Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was an important Celtic and then Roman centre of northern Italy. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article charts the history of the city from its settlement by the Insubres around 600 BC, through its conquest by the Romans and its development into a key centre of Western Christianity and capital of the Western Roman Empire, until its decline under the ravages of the Gothic War, its capture by the Lombards in 569, and their decision to make Pavia the capital of their Kingdom of Italy
Mediolanum appears to have been founded around 600 BC by the Celtic Insubres, for whom this region of northern Italy was called Insubria. The Insubres or Insubri were a population settled in Insubria, in what is now Lombardy. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south The Kingdom of the Lombards or Lombard Kingdom of Italy was an early medieval state on the Italian Peninsula. The Insubres or Insubri were a population settled in Insubria, in what is now Lombardy. Insubria is a historical-geographical region which corresponds to the area inhabited in the past by the Insubres, a Celtic people which dwelt in the 4th-5th century B The Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC; the chief of the Insubres submitted to Rome, giving the Romans control of the city. Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus (died 211 BC was a Roman general and statesman They eventually conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province Cisalpine Gaul— "Gaul this side of the Alps"— and may have given the site its Latin-Celtic name: the name element -lanum is the Celtic equivalent of -planum "plain'", thus Mediolanum: "in the midst of the plain". Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later
Mediolanum was important for its location as a hub in the road network of northern Italy. The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire. Polybius describes the country as abounding in wine, and every kind of grain, and in fine wool. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories Herds of swine, both for public and private supply, were bred in its forests, and the people were well known for their generosity.
During the Augustan age Mediolanum was famous for its schools; it possessed a theater and an amphitheater (129. An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances 5 X 109. 3 m A large stone wall encircled the city in Caesar's time, and later was expanded in the Late third century AD, by Maximianus. Mediolanum was made the seat of the prefect of Liguria (Praefectus Liguriae) by Hadrian and Constantine made it the seat of the vicar of Italy (Vicarius Italiae). Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i Vicarius is a Latin word meaning substitute or deputy. It is the root and origin of the English word " Vicar " and Cognate to the Persian In the third century Mediolanum possessed a mint, a horreum and imperial mausoleum. A horreum (plural horrea) was a type of public warehouse used during the ancient Roman period
In 286 Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Flavius Arcadius (377/378&ndash May 1, 408) was Byzantine Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death The solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a Gold coin issued by the Romans. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern He chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximianus at Milan. Nicomedia ( Greek: Νικομήδεια modern İzmit) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens Maximianus built several gigantic monuments, the large circus (470 x 85 meters), the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. A circus is most commonly a traveling company of performers that may include acrobats, Clowns trained animals trapeze acts Hoopers, tightrope walkers This page is on buildings used for Roman bathing For the activity in general see Ancient Roman bathing. Maximianus increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall (about 4. 5 km long) with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had two Gemini towers, one was included on the coventry of San Maurizio Maggiore (the tower now is 16,60m high)
Thus it was from Milan that in 313 AD, the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of the Empire. Venatio ("hunt" was a form of entertainment in Roman Amphitheaters involving the Hunting and slaying of Wild animals Exotic wild beasts The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire. Constantine was in Milan to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. For other Romans of this name see Licinius (gens. Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c There were Christian communities in Mediolanum, which contributed its share of martyrs during the persecutions, but the first bishop of Milan who has a firm historical presence is Merocles, who was at the Council of Rome of 313. In the mid-fourth century the Arian controversy divided the Christians of Mediolanum; Constantius supported Arian bishops and at times there were rival bishops. The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Constantius may refer to Constantius Chlorus, Roman emperor 305–306 Constantius II, Roman emperor 337–361 Constantius Auxentius of Milan (died 374) was a respected Arian theologian. Auxentius of Milan (fl c 355 died 374 by tradition a Scythian of Cappadocia, was an Arian Theologian of some eminence who held the
At the time of the bishop St. Ambrose (bishop 374-397), who quelled the Arians, and emperor Theodosius I, Mediolanum reached the height of its ancient power. Saint Ambrose (c 338 &ndash 4 April 397) was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the fourth century Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ .
The city also possessed a number of basilicas, added in the late fourth century AD. These are San Simpliciano, San Nazaro, San Lorenzo and the chapel of San Vittore, located in the basilica of Sant'Ambrogio. The Basilica of San Simpliciano is a church in the centre of Milan, northern Italy. The basilica of San Nazaro in Brolo or San Nazaro Maggiore is a church in Milan, northern Italy. The Basilica of Saint Lawrence ( Chiesa di San Lorenzo Maggiore) is a church in Milan, northern Italy, dedicated to the Christian Martyr San Vittore is a municipality in the district of Moesa in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. See also Sant'Ambrogio Florence The Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio ( St In general, the Late Empire encouraged the development of the applied arts in Mediolanum, with ivory and silver work being common in public building projects. In the fourth century AD. In the crypt of the Duomo survive ruins of the ancient church of Saint Tecla and the baptisty where was baptized St. Augustine of Hippo.
In 402 the city was besieged by the Goths, and the imperial residence removed to Ravenna. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. In 452 it was besieged again, by Attila, but the real break with its Imperial past came in 538, during the Gothic War, when Mediolanum was laid waste by Uraia, a nephew of Witiges, King of the Goths, with great loss of life. See Gothic War (376-382 for the war on the Danube The Gothic War was a war fought in Italy and the adjoining regions of Dalmatia, Sardinia Witiges or Vitiges (died 540 was King of the Ostrogoths in Italy from 536 to 540  The Lombards took Pavia for their capital, and Early Medieval Milan was left to be governed by its archbishops. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south
For the medieval and modern history of Milan, see Milan. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy.
Some of the monuments of the Roman Mediolanum still to be seen in Milan:
Traversi, Archittura paleocristiana milanese