Money to get power, and power to guard the money
|Notable members||Lorenzo de' Medici|
The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. Lorenzo de' Medici (January 1 1449 &ndash 9 April 1492 was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death Catherine de' Medici (April 13 1519 &ndash January 5 1589 was born in Florence, Italy as Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de' Medici. For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September Pope Leo XI ( June 2, 1535 &ndash April 27, 1605) born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was Pope from April 1 Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The family produced three popes (Leo X, Clement VII, and Leo XI), numerous rulers of Florence (notably Lorenzo the Magnificent, patron of some of the most famous works of Renaissance art), and later members of the French and English royalty. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September Pope Leo XI ( June 2, 1535 &ndash April 27, 1605) born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was Pope from April 1 Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Lorenzo de' Medici (January 1 1449 &ndash 9 April 1492 was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. Generally the head of a royal family is a king or queen regnant Like other Signore families they dominated their city's government. A Signoria (from Signore or Lord) was an abstract noun meaning (roughly 'government governing authority de facto sovereignty lordship in many of the They were able to bring Florence under their family's power, allowing for an environment where art and humanism could flourish. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal They led the birth of the Italian Renaissance along with the other great signore families of Italy like the Visconti and Sforza families of Milan, the Este of Ferrara, the Gonzaga of Mantua, and others. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th A Signoria (from Signore or Lord) was an abstract noun meaning (roughly 'government governing authority de facto sovereignty lordship in many of the Visconti was the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. "Este" redirects here For the city see Este Italy. For Tolkien's fictional character see Estë. Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. The Gonzaga family ruled Mantua in Northern Italy from 1328 to 1708. Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the
The Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and most respected in Europe. The Medici Bank (1397 &ndash 1494 was the largest and most respected bank in Europe during the 15th century. There are some estimates that the Medici family was, for a period of time, the wealthiest family in Europe. From this base, the family acquired political power initially in Florence, and later in wider Italy and Europe. Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of A notable contribution to the profession of accounting was the improvement of the general ledger system through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. Accountancy or accounting is the measurement statement or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by Lenders managers, In Accountancy, the double-entry This system was first used by accountants working for the Medici family in Florence.
The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region, north of Florence, being mentioned for the first time in a document of 1230. Mugello is a landscape north of Florence in northern Italy. It is separated by the Santerno River's valley by the Futa Pass. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany
The origin of the name is uncertain although its Italian meaning is "medical doctor". Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade, especially with France and Spain. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Despite the presence of some Medicis in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi. The Albizzi family was a Florentine family based in Arezzo and rivals of the Medici and Alberti families Strozzi is the name of an ancient and noble Florentine family which was already famous by the 14th century One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt, and one Antonio was sentenced to death in 1396. Salvestro di Alammano de' Medici (c 1331 &ndash 1388 was a former Gonfaloniere and Provost of the city of Florence. The Revolt of the Ciompi was a popular revolt in late medieval Florence by wool Carders known as ciompi The involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florence's politics for twenty years, with the exception of two: from one of the latter, that of Averardo (Bicci) de' Medici, originated the Medici dynasty.
Averardo's son, Giovani di Bicci, increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, and became one of the richest men in the city. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (1360 &ndash February 20 to February 28 1429 was the founder of the famous and powerful Medici dynasty of Florence and the The Medici Bank (1397 &ndash 1494 was the largest and most respected bank in Europe during the 15th century. Although never held any political charge, he gained a strong popular support to the family when he supported the introduction of a proportional taxing system.
His son Cosimo the Elder took over in 1434 as gran maestro, and the Medici became unofficial heads of state of the Florentine republic. Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (September 27 1389 &ndash August 1 1464 was the first of the Medici political dynasty de facto rulers of A Gran maestro was the unofficial head of state in the Italian city-states. 
The "senior" branch of the family — those descended from Cosimo the Elder — ruled until the assassination of Alessandro de' Medici, first Duke of Florence, in 1537. This article is on the first Duke of Florence. For the Alessandro de' Medici who was Pope, see Pope Leo XI. The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time sometimes being Margraves the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family This century-long rule was only interrupted on two occasions (between 1494–1512 and 1527–1530), when popular revolts sent the Medici into exile. Power then passed to the "junior" branch — those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, younger son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I the Great. Lorenzo di Cosimo De' Medici was a man in a long line of Medici family history but nevertheless made a name for himself Cosimo I de' Medici (June 12 1519 &ndash April 21 1574 was Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574 reigning as the first Grand The Medici's rise to power was chronicled in detail by Benedetto Dei. Benedetto Dei (1418-1492 was an Italian poet and Historian. He spent the majority of his life in Florence, where he was an adjutant to the
Cosimo and his father started the Medici foundations in banking, manufacturing - including a form of franchises - wealth, art, cultural patronage, and in the Papacy that ensured their success for generations. At least half, probably more, of Florence’s people were employed by them and their foundational branches in business.
