coyoacán borough in the southern part of Mexico City Club Universidad Nacional AC, also referred to as Pumas de la UNAM, is a Mexican professional football club Cruz Azul plays in the Estadio Azul, which is located within Mexico City as well. Club Deportivo Social y Cultural Cruz Azul, also known as Cruz Azul, is a popular Mexican professional Football (soccer club Estadio Azul (literally Blue Stadium) formerly Estadio Azulgrana and Estadio de la Ciudad de los Deportes, is a 35000-seat stadium located in Mexico
The country hosted the Football World Cup in 1970 and 1986 and Azteca is the only stadium in the world to host the final match of the Football World Cup twice. The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football The 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth staging of the World Cup was held in Mexico, from May 31 to June 21. The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football Mexico City also hosted the 1968 Summer Olympics, winning bids against Buenos Aires, Lyon and Detroit, and being the only Latin American city to host such an event. The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Mexico City Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Mexico City hosted the 1955 Pan American Games and then the 1975 Pan American Games after Santiago and São Paulo withdrew. The 2nd Pan American Games opened on March 12 1955 in the University Stadium (now Olympic Stadium in Mexico City, Mexico, in front The 7th Pan American Games were held in Mexico City, Mexico, from October 12 to October 26, 1975, exactly twenty years after the 2nd Santiago ( (litteraly in spanish Saint James) is the Capital of Chile, and the center of its largest Conurbation ( Greater Santiago São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world
Baseball is also another popular sport with a growing fan base. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Mexico City is home to the Diablos Rojos del México (Red Devils) of the Mexican Baseball League, with the team playing their home games at the Foro Sol Stadium. Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1993 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. The Red Devils used to share the stadium with the baseball club "Tigres" (Tigers) until the club moved to Puebla, where they were known as the "Tigres de la Angelópolis" ("Tigers from the City of Angels"). The city of Puebla, officially Heroic Puebla de Zaragoza (nicknamed Angelópolis) is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Puebla. Right now they play in Cancún, Quintana Roo and are known as Quintana Roo Tigres. Cancún (pronounced as kanˈkun is a coastal city in Mexico 's easternmost state Quintana Roo, on the Yucatán Peninsula. Quintana Roo (kinˈtana ˈro is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. The Quintana Roo Tigers (Los Tigres del Quintana Roo are a Mexican Minor league baseball team located in Cancun, Mexico. Also in Mexico City are located around 10 little leagues for young baseball players.
Adjacent to Foro Sol is Mexico City's Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez. Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1993 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. The Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez (" Rodríguez Brothers Racetrack " is a 4 From 1962 to 1970 and again from 1986 to 1992, the track hosted the Formula 1 Mexican Grand Prix. The Mexican Grand Prix (Gran Premio de Mexico was a Formula One auto race held at the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez in Mexico City. From 1980-1981 and again from 2002 to 2007, it hosted the Champ Car World Series Gran Premio de México. Champ Car, was the name for a class and specification of cars used in American Championship Car Racing for many decades primarily for use in the Indianapolis For the race held at Fundidora Park in Monterrey, Mexico - see Tecate/Telmex Grand Prix of Monterrey. Since 2005, the NASCAR Nationwide Series has run the Telcel-Motorola México 200. The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing ( NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of Stock cars in the United States. The NASCAR Nationwide Series is a Stock car racing series owned and operated by the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing. The Corona México 200 presented by Banamex was a NASCAR Nationwide Series stock car race held at the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez road course 2005 also marked the first running of the Mexico City 250 by the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. The Grand American Road Racing Association or Grand-Am is an Auto racing sanctioning body that was established in 1999 to organize Road racing competitions The Rolex Sports Car Series is the premiere series run by the Grand American Road Racing Association.
In 2005, Mexico City became the first city to host a NFL regular season game outside of the United States, and has also hosted several NBA pre-season exhibition games along with exhibition matches among MLB teams at the Foro Sol. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1993 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City.
Other sports facilities in Mexico City are the Palacio de los Deportes indoor arena, Francisco Márquez Olympic Swimming Pool, the Hipódromo de Las Américas horse-race track, ice hockey, American football, and basketball. Palacio de los Deportes ( English: Sports Palace) is an indoor Arena located in Mexico City, Mexico, within the sports complex The Alberca Olímpica Francisco Márquez is an indoor Swimming pool Olympic facility located in Mexico City, Mexico. Hipódromo de las Américas is a Thoroughbred and quarter-horse Race track in Mexico City, Mexico that had its inaugural meeting on
Bullfighting takes place every Sunday during bullfighting season at the 50,000-seat Plaza de Toros, the largest bullring in the world. For the retail complex in Birmingham UK see Bull Ring Birmingham.
Mexico City is served by the Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metro, an extensive metro system (207 km), which is the largest in Latin America. Transportation in Mexico City is managed by the government of the Mexican Federal District through several public companies that administer the different means of The Mexico City Metro (formally Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metro or STC Metro) is a Rubber-tyred metro system that serves A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway The first portions were opened in 1969 and now the system has 11 lines with 175 stations. In 2008 it was announced that a twelveth line will be constructed along with a suburban rail system similar to the French RER system. The RER ( R éseau E xpress R égional, ɛʀøɛʀ "Regional Express Network" is a Rapid transit system in France serving The metro is one of the busiest in the world transporting approximately 4. 5 million people every day, surpassed only by Moscow's (7. 5 million), Tokyo's (5. 9 million), and New York City's (4. 9 million). It is heavily subsidized, and has the lowest fares in the world, each trip costing MXN 2 (around EUR 0. The peso ( sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico. The symbol used for the peso is " $ " basically Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e 13 or USD 0. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 19 and taking each passenger to almost any place in this enormous city from 05:00 am to 00:00 h. ). Several stations display Pre-Columbian artifacts and architecture that were discovered during the metro's construction. However, the Metro does not extend outside the limits of the Federal District and, therefore, an extensive network of bus routes has been implemented. The Mexico City Metro (formally Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metro or STC Metro) is a Rubber-tyred metro system that serves These are mostly managed by private companies which are allowed to operate buses as long as they adhere to certain minimal service quality standards.
The city government also operates a network of large buses, in contrast with the privately operated microbuses, with fares barely exceeding that of the metro. A pesero is a form of public transport most commonly seen in Mexico City. Electric transport other than the metro also exists, in the form of trolleybuses and the Xochimilco Light Rail line. The Xochimilco Light Rail (locally known as el tren ligero) is a Light rail line that services the south of Mexico City, Mexico. The city's first bus rapid transit line, the Metrobús, began operations on June 2005 in Avenida Insurgentes (a second line is under construction on Eje 4 Sur). Bus rapid transit ( BRT) is a broad term given to a variety of transportation systems that through improvements to infrastructure vehicles and scheduling attempt to use Metrobús is a Bus rapid transit (BRT system in Mexico City, Mexico. Avenida de los Insurgentes ( English: Insurgents' Avenue) sometimes known simply as Insurgentes, is the longest Avenue in Mexico City As the microbuses were removed from its route, it was hoped that the Metrobús could reduce pollution and decrease transit time for passengers. Also, since late 2002, the white and green taxis have been joined by red and white ones as part of a program to replace older vehicles with new ones.
Mexico City is served by Mexico City International Airport (IATA Airport Code: MEX). Mexico City International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México or AICM also called Benito Juárez International Airport is a commercial airport that An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many This airport is the largest in Latin America in traffic, transporting nearly 25 million passengers per year.  This traffic exceeds the capacity of the airport, which had historically centralized the majority of air traffic. The government has recently engaged in an extensive restructuring that includes the building of a second adjacent terminal and the enlargement of four other airports (at the nearby cities of Toluca, Querétaro, Puebla and Cuernavaca) that, along with Mexico City's airport, comprise the Grupo Aeroportuario de la Ciudad de México, distributing traffic to different regions in Mexico. The city of Puebla, officially Heroic Puebla de Zaragoza (nicknamed Angelópolis) is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Puebla. Cuernavaca (Cuauhnāhuac|kʷaw̥'naːwak is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. Mexico City's airport is the main hub for 10 of the 12 national airline companies.
The city has four major bus stations (North, South, Observatorio, TAPO), with bus service to many cities across the country, and one train station, used for commercial and industrial purposes (interstate passenger trains are now virtually non-existent in Mexico). It was recently announced that a Tren Suburbano (suburban rail) will be built to serve the metropolitan area. The Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana de México ( Suburban Railway of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) is an electric Regional rail system in There are also several toll expressways which connect Mexico City with several other major cities. An expressway is a Divided highway for high-speed traffic with at least partial Control of access.
In the late 70's many arterial roads were redesigned as ejes viales; high-volume one-way roads that cross, in theory, Mexico City proper from side to side. The eje vial network is based on a quasi-Cartesian grid, with the ejes themselves being called Eje 1 Poniente, Eje Central, and Eje 1 Oriente, for example, for the north-south roads, and Eje 2 Sur and Eje 3 Norte, for example, for east-west roads. Two freeway ring-roads serve to connect points within the city and the metropolitan area: Circuito Interior (the inner ring) and Periférico, which connect to one straight freeway: the Viaducto (Viaduct) (connecting west with east, from Observatorio to the Airport). Traffic in this system is so dense that an elevated highway that runs on top and parallel to a part of the Periférico, had to be constructed and finished in 2007. This elevated highway is colloquially called segundo piso ("second level") of the Periférico.
There is also an environmental program, called Hoy No Circula ("Not To Run Today," or "One Day without a Car"), whereby only vehicles with certain ending numbers on their license plates are allowed to circulate on certain days, in an attempt to cut down on pollution and traffic congestion. Hoy No Circula (literally in Spanish: "today it car does not circulate" though known abroad academically as One Day Without a Car) is the name of an The program groups vehicles by their ending license plate digits, and every weekday vehicles having any of the day's two "Hoy No Circula" digits are banned from circulating. For instance, on Fridays, vehicles with plates ending in 9 or 0 may not drive. This program is controversial, since it has resulted in many better-off households buying extra cars, reducing the program's benefits; also, newer vehicles are exempt from complying with the program, a move said to have been pushed by auto makers to boost sales of new vehicles. Cars of Mexico refers to the Automobile marketing and its evolution in Mexico, as well as a comprehensive list of every car currently sold with a short description
Mexico City is the location of National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The National Autonomous University of Mexico (in Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México UNAM) is a Public university based UNAM is the second-oldest (established in 1551) and the largest (with 269,000 students) university in the Americas. Three Nobel laureates and most of Mexico's modern-day presidents are among its former students. UNAM conducts 50% of Mexico's scientific research and has presence all across the country with satellite campuses and research centers. The National Autonomous University of Mexico ranks 74th in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2006, making it the highest ranked Spanish-speaking university in the world. Times Higher Education ( THE) formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement ( THES) is a magazine based The sprawling main campus of the university, known as Ciudad Universitaria, was named a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2007, during the period of Juan Ramón de la Fuente as the President of UNAM. Ciudad Universitaria (University City Mexico is UNAM 's main campus located in Coyoacán borough in the southern part of Mexico City Juan Ramón de la Fuente Ramírez (born 5 September 1951 in Mexico City) is a Mexican psychiatrist, academician and politician
The second largest higher-education institution is the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) (which includes, among many other relevant centers, the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), where high-level research is performed about very different scientific and technological disciplines such as physics, mathematics, neurosciences, and many others). The National Polytechnic Institute (in Spanish: Instituto Politécnico Nacional IPN) is one of the largest and finest public universities The Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (in Spanish: Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Other major higher-education institutions in the city include the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM), the ITAM, the ITESM (3 campi), the Universidad Panamericana (UP), the Universidad La Salle, the Universidad del Valle de Mexico (UVM), the Universidad Anáhuac, the Alliant International University, the Universidad Iberoamericana, El Colegio de México (Colmex), and the Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económica (CIDE). The Metropolitan Autonomous University ( Spanish language: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana or UAM) is a public University The Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (in English: Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology commonly known as ITAM, is a private research university The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education ( Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey ITESM) commonly shortened as Monterrey The Universidad Panamericana (commonly known as UP, English: Panamerican University is a private Catholic University, located in Mexico Universidad La Salle (ULSA is a private institution of higher education with 14 campuses in Mexico. The Universidad Anáhuac is an organization of universities around Mexico. History Alliant International University is an independent not-for-profit university formed in July 2001 as a result of a merger between California School of Professional The Ibero-American University (in Spanish: Universidad Iberoamericana, abbreviated UIA but commonly known as Ibero El Colegio de México (commonly known as Colmex, English: The College of Mexico is a prestigious Mexican institute of Higher education, Cide is a town and a district of the Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Contrary to what occurs in the constituent states of the Mexican federation, the curriculum of Mexico City's public schools is managed by the federal level Secretary of Public Education. The Secretariat of Public Education ( Secretaría de Educación Pública) of Mexico is the governmental department responsible for education and culture The whole funding is allocated by the government of Mexico City (in some specific cases, such as El Colegio de México, funding comes from both the city's government and other public and private national and international entities). El Colegio de México (commonly known as Colmex, English: The College of Mexico is a prestigious Mexican institute of Higher education,
A very special case is that of El Colegio Nacional, created during the governmental period of Miguel Alemán Valdés to have, in Mexico, an institution very similar to the College of France. The National College ( El Colegio Nacional) is a Mexican honorary Academy with a strictly limited membership created by presidential decree Miguel Alemán Valdés ( September 29 1900 &ndash May 14 1983)served as the President of Mexico from 1946 to 1952 The Collège de France is a higher education and research establishment ( Grand établissement) located in Paris, France, in the 5th arrondissement The very selected and privileged group of Mexican scientists and artists belonging this institution (the membership is lifelong; some of the current members are Mario Lavista, Ruy Pérez Tamayo, José Emilio Pacheco, Marcos Moshinsky, Guillermo Soberón Acevedo, and many others) have the obligation of disclosing their works among the general population, through conferences and public events such as concerts and recitals. Mario Lavista (born April 3 1943, Mexico City) is a Mexican Composer and writer José Emilio Pacheco (born June 30, 1939 in Mexico City) is a Mexican Poet, Essayist, Translator, Novelist Marcos Moshinsky (born April 20, 1921) is a Mexican physicist of Ukrainian origin whose work in the field of Elementary
Mexico City is the country's most important center for the television, advertising, music, newspaper and book publishing industries. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Two national newspapers are published here, El Universal and Excélsior, as well as important regional newspapers such as Reforma and La Jornada. El Universal is a major Mexican Newspaper. El Universal was founded by Félix Palavicini and Emilio Rabasa in Excélsior is a Daily newspaper, founded by Rafael Alducin and published in Mexico City since 1917 The National Association to Promote Library and Information Services to Latinos and the Spanish-speaking, more commonly known as REFORMA, is an affiliate of the American La Jornada is one of Mexico City 's leading daily Newspapers It was established in 1984 by Carlos Payán Velver. Other major papers include Milenio, Crónica, El Economista and El Financiero. Milenio Diario is a major national Newspaper in Mexico, owned by Grupo Multimedios. Crónica is a newspaper from Buenos Aires city in Argentina. It's known as a Yellow press tabloid with three editions morning evening and night El Economista is a Mexican Business and Economics Newspaper It was founded in 1989
The two largest media companies in the Spanish-speaking world, Televisa and TV Azteca, are headquartered in Mexico City. Televisa is a Mexican multimedia company and is the largest media company in the Spanish -speaking world and a major player in the international entertainment TV Azteca is the second largest Mexican Television network. It was established in 1983 as the state-owned Instituto Mexicano de la Televisión Other local television networks include Canal 11, Canal 22, Cadena Tres, Teveunam and 11 free-access channels. Once TV (pronounced /ˈonse te ve/, Spanish for "TV Eleven" also known as "Canal 11" ( XEIPN-TV) in Mexico City, is a Mexican XEIMT-TV channel 22 also known as "Canal 22" is a cultural and educational television station owned and operated by Televisión Metropolitana S XHRAE-TV channel 28 is television station in Mexico City, and the flagship of the cadenatres (threenetwork network XHUNAM channel 60 also known as "Teveunam" is an educational television station owned and operated by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM
There are 60 radio stations operating in the city and a huge number of local community radio stations. This is a list of the Radio stations in the Mexican Federal District that are found on the FM and AM bands
Mexico City is one of the most important cultural centers in the world boasting more museums than any other city. It is also the fourth city in number of theaters after New York City, London and Toronto. 
