constitute an extinct genus of megafauna. A mammoth is any Species of the Extinct Genus Mammuthus. These Proboscideans are members of the elephant family and
Megafauna are species of large animals (Greek μεγας, large, + modern Latin fauna, animal). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Definitions of what constitutes 'large' vary, with some authors using a 40 kg minimum, others 44 kg, 45 kg, 100 kg, or 250 kg.  In the last case, they may be further subdivided into small (250–500 kg), medium (500–1,000 kg) and large (over 1,000 kg) megafauna.  Others say that any particular limit is arbitrary, and do not favour a single minimum weight. 
The term is also used to refer to particular groups of large animals, both to extant species and, more often, those that have become extinct in the geologically recent Quaternary period. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. Overview The term Quaternary ("fourth" was proposed by Giovanni Arduino in 1759 for alluvial deposits in the Po river valley in northern
Megafauna animals are generally K-strategists, with great longevity, slow population growth rates, low death rates, and few or no natural predators capable of killing adults. In Ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of traits which promote success in particular environments These characteristics make megafauna highly vulnerable to human exploitation. Some authors have argued that this reproductive capacity and ecological behaviour are more important than size alone, with some much smaller animals with very low reproductive rates showing 'megafauna' characteristics, such as all Tachyglossidae (echidnas) and Megatherioidea (two-toed sloths) above 7 kg and 6 kg respectively, having become extinct in late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Echidnas (ɨˈkɪdnə also known as spiny anteaters, are four extant Mammal species belonging to the Tachyglossidae family of the The living sloths comprise six Species of medium-sized Mammals that live in Central and South America belonging to the families 
Many species of megafauna have become extinct within the last million years, and, although some biologists dispute it, human hunting is often cited as the cause. Pleistocene megafauna is the set of Species of large animals &mdash Mammals Birds and Reptiles &mdash that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade.  Other theories for the cause of the extinctions are climatic change associated with glaciation and the questionable hyperdisease hypothesis. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets 
Examples of megafauna
- ^ Defense of the Earth. The Asian or Asiatic Elephant ( Elephas maximus) sometimes known by the name of one of its subspecies &ndash the Indian Elephant, is one of The chital or cheetal ( Axis axis) also known as chital deer, spotted deer or axis deer is a Deer which commonly inhabits The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate. The Dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius) is a large Even-toed ungulate. Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times The llama ( Lama glama) is a South American Camelid, widely used as a Pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes A turkey is either of two extant Species of large Birds in the Genus Meleagris native to North America. The giant barb or Siamese giant carp, Catlocarpio siamensis, is the largest species of Carp in the world The wels catfish ( or) is a scaleless fresh and brackish water Catfish recognizable by its broad flat head and wide mouth Prionosuchus is a genus of extremely large Temnospondyli Amphibian from the Late Permian (270 million years ago which was found in an area of The Antilopine Kangaroo ( Macropus antilopinus) sometimes called the Antilopine Wallaroo or the Antilopine Wallaby, is a species of Macropod The Australian Pelican ( Pelecanus conspicillatus) is a large water Bird, widespread on the inland and coastal waters of Australia and New Guinea The Blue Whale ( Balaenoptera musculus) is a Marine mammal belonging to the suborder of Baleen whales (called Mysticeti Bryde’s Whales are the least-known and in many ways the most unusual of the Rorquals They are small by rorqual standards&mdashno more than about 25 tonnes&mdashprefer tropical Quinkana is an Extinct Genus of mekosuchine crocodile that lived in Australia from ~24 million years ago to ~40000 years ago Euryzygoma is an extinct genus of Marsupial. Common names (none Liasis is a Genus of non-venomous pythons found in Indonesia, New Guinea The Brolga ( Grus rubicunda) formerly known as the " Native Companion " is a Bird in the crane family Anomalopteryx didiformis is an extinct bird genus known colloquially as the Lesser or Bush Moa. Common names carpet python Northwestern carpet python more. Morelia spilota variegata is a non-venomous python Cassowaries ( Genus Casuarius) are very large flightless Birds native to the Tropical forests of New Guinea and Description Appearance Adult dingoes are typically 48–58 cm (19–23 inches tall at the shoulders and weigh on average 23–32 kgs (50–70 pounds though specimens __FORCETOC__ Diprotodon was the largest known marsupial that ever lived The Eastern Grey Kangaroo ( Macropus giganteus) is a Marsupial found in southern and eastern Australia, with a population of several million The Emu ( Dromaius novaehollandiae, is the largest Bird native to Australia and the only extant member of the Genus Genyornis ( Genyornis newtoni) was a Monotypic Genus of large flightless Bird that lived in Australia until 50±5 thousand The long-beaked echidnas make up one of the two genera (Genus Zaglossus) of Echidnas spiny Monotremes that lives in New Guinea Simosthenurus is a genus of megafaunal macropods that existed in Australia in the Pleistocene. The Malleefowl ( Leipoa ocellata) is a stocky ground-dwelling Australian bird about the size of a domestic Chicken (to which it Ornithorhynchus maximus was a Platypus from the Late Pliocene to Late Pleistocene. The Giant Koala ( Phascolarctos stirtoni) was an arboreal Marsupial which existed in Australia during the Pleistocene epoch Sarcophilus is a genus of carnivorous marsupial best known for its only living member the Tasmanian Devil. Protemnodon is a genus of megafaunal macropods that existed in Australia and Papua New Guinea in the Pleistocene. Goanna is the name used to refer to any number of Australian Monitor lizards of the genus Varanus, as well as to certain species from Southeast The humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) is a Baleen Whale. The King Island Emu or Black Emu ( Dromaius ater) is an Extinct Ratite species which occurred on King Island between mainland The Orca or Killer Whale ( Orcinus orca) less commonly Blackfish or Seawolf, is the largest species of the Oceanic dolphin family Megalania ("great roamer" Greek Μέγας "great" + ἀλαίνω "roam" the giant goanna is an Extinct giant The Marsupial Lion ( Thylacoleo carnifex, the "murderous (or 'meat-cutting' marsupial lion" from thylakos - pouch leo - lion carnifex The Moa were ten species (in six genera of flightless Birds endemic to New Zealand. Minke Whale ( or Lesser Rorqual is a name given to two species of Marine mammal belonging to a Clade within the suborder of Baleen whales The Haast's Eagle ( Harpagornis moorei) was a massive now extinct Eagle that once lived on the South Island of New Zealand. Pachydyptes is an Extinct Genus of penguin It contains the single species Pachydyptes ponderosus, the New Zealand Giant Penguin The New Zealand white shark, Carcharodon angustidens is an extinct shark and was found around New Zealand. Palorchestes azael ("ancient leaper" is an extinct species of Marsupial. Procoptodon was a genus of giant short-faced Kangaroo living in Australia during the Pleistocene epoch The Red Kangaroo ( Macropus rufus) is the largest of all Kangaroos the largest Mammal native to Australia, and the largest surviving The saltwater or estuarine crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living Crocodilians and Reptiles It is found in suitable The Sei Whale ( or) Balaenoptera borealis is a Baleen whale, the third largest Rorqual after the Blue Whale and the Fin Whale. Dromornis stirtoni, or Stirton's Thunder Bird, a member of the family of Dromornithidae, is the largest flightless Bird found through The Thylacine (ˈθaɪləsaɪn -iːn ( Thylacinus cynocephalus Latin wolf-headed pouched dog was the largest known carnivorous Marsupial of modern Taniwhasaurus was an Extinct Genus of Mosasaur, a carnivorous marine Reptile which inhabited New Zealand, Japan Zygomaturus is an Extinct giant Marsupial from Australia during the Pleistocene. In Zoology, Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographic rule that correlates Latitude with body mass in animals Cope 's rule states that population Lineages tend to increase in body size over evolutionary time In Zoology, deep-sea gigantism, also known as abyssal gigantism, is the tendency for species of Crustaceans, Invertebrates and other deep-sea Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time Island gigantism is a biological phenomenon where the size of animals isolated on an island increases dramatically over generations The largest organism found on earth can be measured using a variety of methods The following is a list of Megafauna discovered by science (with their respective date of discovery Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see the Megafauna page Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see the Megafauna page Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see the Megafauna page Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see the Megafauna page Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see the Megafauna page Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see the Megafauna page Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see the Megafauna page Megafauna are large animals (for definitions see Megafauna) This list includes extant and recently extinct (in the Pleistocene) native North Past consequences of climate change: Evolutionary history of the mammals.
- ^ Stuart, A. J. (1991). Mammalian extinctions in the Late Pleistocene of northern Eurasia and North America. Biol. Rev. 66: 453–562.
- ^ Anon. Quaternary Paleobiology Update. The Quaternary Times 29 (1): (1999).
- ^ Corlett, R. T. (2006). Megafaunal extinctions in tropical Asia. Tropinet 17 (3): 1–3.
- ^ Martin, P. S. & Steadman, D. W. (1999). Prehistoric extinctions on islands and continents. In: Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts and consequences (MacPhee, R. D. E. , ed. ), pp. 17–56. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.
- ^ a b Choquenot, D. , & Bowman, D. M. J. S. (1998). Marsupial Megafauna, Aborigines and the Overkill Hypothesis: Application of Predator-Prey Models to the Question of Pleistocene Extinction in Australia. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7 (3): 167-180.
- ^ Wroe, S. , Field, J. , Fullagar, R. , & Jermiin, L. S. (2004). Megafaunal extinction in the late Quaternary and the global overkill hypothesis. Alcheringa 28: 291-331.
- ^ Johnson, C. N. (2002). Determinants of loss of mammal species during the Late Quaternary 'megafauna' extinctions: life history and ecology, but not body size. Proc. Biol. Sci. 269 (1506): 2221–2227.
- ^ Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel. Vintage ISBN 0-09-930278-0.
- ^ Grayson, D. K. , & Meltzer, D. J. (2003). A requiem for North American overkill. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 585–593.
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- The large animals of a given region or time, considered as a group.
- A treatise on such a group of large animals.
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