Classification and external resources
|Part of a series on|
|Toxicology and poison|
|Toxicology (Forensic) - Toxinology|
History of poison
(ICD-10 T36-T65, ICD-9 960-989)
|Poison - Venom - Toxicant - Antidote|
Acceptable daily intake - Acute toxicity
Bioaccumulation - Biomagnification
Fixed Dose Procedure - LD50 - Lethal dose
Toxic capacity - Toxicity Class
|Toxins and venoms|
|Neurotoxin - Necrotoxin - Hemotoxin|
Mycotoxin - Aflatoxin - Phototoxin
List of fictional toxins
|Bradford - Minamata - Niigata|
Alexander Litvinenko - Bhopal
2007 pet food recalls
List of poisonings
Toxic metal (Lead - Mercury - Cadmium - Antimony - Arsenic - Beryllium - Iron - Thallium) - Fluoride - Oxygen
Shellfish (Paralytic - Diarrheal - Neurologic
Amnesic) - Ciguatera - Scombroid
Pesticide - Organophosphate - Food
Nicotine - Theobromine - Carbon monoxide - Vitamin - Medicines
Mushrooms - Plants - Animals
|Hazard symbol - Carcinogen|
Mutagen - List of Extremely Hazardous Substances - Biological warfare
Mercury poisoning (also known as mercurialism, hydrargyria, Hunter-Russell syndrome, or acrodynia when affecting children) is a disease caused by exposure to mercury or its toxic compounds. A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings S00-T14 - Injury (S00-S09 Head ( Superficial Injury of head ( Superficial injury of The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The Diseases Database is a free Website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions Symptoms, and Medications. MedlinePlus, with the MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, is a website network containing Health information from the world's largest medical Library eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996 by Scott Plantz and Richard Lavely two medical doctors Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of Chemicals on living organisms Forensic toxicology is the use of Toxicology and other disciplines such as Analytical chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical chemistry to aid medicolegal Toxinology is the specialized area of Toxicology that deals specifically with animal plant and microbial toxins but is also considered a science in its own right The history of Poison stretches from before 4500 BC to the Present day. S00-T14 - Injury (S00-S09 Head ( Superficial Injury of head ( Superficial injury of 17 Injury and poisoning (800-999 fracture of skull (800-804 ( Fracture of Vault of skull ( Fracture of Base of skull In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by This article is about the class of Biotoxins For other uses see Venom (disambiguation and Venomous (disambiguation. A toxicant is a chemical compound that has an effect on organisms An antidote or counterdose is a substance which can counteract a form of Poisoning. Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (usually a Food additive, or a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide in Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance which result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification, or biological magnification is the increase in concentration of a substance such as the Pesticide Fixed Dose Procedure (FDP proposed in 1984 is a method to assess a substance's acute oral Toxicity. In Toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for “Lethal Dose 50%” or LCt50 (Lethal Concentration & Time of a A lethal dose (LD is an indication of the Lethality of a given substance or type of Radiation. Toxic capacity can mean the Toxicity of a substance possibly in relation to a specific Organism and toxic capacity can mean the capacity of an organism Toxicity Class refers to a classification system for Pesticides created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low This article is about the class of Biotoxins For other uses see Venom (disambiguation and Venomous (disambiguation. A neurotoxin is a Toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells ( Neurons, usually by interacting with Membrane proteins such as Ion channels Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = "dead" is the name given to unnatural Death of cells and living tissue. Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins are Toxins that destroy Red blood cells (that is cause Hemolysis) disrupt Blood Mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης (mykes mukos "fungus" is a Toxin produced by an organism of the Fungus kingdom which includes Mushrooms Aflatoxins are naturally occurring Mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a Fungus, most notably Aspergillus Phototoxins are Toxins that can cause allergic reactions in particularly susceptible individuals and which can cause dangerous Photosensitivity in a much broader range This is a list of toxins poisons and chemical weapons from works of fiction (usually in Fantasy and Science fiction) The Bradford sweets poisoning was the accidental Arsenic poisoning of more than 200 people in Bradford, England in 1858 an estimated 20 people died when sometimes referred to as, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe Mercury poisoning. is a Neurological syndrome caused by severe Mercury poisoning. Alexander Litvinenko was a former officer of Russian Federal Security Service, who escaped prosecution in Russia and received a Political asylum in The Bhopal disaster was an Industrial disaster that occurred in the city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, resulting in the immediate deaths The 2007 pet food recalls comprise the contamination and wide recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments This is a list of Poisonings in chronological order of victim Toxic metals are Metals that form Poisonous soluble compounds and have no biological role i Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the Human body It and its compounds are extremely Toxic even in low concentrations and will Bioaccumulate in Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Arsenic Poisoning kills by Allosteric inhibition of essential metabolic Enzymes, leading to death from multi-system Beryllium (bəˈrɪliəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Be and Atomic number 4 Iron poisoning is caused by a large excess of Iron intake It has been primarily been associated with young children who consumed large quantities of iron supplement pills Thallium (ˈθæliəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Tl and Atomic number 81 In high concentrations soluble Fluoride Salts are somewhat Toxic. Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome (also known as the " Paul Bert effect" or the "Lorrain Smith effect" describes harmful effects caused There are four syndromes called shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as Mussels Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP is one of the four recognized syndromes of Shellfish poisoning (the others being Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP is one of the four recognised symptom types of Shellfish poisoning, the others being Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxic Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP is a human illness caused by consumption of the marine biotoxin called Domoic acid. Ciguatera is a Foodborne illness poisoning in humans caused by eating Marine species whose flesh is contaminated with a toxin known as Ciguatoxin, Scombroid food poisoning is a foodborne Illness that results from eating spoiled (decayed Fish. Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin tetrodonic acid TTX is a potent Neurotoxin with no known antidote which blocks Action potentials in Nerves Pesticide Poisonings occur when chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as Humans Wildlife, or Bees Since Many Organophosphates are potent Neurotoxins functioning by inhibiting the action of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE in nerve cells. Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any Illness resulting from the consumption of food Historically most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of its use as an Insecticide; however such use is less frequent now than previously Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of Carbon monoxide gas Vitamin poisoning, or hypervitaminosis, refers to a condition of high storage levels of Vitamins which can lead to Toxic Symptoms The medical The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the Ingestion or application of a Drug or other substance in quantities See also List of deadly fungi Mushroom poisoning, also known as mycetism, refers to deleterious effects from ingestion of Toxic substances present This is a list of Plants containing Poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury or Death to Humans or Animals. Hazard symbols are easily recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials or locations The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation In Biology, a mutagen ( Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) This is a list of Extremely Hazardous Substances as defined by Section 302 of the U Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism Mercury is a cumulative heavy metal poison which occurs in its elemental form, inorganically as salts, or organically as organomercury compounds; the three groups vary in effects due to differences in their absorption and metabolism, among other factors. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by Traditionally inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral not biological origin A salt, in Chemistry, is defined as the product formed from the neutralisation reaction of Acids and bases. An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. Organomercury refers to the group of organometallic compounds that contain mercury. In Pharmacology (and more specifically Pharmacokinetics) absorption is the movement of a drug into the bloodstream Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life.  However, with sufficient exposure all mercury-based toxic compounds damage the central nervous system and other organs or organ systems such as the liver or gastrointestinal tract. In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges. In Biology, an organ ( Latin: organum, "instrument tool" from Greek όργανον - organon "organ instrument In Biology, a system is a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals
Symptoms typically include sensory impairment (vision, hearing, speech), disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of exposure.
Due to its toxicity, there have been campaigns in many countries to ban mercury altogether. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism
Common symptoms include peripheral neuropathy (presenting as paresthesia or itching, burning or pain), skin discoloration (pink cheeks, fingertips and toes), edema (swelling), and desquamation (dead skin peels off in layers). Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to Nerves of the Peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the Nerve or from the Paresthesia (pron /ˌpɛɹɪsˈθiʒə/ paraesthesia in British English, pron Itch ( Latin: pruritus) is an unpleasant Sensation that evokes the desire or Reflex to scratch Pain, in the sense of physical pain, is a typical sensory experience that may be described as the unpleasant awareness of a noxious stimulus or bodily harm Oedema (or Edema in American English formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is the increase of Interstitial fluid in any organ &mdash swelling Desquamation is the shedding of the outer layers of the Skin.
Because mercury blocks the degradation pathway of catecholamines, epinephrine excess causes hyperhidrosis (profuse sweating), tachycardia (persistently faster-than-normal heart beat), mercurial ptyalism (hypersalivation) and hypertension (high blood pressure). Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased Perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of Body temperature. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Drooling (also known as ptyalism or sialorrhea) is when Saliva flows outside the Mouth. For the band see Saliva (band; for the village in Azerbaijan see Səliva. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated Mercury is thought to inactivate S-adenosyl-methionine, which is necessary for catecholamine catabolism by catechol-o-methyl transferase. S -Adenosyl methionine (SAM is a Coenzyme involved in Methyl group transfers For the related metabolic process see Anabolism. Catabolism is the set of Metabolic pathways which break down molecules into Catechol- O -methyl transferase ( COMT;) is one of several Enzymes that degrade Catecholamines such as Dopamine, Epinephrine
Affected children may show red cheeks and nose, erythematous lips (red lips), loss of hair, teeth, and nails, transient rashes, hypotonia (muscle weakness), and photophobia. Cheeks ( Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the Face below the Eyes and between the Nose and the left or right Ear Anatomically a nose is a protuberance in Vertebrates that houses the Nostrils or nares which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the Erythema is redness of the Skin caused by Capillary congestion Hair is a keratinised protein filament that grows through the epidermis from follicles deep within the Dermis. A nail is a horn -like structure at the end of an animal's Finger or Toe. Hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low Muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle often involving reduced muscle strength Photophobia is a Symptom of excessive sensitivity to Light and the aversion to Sunlight or well-lit places Other symptoms may include kidney disfunction (e. The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles g. Fanconi syndrome) or neuropsychiatric symptoms (emotional lability, memory impairment, insomnia). Fanconi Syndrome (also known as Fanconi's syndrome) is a disorder in which the proximal tubular function of the Kidney is impaired resulting in decreased In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information Insomnia is a symptom of a sleeping disorder characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite the opportunity
Thus, the clinical presentation may resemble pheochromocytoma or Kawasaki disease. A phaeochromocytoma ( pheochromocytoma in the US is a Neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the Adrenal glands (originating in the Chromaffin Kawasaki disease
Mercury poisoning is caused by sufficient exposure to elemental mercury or mercury compounds. The consumption of fish is by far the most significant source of ingestion-related mercury exposure in humans, although plants and livestock also contain mercury due to bioaccumulation of mercury from soil, water and atmosphere, and due to biomagnification by ingesting other mercury-containing organisms. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification, or biological magnification is the increase in concentration of a substance such as the Pesticide  Exposure to mercury can occur from breathing contaminated air, or from improper use or disposal of mercury and mercury-containing objects, for example, after spills of elemental mercury or improper disposal of fluorescent light bulbs. A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a Gas-discharge lamp that uses Electricity to excite mercury Vapor. 
Human-generated sources such as coal plants emit approximately half of atmospheric mercury, with natural sources such as volcanoes responsible for the remainder. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the An estimated two-thirds of human-generated mercury comes from stationary combustion, mostly of coal. Other important human-generated sources include gold production, non-ferrous metal production, cement production, waste disposal, crematoria, caustic soda production, pig iron and steel production, mercury production (mostly for batteries), and biomass burning. "Gold mine" redirects here See Goldmine for other uses of the term Ferrous, in the chemical science realm indicates a bivalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state (as opposed to Ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation In the most general sense of the word a cement is a binder a substance which sets and hardens independently and can bind other materials together Waste management is the collection Transport, processing, Recycling or disposal of Waste materials Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature Pig iron is the intermediate product of Smelting Iron ore with coke, usually with Limestone as a flux Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 
Mercury and many of its chemical compounds, especially organomercury compounds, can also be readily absorbed through direct contact with bare, or in some cases (such as dimethyl mercury) insufficiently protected, skin. Organomercury refers to the group of organometallic compounds that contain mercury. Mercury and its compounds are commonly used in chemical laboratories, hospitals, dental clinics, and facilities involved in the production of items such as fluorescent light bulbs, batteries, and explosives. 
Mercury damages the central nervous system, endocrine system, kidneys, and other organs, and adversely affects the mouth, gums, and teeth. In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges. The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as Hormones The endocrine system is instrumental The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles Exposure over long periods of time or heavy exposure to mercury vapor can result in brain damage and ultimately death. Mercury and its compounds are particularly toxic to fetuses and infants. A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and Women who have been exposed to mercury in pregnancy have sometimes given birth to children with serious birth defects (see Minamata disease). sometimes referred to as, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe Mercury poisoning.
Mercury exposure in young children can have severe neurological consequences, preventing nerve sheaths from forming properly. Mercury inhibits the formation of myelin, the building block protein that forms these sheaths. Myelin is an electrically-insulating Dielectric Phospholipid layer that surrounds only the Axons of many Neurons It is an outgrowth 
There is some evidence that mercury poisoning may predispose to Young's syndrome (men with bronchiectasis and low sperm count). Young's syndrome which is also known as Azoospermia sinopulmonary infections, Sinusitis-infertility syndrome and Barry-Perkins-Young syndrome is a Bronchiectasis is a disease that causes localized irreversible dilatation of part of the Bronchial tree. Azoospermia is the Medical condition of a male not having any measurable level of sperm in his Semen. 
Mercury poisoning's effects partially depend on whether it has been caused by exposure to elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds (as salts), or organomercury compounds.
Quicksilver (liquid metallic mercury) is poorly absorbed by ingestion and skin contact. It is hazardous due to its potential to release mercury vapour. Animal data indicate that less than 0. 01% of ingested mercury is absorbed through the intact gastrointestinal tract; though it may not be true for individuals suffering from ileus. Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive gastrointestinal motor activity from non-mechanical mechanisms Cases of systemic toxicity from accidental swallowing are rare, and attempted suicide via intravenous injection does not appear to result in systemic toxicity.  Though not studied quantitatively, the physical properties of liquid elemental mercury limit its absorption through intact skin and in light of its very low absorption rate from the gastrointestinal tract, skin absorption would not be high.  Some mercury vapour is absorbed dermally but uptake by this route is only approximately 1% of that by inhalation. 
In humans, approximately 80% of inhaled mercury vapour is absorbed via the respiratory tract where it enters the circulatory system and is distributed throughout the body. In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the Anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System"  Chronic exposure by inhalation, even at low concentrations in the range 0. 7–42 μg/m3, has been shown in case control studies to cause effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers. Case-control is a type of Epidemiological Study design. Case-control studies are used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing subjects 
Mercury occurs inorganically as salts such as mercury(II) chloride. Mercury(II chloride or mercuric chloride (formerly corrosive sublimate) is the Chemical compound with the formula HgCl sub>2 Mercury salts primarily affect the gastro-intestinal tract and the kidneys, and can cause severe kidney damage; however, as they can not cross the blood-brain barrier easily, mercury salts inflict little neurological damage without continuous or heavy exposure. The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a metabolic or cellular structure in the Central nervous system (CNS that restricts the passage of various chemical substances and microscopic  As two oxidation states of mercury form salts (Hg+ and Hg2+), mercury salts occur in both mercury(I) (or mercurous) and mercury(II) (mercuric) forms. In Chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of Oxidation of an Atom in a Chemical compound. Mercury(II) salts are usually more toxic than their mercury(I) counterparts because their solubility in water is greater; thus, they are more readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. 
Compounds of mercury tend to be much more toxic than the element itself, and organic compounds of mercury are often extremely toxic and have been implicated in causing brain and liver damage. Brain damage, or Acquired brain injury, is the destruction or degeneration of Brain cells. Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to the Liver characterized by the presence of Inflammatory cells in the tissue of The most dangerous mercury compound, dimethyl mercury, is so toxic that even a few microliters spilled on the skin, or even a latex glove, can cause death. Dimethylmercury (( C[[Hydrogen H]]32 Hg) is a flammable colorless liquid and one of the strongest known Neurotoxins It is described The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. 
Methyl mercury is the major source of organic mercury for all individuals. Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an Organometallic Cation with the formula +  It works its way up the food chain through bioaccumulation in the environment, reaching high concentrations among populations of some species. Food chains, also called food networks and/or trophic networks, describe the feeding relationships between species within an Ecosystem. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost Larger species of fish, such as tuna or swordfish, are usually of greater concern than smaller species. Tuna, are several Species of ocean-dwelling Fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. Swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) are large highly migratory Predatory Fish characterized by a long flat bill. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) advise women of child-bearing age, nursing mothers, and young children to completely avoid swordfish, shark, king mackerel and tilefish (golden bass), to limit consumption of albacore ("white") tuna to no more than 6 oz (170 g) per week, and of all other fish and shellfish to no more than 12 oz (340 g) per week. Swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) are large highly migratory Predatory Fish characterized by a long flat bill. Sharks ( Superorder Selachimorpha) are a type of Fish with a full cartilaginous Skeleton and a highly streamlined body The king mackerel ( Scomberomorus cavalla) is a migratory species of Mackerel that lives its entire life in the open waters of the western Atlantic Ocean Tilefishes, also known as blanquillo, are mostly small Perciform marine Fish comprising the family Malacanthidae. The albacore, Thunnus alalunga, is a type of Tuna in the family Scombridae. This article is about the unit of mass For the unit of force see Pound-force. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation.  However, there is no evidence that moderate consumption of fish in the U. S. poses a significant health hazard. A 2006 review of the risks and benefits of fish consumption found that for adults the benefits of one to two servings of fish per week outweigh the risks, even (except for a few fish species) for women of childbearing age, and that avoidance of fish consumption could result in significant excess coronary heart disease deaths and suboptimal neural development in children. Coronary disease (or coronary heart disease) refers to the failure of Coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to Cardiac muscle and surrounding The study of neural development draws on both Neuroscience and Developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex Nervous 
Ethylmercury is a breakdown product of the antibacteriological agent ethylmercurithiosalicylate, which has been used as a topical antiseptic and a vaccine preservative (further discussed under Thiomersal below). Ethylmercury (sometimes ethyl mercury) is a Cation composed of an Ethyl group and a mercury atom its chemical formula is C 2 Its characteristics have not been studied as extensively as methyl mercury. It is cleared from the blood much more rapidly, with a half-life of 7 to 10 days, and it is metabolized much more quickly than methyl mercury. It probably does not have methyl mercury's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier via a transporter, but instead relies on simple diffusion to enter the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a metabolic or cellular structure in the Central nervous system (CNS that restricts the passage of various chemical substances and microscopic 
Other exposure sources of organic mercury include phenylmercuric acetate and phenylmercuric nitrate. These were used in indoor latex paints for their anti-mildew properties, but were removed in 1990 because of cases of toxicity. 
The standard of care for mercury poisoning is chelation therapy using DMSA (in U. For the English law, see Standard of care in English law. In Tort law, the standard of care is the degree of prudence and caution Chelation therapy is the administration of chelating agents to remove Heavy metals from the body Dimercaptosuccinic acid, or DMSA is the Chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH(SHCH(SHCO2H S. ), DMPS and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) (in Europe, Russia and former Soviet republics). 23-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (abbreviated DMPS) and its sodium salt (known as Unithiol) are Chelating agents that form complexes with various Lipoic acid is an Organic compound, one Enantiomer of which is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes A study of workers involved in the production of mercurous chloride, showed that the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) was effective in lowering the body burden of mercury and in decreasing the urinary mercury concentration to normal levels. 23-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (abbreviated DMPS) and its sodium salt (known as Unithiol) are Chelating agents that form complexes with various 
Alternative medicine makes use of these same substances along with others, such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), EDTA and "high sulfur foods". EDTA is a widely used abbreviation for the Chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (and many other names see table However, it has been shown that inorganic mercury (Hg2+) bound to EDTA (a necessary step in EDTA-induced mercury chelation) forms a complex (HgEDTA) that is "potentially injurious to the neuronal cytoskeleton". 
Some of the toxic effects of mercury are in some cases partially or wholly reversible, either through specific therapy or through natural elimination of the metal after exposure has been discontinued. However, heavy or prolonged exposure can do irreversible damage, particularly in fetuses, infants, and young children.
Mercury poisoning can be prevented (or minimized) by eliminating or reducing exposure to mercury and mercury compounds. To that end, many governments and private groups have made efforts to avoid common hazards or to ban mercury altogether. For example, the export from the European Union of mercury and some mercury compounds will be prohibited from 2011-03-15. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in 2011 ( MMXI) will be a Common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus,  The variability among regulations and advisories is at times confusing for the lay person as well as scientists.
|Country||Regulating agency||Regulated activity||Medium||Type of mercury compound||Type of limit||Limit|
|US||OSHA||occupational exposure||air||elemental mercury||Ceiling (not to exceed)||0. For the European Agency see European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, (OSHA 1 mg/m³|
|US||OSHA||occupational exposure||air||organic mercury||Ceiling (not to exceed)||0. 05 mg/m³|
|US||FDA||drinking||water||inorganic mercury||Maximum allowable concentration||2 ppb (0. "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly 002 mg/L)|
|US||FDA||eating||sea food||methyl mercury||Maximum allowable concentration||1 ppm|
|US||EPA||drinking||water||inorganic mercury||Maximum contaminant level||2 ppb (0. "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly 002 mg/L)|
Acrodynia is a type of mercury poisoning in children characterized by pain and pink discoloration of the hands and feet. The word is derived from the Greek, where ακρος means high (as in:in an extremity) and οδυνη means pain. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed or Prehensile (as Octopus tentacles or new world Monkey tails Appendage of the As such, it might be (erroneously) used to indicate that a patient has pain in the hands or feet. However, acrodynia is a disease rather than a symptom.  Also known as pink disease, erythredema, Selter's disease, or Swift-Feer disease, acrodynia was relatively commonplace amongst children in the first half of the 20th century. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on  Initially, the cause of the acrodynia epidemic among infants and young children was unknown; however, mercury poisoning, primarily from calomel in teething powders, began to be widely accepted as its cause in the 1950s and 60s. In Epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a Mercury(I chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2  The prevalence of acrodynia decreased greatly after calomel was excluded from most teething powders in 1954. 
Because elemental mercury often passes through the GI tract without being absorbed, it was used medically for various purposes until the dangers of mercury poisoning became known. For example, elemental mercury was used to mechanically clear intestinal obstructions (due to its great weight and fluidity), and it was a key ingredient in various medicines throughout history, such as blue mass. Blue mass was the name of a medicine prescribed made and sold in the United States in the 1800s The toxic effects often were either not noticed at all, or so subtle or generic that they were attributed to other causes and were not recognized as poisoning caused by mercury. While the usage of mercury in medicine has declined, mercury-containing compounds are still used medically in vaccines and dental amalgam, both of which have been the subject of controversy regarding their potential for mercury poisoning.
Thiomersal, a preservative that contains mercury, has been added to vaccines to prevent their deterioration since the 1930s. Thiomersal ( INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an Organomercury compound (approximately The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression.  No adverse effects of thiomersal have ever been proven, although some allergic reactions have been noted. Its use in vaccines has been hypothesized as a cause of autistic behaviors. Language development. The terminology  This hypothesis is controversial, as much evidence suggests that about 90% of autism is explained by genetics.  The hypothesis has not been confirmed by reliable studies.  However, organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics have recommended that the use of thiomersal be reduced as a precautionary measure. The American Academy of Pediatrics ( AAP) is an organization of Pediatricians physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants children and adolescents With the exception of some flu vaccines, it is no longer used as a preservative in routinely recommended childhood vaccines in the United States; it is still in limited use as a preservative in multi-dose flu and tetanus vaccines and a few other non-childhood vaccines. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Dental amalgam, an alloy of about 50% elemental mercury, has been used to fill decayed teeth since 1830 in the U. Amalgam is a commonly used dental filling that has been used for over 150 years S. Although this amalgam is a source of low-level exposure to mercury, no scientific evidence links it as a cause of clinically significant toxic effects, except for the rare local hypersensitivity reaction. The National Institutes of Health has stated that amalgam fillings pose no personal health risk, and that replacement by non-amalgam fillings is not indicated. 
Some skin whitening products contain the toxic chemical mercury(II) chloride as the active ingredient. The term skin whitening covers a variety of cosmetic methods used to whiten the Skin. When applied, the chemical readily absorbs through the skin into bloodstream.  The use of mercury in cosmetics is illegal in the United States. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum However, cosmetics containing mercury are often illegally imported. Following a certified case of mercury poisoning resulting from the use of an imported skin whitening product, the FDA warned against the use of such products.  Symptoms of mercury poisoning have resulted from the use of various mercury-containing cosmetic products.  The use of skin whitening products is especially popular amongst Asian women.  In Hong Kong in 2002, two products were discovered to contain between 9,000 to 60,000 times the recommended dose. 
Fluorescent lamps contain mercury which is released when bulbs are broken. A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a Gas-discharge lamp that uses Electricity to excite mercury Vapor. Mercury in bulbs is typically present as either elemental mercury liquid, vapor or both since the liquid evaporates at ambient temperature.  When broken indoors, bulbs may emit sufficient mercury vapor to present health concerns. Breakage of multiple bulbs presents a more significant concern. A 1987 report described a 23-month-old toddler who suffered anorexia, weight loss, irritability, profuse sweating, and peeling and redness of fingers and toes. This case of acrodynia was traced to exposure of mercury from a carton of 8-foot fluorescent light bulbs that had broken in a potting shed adjacent to the main nursery. The glass was cleaned up and discarded, but the child often used the area for play.