Having been capital of a vast pre-Hispanic empire, the richest viceroyalty within the Spanish Empire, and capital of the Mexican federation, Mexico City has a rich history of artistic expressions. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Since the Mesoamerican pre-Classical period the inhabitants of the settlements around Lake Texcoco produced many works of arts, some of which are today displayed at the world-renown National Museum of Anthropology and the Templo Mayor Museum. The Museo Nacional de Antropología ( MNA, or National Museum of Anthropology) is a National museum of Mexico. While many pieces of pottery and stone-engraving have survived, the great majority of the Amerindian iconography was destroyed during the Conquest of Mexico.
During colonial times the first art produced was that of the codices generated to preserve or recuperate Amerindian iconography and history. From then, artistic expressions in Mexico were mostly religious in theme. The Metropolitan Cathedral still displays works by Juan de Rojas, Juan Correa and an oil painting whose authorship has been attributed to Murillo. This article is about the painter Bartolomé Esteban Murillo There is also an article on the Canadian village Murillo Ontario, which was named after the artist due to Secular works of art of this period include the equestrian sculpture of Charles IV of Spain, locally known as El Caballito ("The little horse"). An equestrian statue is a Statue of a Horse -mounted rider The term is from the Latin " eques," meaning " Knight Charles IV ( November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication This piece, in bronze, was the work of Manuel Tolsá and it has been placed at the Plaza Tolsá, in front of the Palacio de Minería (Mining Palace). Manuel Tolsá ( Enguera, Valencia, Spain, May 4, 1757 &mdash Mexico City, December 24, 1816) was Directly in front of this building is the beautiful Museo Nacional de Arte (Munal) (the National Museum of Art). The Museo Nacional de Arte ( MUNAL) is the Mexican National Art Museum located in the historical center of Mexico City.
During the 19th century, an important producer of art was the Academia de San Carlos (San Carlos Art Academy), founded during colonial times, and which later became the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas (the National School of Visual Arts), which is currently one of the art schools of UNAM. Many of the works produced by the students and faculty of that time are now displayed in the Museo Nacional de San Carlos (National Museum of San Carlos). One of the students, José María Velasco, is considered one of the greatest Mexican landscape painters of the 19th century. It was during Porfirio Diaz's regime that the government sponsored arts, especially those that followed the French school. José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican politician ( September 15, 1830 – 2 July 1915) that would later become the president of Mexico In spite of that, popular arts in the form of cartoons and illustrations flourished like those of José Guadalupe Posada and Manuel Manilla. José Guadalupe Posada ( 2 February 1852 &ndash 20 January 1913) was a Mexican engraver and illustrator. The permanent collection of the San Carlos Museum also includes paintings by European masters such as Rembrandt, Velázquez, Murillo, and Rubens.
After the Mexican Revolution, an avant-garde artistic movement originated in Mexico City: muralism. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard A mural is a Painting on a wall ceiling or other large permanent surface Many of the works of muralists José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera are displayed in numerous buildings in the city, most notably at the National Palace and the Palacio de Bellas Artes. José Clemente Orozco ( November 23, 1883 &ndash September 7, 1949) was a Mexican social realist painter, who José David Alfaro Siqueiros ( December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca Diego Rivera (December 8 1886 &ndash November 24 1957 was born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez Palacio de Bellas Artes (" Palace of Fine Arts " is the premier Opera house of Mexico City. Frida Kahlo, wife of Rivera, with a strong nationalist expression, was also one of the most renowned of Mexican painters. Frida Kahlo (July 6 1907 – July 13 1954 was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity Her house has become a museum that displays many of her works.
The former home of Rivera muse Dolores Olmedo house the namesake museum. The facility lies in the Xochimilco precinct in the southern part of the city and includes several buildings surrounded by sprawling manicured lawns. It house a large collection of Rivera and Kahlo paintings and drawings, as well as living Xoloizcuintles (the Prehispanic dogs). It also regularly hosts small but important temporary exhibits of classical and modern art (e. g. Venetian Masters and Contemporary New York artists).
During the 20th century, many artists immigrated to Mexico City from different regions of Mexico, like Leopoldo Méndez, an engraver from Veracruz, who supported the creation of the socialist Taller de la Gráfica Popular (Popular Graphics Workshop), designed to help blue-collar workers find a venue to express their art. Other painters came from abroad, like Catalan painter Remedios Varo and other Spanish and Jewish exiles. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Remedios Varo Uranga (December 16 1908 - October 8 1963) was a Spanish-Mexican Surrealist painter. It was in the second half of the 20th century that the artistic movement began to drift apart from the Revolutionary theme. José Luis Cuevas opted for a modernist style in contrast to the muralist movement associated with social politics. José Luis Cuevas (February 1934 Mexico-City is a modernist painter and sculptor from Mexico.
Mexico City has numerous museums dedicated to modern and contemporary art. The Museo Tamayo was opened in the mid-1980s to house the collection of international contemporary art donated by famed Mexican (born in the state of Oaxaca) painter Rufino Tamayo. The Museo de Arte Moderno (Museum of Modern Art) is a repository of Mexican artists from the 20th century, and also regularly hosts temporary exhibits of international modern art. The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth In southern Mexico City, the Museo Carrillo Gil (Carrillo Gil Museum) showcases avant-garde artists. The Museo Soumaya (Soumaya Museum), named after the wife of Mexican tycoon Carlos Slim, has the largest private collection of original Rodin sculptures outside Paris. Carlos Slim Helú (born January 28 1940) is a Mexican Businessman born to Lebanese parents largely focused on the Telecommunications Auguste Rodin (born François-Auguste-René Rodin; November 12 1840–November 17 1917 was a French artist most famous as a sculptor. La Colección Jumex (The Jumex Collection) is a museum housed on the grounds of the Jumex juice company in the northern industrial suburb of Ecatepec (within the State of Mexico). Ecatepec ( Nahuatl for "wind hill" was an Aztec Altepetl or City-state in the Valley of Mexico. Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the It shows pieces from its permanent collection and hosts traveling exhibits by leading contemporary artists.
Jack Kerouac, the noted American author, spent extended periods of time in the city, and wrote his masterpiece volume of poetry Mexico City Blues here. Jack Kerouac ( March 12 1922 &ndash October 21 1969) was an American Novelist, Writer, Poet, and " Mexico City Blues " is a poem published by Jack Kerouac in 1959 composed of 242 "choruses" or stanzas
Mexico City is a mecca of classical music, with a number of orchestras offering season programming. These include the Mexico City Philharmonic, which performs at the Sala Ollin Yoliztli; the National Symphony Orchestra, whose home base is the Palacio de Bellas Artes (The Fine Arts Palace), a masterpiece of art nouveau and art decó styles; the Philharmonic Orchestra of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (OFUNAM), and the Minería Symphony Orchestra, both of which perform at the acoustically renown Sala Nezahualcóyotl, which was the first wrap-around concert hall in the Western Hemisphere when inaugurated in 1976. Palacio de Bellas Artes (" Palace of Fine Arts " is the premier Opera house of Mexico City. There are also many smaller ensembles that enrich the city's musical scene, including the Carlos Chávez Youth Symphony, the New World Orchestra (Orquesta del Nuevo Mundo), the National Polytechnical Symphony and the Bellas Artes Chamber Orchestra (Orquesta de Cámara de Bellas Artes). The New World Symphony Orchestra is America's only full-time Orchestral academy dedicated to preparing gifted graduates from distinguished music conservatories for successful
The city is also a leading center of popular culture and music. There are a multitude of venues hosting the top Spanish and English-language performers. These include the 10,000-seat National Auditorium that regularly schedules the top Spanish and English-language pop and rock artists, as well as many of the world's leading performing arts ensembles. National Auditorium ( Spanish: Auditorio Nacional) is one of the main concert and performance centres in Mexico City, which also was a sports venue Other popular sites for pop-artist performances include the Teatro Metropolitan, the 15,000-seat Palacio de los Deportes, and the larger Foro Sol Stadium, where top-name international artists perform on a regular basis. Palacio de los Deportes ( English: Sports Palace) is an indoor Arena located in Mexico City, Mexico, within the sports complex Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1993 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. The Cirque du Soleil has held several seasons at the Carpa Santa Fe, in the Santa Fe district in the western part of the city. Cirque du Soleil (French for "Circus of the Sun" in English sɜrk duː soʊˈleɪ is an entertainment company Mexico Dic 06 209jpg|thumb|250px|Partial view of Santa Fe]] Santa Fe is one of Mexico City's major business districts located in the west part of the city in the delegaciones
It is said that Mexico City has more theaters than any other city in the Spanish-speaking world. At any given time, plays being staged run the gamut from Spanish versions of Broadway shows, such as Beauty and the Beast and Chicago to mainstream Spanish-language originals and alternative theatre. Beauty and the Beast ( French: La Belle et la Bête) is a traditional Fairy tale (type 425C -- search for a lost husband -- in the Aarne-Thompson Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States.
The Centro Nacional de las Artes (National Center for the Arts), in southern Mexico City, has several venues for music, theatre, dance. UNAM's main campus, also in the southern part of the city, is home to the Centro Cultural Universitario (the University Culture Center) (CCU), which includes the Sala Nezahualcóyotl (Nezahualcóyotl Concert Hall) (music), the Sala Juan Ruiz de Alarcón (theatre), Sala Miguel Covarrubias (dance), Sala Carlos Chávez (chamber music), as well as the Salas Julio Bracho and José Revueltas, that regularly show a very interesting mix of non-commercial films from all over the world. The CCU also houses the National Library, the interactive Universum, Museo de las Ciencias and slated to open in 2008, the new University Museum of Contemporary Art (MUAC). The National Library of Mexico (Biblioteca Nacional de México is located in Ciudad Universitaria, the main campus of the National Autonomous University of Mexico  A branch of the National University's CCU cultural center was inaugurated in 2007 in the facilities of the former Ministry of Foreign Affairs, known as Tlatelolco, in north-central Mexico City.
The Biblioteca José Vasconcelos (José Vasconcelos Library), also a national library, is located on the grounds of the former Buenavista railroad station in the northern part of the city. José Vasconcelos Calderón ( February 28 1882, Oaxaca Oaxaca &ndash June 30 1959, Mexico City) was a Mexican Mexico City 's José Vasconcelos Library, labeled by the press as the "Megabiblioteca" ("megalibrary" is considered a controversial and also the largest
The Papalote children's museum is located in Chapultepec Park (within Chapultepec woods), near the Museo Tecnológico, and the La Feria amusement park. Chapultepec ( Chapoltepēc "at the grasshopper hill" in the Nahuatl language; c La Feria is a city in Cameron County, Texas, United States. The population was 6115 at the 2000 census The Six Flags (formerly Reino Aventura) amusement park is located in the Ajusco neighborhood, in the south of the city. Six Flags Inc (commonly Six Flags) is one of the world's largest chains of Amusement parks and Theme parks, based on quantity of properties Reino Aventura ("Adventure Kingdom" in Spanish) was an Amusement park located in Tlalpan in the south-western part of Mexico City.
The Cineteca Nacional (the Mexican Film Collection), near the Coyoacán suburb, shows a wide variety of films, and stages many film festivals, including the annual International Film Festival, and many smaller ones ranging from Scandinavian and Uruguayan cinema, to Jewish and GLBT-themed films. Cinemex, one of the biggest film business chain, also has more than one film festivals during the year, with both national and international movies. Cinemex is a cineplex company based in Mexico that has built a nationally branded Cineplex chain
Mexico City offers a huge array of culinary experiences. Restaurants specializing in the regional cuisines of Mexico's 32 states are available in the city. Also available are restaurants representing a broad spectrum of international cuisines, including French, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, Portuguese, Spanish (including Spanish regional variations such as Castillian, Asturian, Galician and Basque), Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Lebanese, Moroccan, as well as Peruvian, Argentinean, and Brazilian.
Mexico City was traditionally known as La Ciudad de los Palacios ("the City of Palaces"), a nickname attributed to Baron Alexander von Humboldt when visiting the city in the 19th century. (September 14 1769 &ndash May 6 1859 was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister philosopher and linguist
During López Obrador's administration a new nickname was introduced: la Ciudad de la Esperanza ("The City of Hope"). Andrés Manuel López Obrador, (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District It has been replaced by Capital en Movimiento ("Capital in Movement") by the recently elected administration headed by Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon. Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b October 10, 1959 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic
The city is colloquially known as Chilangolandia after the locals' nickname chilangos. The Royal Spanish Academy and the Mexican Academy of Language agree on the definition of the word as referring to something "belonging to Mexico City" in particular 
Residents of Mexico City are more formally called capitalinos (in reference to the city being the capital of the country) or, more recently defeños (a word which derives from the postal abbreviation of the Federal District in Spanish: D. F. , which is read "De-Efe").
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