Piero de' Medici (1416-1469), Cosimo’s son, stayed in power for only five years (1464-1469). He was called Piero the Gouty because of the gout that infected his foot, and it eventually led to his death. He had little interest for the arts as his father had. Due to his illness, he mostly stayed at home bedridden, and therefore had done little to further the Medici control of Florence while in power. As such, Medici rule stagnated until his grandson Lorenzo took over. Lorenzo de' Medici “the Magnificent” (1449-1492), was more capable of leading and ruling a city. Lorenzo de' Medici (January 1 1449 &ndash 9 April 1492 was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance However, “Magnificent” was a common title and essentially does not mean anything special in itself. He showed his children great love and affection, too. To ensure the continuance of his success, Lorenzo perceived his children’s abilities and planned their futures and careers for them. He predicted, or rather forced, Piero II to be headstrong, Giovanni a scholar, and Giuliano--not to be confused with Lorenzo’s brother who had the same first name--good. Giuliano, Lorenzo’s brother, was assassinated in church on Easter Sunday (1478). Lorenzo adopted Giuliano’s illegitimate son, Giulio de' Medici (1478-1535), the future Clement VII. The incompetent Piero II took over as the head of Florence after his father’s, Lorenzos', death. Piero de' Medici ( February 15, 1472 &ndash December 28, 1503) called Piero the Unfortunate, was the Gran maestro Piero was responsible for the expulsion of the Medici from 1494-1512.
The Medici remained masters of Italy through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X and Clement VII, who were de facto rulers of both Rome and Florence. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September They were both patrons of the arts, but in the religious field they proved unable to stem the advance of Martin Luther's ideas. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Another Medici became Pope: Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici (Leo XI). Pope Leo XI ( June 2, 1535 &ndash April 27, 1605) born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was Pope from April 1
The most outstanding figure of the 16th century Medici was Cosimo I, who, coming from a retire in the Mugello, rose to supremacy in the whole of Tuscany, conquering the Florentines' most hated rival Siena and founding the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Cosimo I de' Medici (June 12 1519 &ndash April 21 1574 was Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574 reigning as the first Grand Mugello Circuit ( Autodromo Internazionale di Mugello) is a race track located in the Mugello region of Italy near Florence. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana Magnus Ducatus Tusciae was a state in central Italy that existed from 1569 to 1859 replacing the Duchy of Florence
The most significant accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, mainly early and High Renaissance art and architecture. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The Medici were responsible for the majority of Florentine art during their reign. Their money was significant because during this period, artists generally only made their works when they received commissions and advance payments. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Brunelleschi for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence in 1419. Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone; December 21, 1401 &ndash autumn 1428 was the first great Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. The Basilica di San Lorenzo ( Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (September 27 1389 &ndash August 1 1464 was the first of the Medici political dynasty de facto rulers of Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian Fra Angelico (c 1395 &ndash February 18 1455) born Guido di Pietro, was an Early Italian Renaissance painter referred to in Vasari The most significant addition to the list over the years was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), who produced work for a number of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Lorenzo de' Medici (January 1 1449 &ndash 9 April 1492 was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance Lorenzo commissioned him often, even as a child, and was extremely fond of him. Lorenzo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) for seven years. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Lorenzo also was an artist of poetry and song. Later, Pope Leo X would chiefly commission Raphael (1483-1520) — "the Prince of Painters. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and " Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel; the de' Medici family oversaw the construction of the Sistine Chapel as well. For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina is the best-known Chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in Vatican City.
Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership, many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities (February 7, 1497). Girolamo Savonarola ( September 21, 1452 &ndash May 23, 1498) was an Italian Dominican priest and leader of Florence from Bonfire of the Vanities (Falò delle vanità refers to the burning of objects that are deemed to be occasions of sin. Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince The following year, on May 23, 1498, Savonarola and his two young supporters were hanged in the public square, the same location as his bonfire. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne
In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi museum in Florence. The Uffizi Gallery (Galleria degli Uffizi one of the oldest and most famous Art Museums in the world is housed in the Palazzo degli Uffizi, a
In architecture, the Medici are responsible for some notable features of Florence; including the Uffizi Gallery, the Pitti Palace, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, and the Palazzo Medici. The Uffizi Gallery (Galleria degli Uffizi one of the oldest and most famous Art Museums in the world is housed in the Palazzo degli Uffizi, a The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast mainly Renaissance Palace in The Boboli Gardens, in Italian Giardino di Boboli, form a famous park in Florence, Italy, that is home to a distinguished collection of sculptures dating The Forte di Belvedere or Fortezza di Santa Maria in San Giorgio del Belvedere (often called simply Belvedere) is a fortification in Florence, The Palazzo Medici, also called the Palazzo Medici Riccardi for the later family that acquired and expanded it is a Renaissance Palace located in
Although none of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is well known to have been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored multiple generations of Medici children, and was an important figurehead for his patron's quest for power. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II, when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. Ferdinando II de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany ( 14 July 1610 &ndash 23 May 1670) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670 The Roman Inquisition was a system of Tribunals developed by the Holy See during the second half of the 16th century responsible for prosecuting individuals accused However, the Medici family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored.