|↓ Bronze Age|
The Mesolithic period or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age. The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking The more Anthropomorphic Primates of the Hominini tribe are placed in the Hominina subtribe The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts is the period in the Geologic timescale that extends The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives The control of Fire by early humans was a turning point in human cultural evolution that allowed for humans to proliferate due to the incorporation A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens. In Paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans is one of two hypotheses of the origin of anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa Behavioral modernity is a term used in Anthropology, Archeology and Sociology to refer to a list of traits that distinguish present day humans and their An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl; in English pronounced or) or spear-thrower is a Tool that uses Leverage to achieve greater velocity The origin of the domestic dog is the history of the ancestry and the Domestication of the Dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) A microlith is a small stone tool typically knapped of Flint or Chert, usually about three centimetres long or less They are typically one Centimetre A bow is a Weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow A canoe is a small narrow Boat, typically human-powered though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA around 9000 BC represents the early Neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile The Neolithic Revolution was the first Agricultural revolution &mdashthe transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands to Agriculture and Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their There are a number of hypotheses on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos
The word "Mesolithic" is derived from the Greek words mesos, meaning "middle", and lithos, meaning "stone". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
The term "Mesolithic" was introduced by John Lubbock in his work Pre-historic Times, published in 1865. Sir John Lubbock 4th Baronet and 1st Baron Avebury, PC FRS ( 30 April 1834 &ndash 28 May 1913) English banker The term was, however, not much used until V. Gordon Childe popularized it in his book The Dawn of Europe (1947). Vere Gordon Childe (14 April 1892 Sydney, New South Wales –19 October 1957 Mt 
Recently, Ray Mears and paleoethnobotanist Gordon Hillman have brought the term 'Mesolithic' back into the public arena, prompting individuals to learn more about it and the diets of Mesolithic people through the popular BBC 2 broadcast 'Ray Mears' Wild Food'. Raymond Paul "Ray" Mears (born February 7, 1964) is a British Author and TV presenter on the subject of Bushcraft Professor Gordon HILLMAN BSc is the Honorary Professor in Archaeobotany (Palaeoethnobotany at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London
The term "Mesolithic" is in competition with another term, "Epipaleolithic", which means "the peripheral Old Stone Age". The Epipaleolithic is a term used for the "final Upper Palaeolithic industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation which appear to merge technologically into the 
In the archaeology of northern Europe - for example for archaeological sites in Great Britain, Scandinavia, Ukraine, and Russia - the term "Mesolithic" is almost always used.
In the archaeology of other areas, the term "Epipaleolithic" may be preferred by most authors, or there may be divergences between authors over which term to use or what meaning to assign to each.
A Spanish scholar, Alfonso Moure, says in this regard:
Some authors prefer the opposite convention, using the term "Epipaleolithic" for cultures that are in transition toward agriculture and "Mesolithic" for those that are not. This is not really as confusing as it seems. The important thing is to take note of how each author uses the term.
British archaeologist Steven Mithen, in his award-winning book After the Ice, identifies the term "Mesolithic" with a subset of European hunter-gatherer cultures that were directly descended from the European Paleolithic. Steve Mithen is a Professor of Archaeology at the University of Reading. The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" He rejects the Mesolithic label for the Levant and Anatolia, where the contemporary cultures were Neolithic and had evolved directly out of the Paleolithic cultures of West Asia. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos 
Mesolithic cultures, as designated in this way, are distinct from Paleolithic cultures in their tendency toward more partially sedentary settlements, their emphasis on fishing, reliance on bow-hunting over spear-hunting, and far more advanced social and ritual structure. They are distinct from Neolithic cultures in their absence of farming and pastoralism. Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of Agriculture concerned with the raising of Livestock. 
It began at the end of the Pleistocene epoch around 11,000 BC and ended with the introduction of farming, the date of which varied in each geographical region. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period The Neolithic Revolution was the first Agricultural revolution &mdashthe transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands to Agriculture and In some areas, such as the Near East, farming was already in use by the end of the Pleistocene, and there the Mesolithic is short and poorly defined. B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century In areas with limited glacial impact, the term "Epipaleolithic" is sometimes preferred. The Epipaleolithic is a term used for the "final Upper Palaeolithic industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation which appear to merge technologically into the Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last glacial period ended have a much more apparent Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. "Last glacial" redirects here For the period of maximum glacier extent during this time see Last Glacial Maximum The last glacial period In northern Europe, for example, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands created by the warmer climate. Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviors which are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures. Maglemosian (ca 7500 BC - ca 6000 BC) is the name given to a culture of the early Epipaleolithic period in Northern Europe. The Azilian is a name given by Archaeologists to an industry of the Epipaleolithic in northern Spain and southern France. Such conditions also delayed the coming of the Neolithic until as late as 5000 BC in northern Europe.
As what Mithen terms the "Neolithic package" (including farming, herding, polished stone axes, timber longhouses and pottery) spread into Europe by routes that remain controversial among scholars, the Mesolithic way of life was marginalized and eventually disappeared. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Some late Mesolithic groups, such as Denmark's Ertebølle culture, did make some pottery and did engage in significant trade with Neolithic groups directly to their south. 
Mithen notes that Mesolithic cultures were a historical dead end, unlike the somewhat earlier cultures of the late Paleolithic period in West Asia, which were evolving steadily toward the Neolithic. At the same time, genetic studies strongly suggest that modern Europeans' ancestry, especially their matrilineal mitochondrial DNA, is descended directly from these Mesolithic peoples, who must have eventually adopted the Neolithic way of life that had come to them from West Asia. 
There are two designated periods:
Mesolithic 1 (Kebara culture; 20-18,000 BC to 12,150 BC) followed the Aurignacian or Levantine Upper Paleolithic throughout the Levant. Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic located in Europe and southwest Asia. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the By the end of the Aurignacian, gradual changes took place in stone industries. Microliths and retouched bladelets can be found for the first time. The microliths of this culture period differ greatly from the Aurignacian artifacts. This period is more properly called Epipaleolithic.
By 20,000 to 18,000 BC the climate and environment had changed, starting a period of transition. The Levant became more arid and the forest vegetation retreated, to be replaced by steppe. The cool and dry period ended at the beginning of Mesolithic 1. The hunter-gatherers of the Aurignacian would have had to modify their way of living and their pattern of settlement to adapt to the changing conditions. The crystallization of these new patterns resulted in Mesolithic 1. New types of settlements and new stone industries developed.
The inhabitants of a small Mesolithic 1 site in the Levant left little more than their chipped stone tools behind. The industry was of small tools made of bladelets struck off single-platform cores. Besides bladelets, burins and end-scrapers were found. Burin from the French burin meaning "cold Chisel " has two specialised meanings for types of tools in English one meaning a Steel A few bone tools and some ground stone have also been found.
These so-called Mesolithic sites of Asia are far less numerous than those of the Neolithic and the archeological remains are very poor.
Mesolithic 1 started somewhere around 18,000 BC in Israel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The change from Mesolithic 1 to Mesolithic 2 can be dated more closely. The latest date from a Mesolithic 1 site in the Levant is 12,150 BC. The earliest date from a Mesolithic 2 site is 11,140 BC. The 10th millennium BC seems to correspond with three other sites at Kebara (9200 BC), Mugharet el Wad (9970 and 9525 BC), and Jericho (9216 BC). Jericho ( Arabic, ʼArīḥā; Hebrew, Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô However, other sites suggest an even later start via dates of 8930 and 8540 BC. It would thus appear that Mesolithic 2 (Natufian) culture emerges around 11,000–9000 BC in Israel and Lebanon. The Natufian culture (natʏˈfjẽː existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Mesolithic 2 is characterized by the beginnings of agriculture, which would emerge fully in the Neolithic period. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos
The earliest known battle occurred during the Mesolithic period at a site in Egypt known as Cemetery 117. Cemetery 117 is an ancient Cemetery discovered in 1964 by a team led by Fred Wendorf near the northern border of Sudan.
Some notable Mesolithic sites: