Medium wave or mediumwave (MW) is a part of the Medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM broadcasting, amateur radio, and formerly for radio navigation. Medium frequency ( MF) refers to radio frequencies (RF in the range of 300  kHz to 3000 kHz LORAN ( LO ng R ange A id to N avigation is a terrestrial Radio navigation system using Low frequency Radio transmitters Some experiments and trials are planned or under way for a digital modulation such as Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM). Digital Radio Mondiale ( DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcasting, particularly For most of the world the frequencies used for broadcasting are from 520 kHz up to 1610 kHz, and in North America an extended AM broadcast band goes up to 1710 kHz. The extended MW broadcast band (sometimes known as the X-band is a Medium wave broadcast allocation (1629 kHz –1715 kHz The band is sometimes referred to as the AM band, even though it is not the only frequency range to use amplitude modulation. Amplitude modulation ( AM) is a technique used in electronic communication most commonly for transmitting information via a Radio Carrier wave
Medium wave signals have the property of following the curvature of the earth (the groundwave) at all times, and also refracting off the ionosphere at night (skywave). In Physics, surface wave can refer to a Mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media usually two fluids with different densities The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is Ionized by solar radiation Skywave is the propagation of electromagnetic waves bent (refracted back to the Earth's surface by the Ionosphere. This makes this frequency band ideal for both local and continent-wide service, depending on the time of day. For example, during the day a radio receiver in the state of Maryland is able to receive reliable but weak signals from high-power stations WFAN/660 kHz, and WOR/710 kHz, 250 miles (400 km) away in New York City, due to groundwave propagation. WFAN (660 AM) also known as "Sports Radio 66" or "The FAN", is a Radio station in New York City. WOR is a class A (nighttime Clear channel) AM radio station located in New York New York, U The City of New York The effectiveness of groundwave signals largely depends on ground conductivity—higher conductivity results in better propagation. Ground conductivity refers to the Electrical conductivity of the subsurface of the Earth. At night, the same receiver picks up signals as far away as Mexico City and Chicago reliably, assuming that there is no atmospheric noise or man-made interference. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States.
In most of the Americas, mediumwave broadcast stations are separated by 10 kHz and have two sidebands of up to ±10 kHz . The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America In Radio communications a sideband is a band of Frequencies higher than or lower than the Carrier frequency, containing power as a result of In the rest of the world, the separation is 9 kHz, with sidebands of ±4. 5 kHz. Both provide adequate audio quality for voice, but are insufficient for high-fidelity broadcasting, which is common on the VHF FM bands. High fidelity or hi-fi reproduction is a term used by home stereo listeners and home audio enthusiasts ( Audiophiles to refer to high-quality reproduction Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. In the US the maximum transmitter power is restricted to 50 kilowatts, while in Europe there are medium wave stations with transmitter power up to 2. 5 megawatts.
Most United States AM radio stations are required by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to shut down or reduce power at night in order to avoid interference with each other due to night-time only long-distance skywave propagation ("skip"). Those stations who shut down completely at night are often known as "daytimers".
Between 1942 and 1980, LORAN A radio navigation system used frequencies between 1750 kHz and 1950 kHz. LORAN ( LO ng R ange A id to N avigation is a terrestrial Radio navigation system using Low frequency Radio transmitters These were used for navigation in North American waters on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. 
Frequencies from 1800 to 2000 kHz form the amateur radio 160 metre band, the only medium-wave band allocated to amateur use. Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a Hobby and a service in which participants called "hams" use various types of Radio communications
In Europe, each country is allocated a number of frequencies on which high power (up to 2. 5 MW) can be used; the maximum power is also subject to international agreement. In most cases there are two power limits: a lower one for omnidirectional and a higher one with directional radiation with minimums showing toward certain directions. The power limit can also be depending on daytime and it is possible, that a station may not work at nighttime, because it would then produce too much interference. Other countries may only operate low-powered transmitters on the same frequency, again subject to agreement. For example, Russia operates a high-powered transmitter, located in its Kaliningrad exclave and used for external broadcasting, on 1386 kHz. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Kaliningrad (Калининград is a Seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian Exclave between Poland The same frequency is also used by low-powered local radio stations in the United Kingdom; other parts of the United Kingdom can still receive the Russian broadcast. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located International mediumwave broadcasting in Europe has decreased markedly with the end of the Cold War and the increased availability of satellite and Internet TV and radio, although the cross-border reception of neighboring countries' broadcasts by expatriates and other interested listeners still takes place. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
Due to the high demand for frequencies in Europe, many countries operate single frequency networks; in Britain, BBC Radio Five Live broadcasts from various transmitters on either 693 or 909 kHz. These transmitters are carefully synchronized to minimize interference from more distant transmitters on the same frequency.
Stereo transmission is possible and offered by some stations in the U. AM Stereo is a term given to a number of mutually incompatible techniques for Broadcasting stereo audio in the AM band in a manner S. , Canada, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Paraguay, Australia, The Philippines, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, and France. However, there are multiple standards for AM stereo with C-QUAM being the most common in the United States as well as other countries, and receivers that implement the technologies are relatively rare. AM Stereo is a term given to a number of mutually incompatible techniques for Broadcasting stereo audio in the AM band in a manner C-QUAM is the method of AM stereo broadcasting used in Canada, the United States and most other countries
In September 2002, the United States Federal Communications Commission approved the proprietary iBiquity in-band on-channel (IBOC) HD Radio system of digital audio broadcasting, which is meant to improve the audio quality of signals. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. iBiquity Digital Corporation is a company formed by the Merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating In-band on-channel ( IBOC) is a method of transmitting Digital radio and Analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on HD Radio is the name used by iBiquity for a system of digital transmission for audio broadcast stations Digital Audio Broadcasting ( DAB) also known as Eureka 147, is a Digital radio technology for Broadcasting Radio stations used in The Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) IBOC system has been approved by the ITU for use outside North America and U.S. territories. Digital Radio Mondiale ( DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcasting, particularly United States territory is any extent of Region under the Jurisdiction of the federal Government of the United States, including all
As aerials mostly mast radiators are used. A mast radiator (aka 'radiating tower' is a radio mast or tower in which the whole structure works Stations broadcasting with low power commonly use masts with heights of a quarter wavelength, while high power stations mostly use half wavelength. In Physics wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating Wave of a given Frequency. The usage of masts longer than 5/8 of radiated wavelength gives a bad radiation pattern. Usually mast antennas are insulated against ground and show a high voltage against ground during transmission, which complicates maintenance, installation of air safety warning lights or using the mast as a tower for UHF/VHF-radio, but there are several ways to use grounded masts or towers.
If grounded masts or towers are required, then cage aerials or longwire aerials are used. A Cage aerial is a Radio antenna, which consists of the top portion of a tower or mast and of several parallel wires which are radially arranged around the lower part of the Another possibility consists of feeding the mast or the tower by cables running from the tuning unit to the guys or crossbars in a certain height. Directional aerials consist of multiple masts, which need not to be from the same height. A tower array is an arrangement of multiple Radio towers which are Mast radiators in a Phased array. It is also possible to realize directional aerials for mediumwave with cage aerials where some parts of the cage are fed with a certain phase difference.
Other type of aerials sometimes used for medium wave are T- and L-aerials. The kind used depends on the need for grounded or insulated towers. Also popular for lower-powered stations is the Umbrella radiator, which needs only one mast of one eighth wavelength height or less.
In some cases dipole aerials are used, which are spun between two masts or towers. A dipole antenna, developed by Heinrich Rudolph Hertz around 1886, is an antenna with a center- fed Driven element for transmitting Such aerials radiate toward the sky. The mediumwave transmitter at Berlin-Britz for transmitting RIAS used a cross dipole mounted on five 30. Transmitter Berlin-Britz is a Broadcasting facility for Medium wave, Shortwave and FM on the site of a former tree nursery in Berlin-Britz 5 meter high guyed masts to transmit the skywave up to the ionosphere at nighttime.
Europe's largest antenna park DX 183 is placed in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The well-known German DX'er Wilhelm Herbst has constructed and built the antennas. DXers are welcome to use the facilities.
For low-noise reception at frequencies below 1. 6 MHz, which includes long and medium waves, loop antennas are popular.