The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran, roughly the areas of present day Kurdistan, Hamedan, Tehran, Lorestan, Azerbaijan, Esfahan and Zanjan. Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. History See also History of the Kurdish people Ancient period See also Hurrians, Guti, Mannaeans, Medes Hamedān or Hamadān ( Persian: همدان, Old Persian: Hagmatana Hebrew: המזיין Ancient Greek: Ecbatana) Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Lorestān ( Persian and Luri لرستان also Luristan) comprises a province and a historic territory of western Iran amidst the This article is about the region in Iran for other uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. The name Zanjan may mean one of the following subdivisions in the country of Iran: Zanjan Province Zanjan County, an area This area was known in Greek as Media or Medea (Μηδία, Old Persian Māda; adjective Median, antiquated also Medean). The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) Under Assyrian rule, the Medes were known as Mādāyu. The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC  They entered this region with the first wave of Iranian tribes, in the late second millennium BC (the Bronze Age collapse). The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the 
By the 6th century BC, after having together with the Chaldeans defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Medes were able to establish their own empire, that stretched from southern shore of the Black Sea and Aran province (the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan) to north and Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, and which included many tributary states, including the Persians, who eventually supplanted and absorbed the Median empire in the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Chaldea (from Greek grc Χαλδαία Chaldaia; Akkadian akk māt Kaldu Hebrew כשדים Kaśdim, "the Chaldees" of the The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Arran ( also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian) Al-Ran (in Arabic) including the highland and lowland Karabakh) Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of 
The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persians, often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire, by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the king of Media. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Astyages ( Persian: ایشتوویگو ( Ištovigu) spelled by Herodotus as Astyages by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus
The Medes are presumed to have migrated from Eurasian steppes southward to the Zagros mountains during the second millennium BC. For the superstate in George Orwell 's novel see Nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The Zagros Mountains (جبال زاجروس (رشته كوههاى زاگرس ( Sorani Kurdish: Zagros - زاگرۆس make up Iran 's and Iraq 's 
The origin and history of the Medes is quite obscure, as we possess almost no contemporary information, and not a single monument or inscription from Media itself. The story that Ctesias gave (a list of nine kings, beginning with Arbaces, who is said to have destroyed Nineveh in 880s BC, preserved in Diodorus ii. Ctesias of Cnidus ( Greek) was a Greek Physician and Historian from Cnidus in Caria. Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) 32 sqq. and copied by many later authors) has no historical value whatsoever; though some of his names may be derived from local traditions.
Herodotus, i. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash 101, lists the names of six Median tribes: "Thus Deioces collected the Medes into a nation, and ruled over them alone. Deioces, Déjocès, Deiokes or Diyako (709 BC &ndash 656 BC was a Prince and the first king of the Medes. Now these are the tribes of which they consist: the Busae, the Paretaceni, the Struchates, the Arizanti, the Budii, and the Magi. The Magi (singular Magus, from Latin via Greek μάγος; Old English: Mage; from Persian maguš and Kurdish " He further notes that "the Medes had exactly the same equipment as the Persians; and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. " (7. 62)
According to Herodotus, "the Medes were called anciently by all people Aryans; but when Media, the Colchian, came to them from Athens, they changed their name. Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" In ancient Geography, Colchis or Kolchis ( Georgian and Laz: კოლხეთი k'olxeti; Greek:, Kolchís Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Such is the account which they themselves give. " --- the Medes, History of Herodotus (7. 7). (Medea is the Colchian-Thracian witch of Jason and the Argonauts, in Greek myth. Medea (Μήδεια Mēdeia) in Greek mythology was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece of Circe, granddaughter of "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance )
Josephus relates the Medes (OT Heb. Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus Madai) to the biblical character, Madai, son of Japheth. Madai, ma'dai Greek: Μηδος mɛː'dos according to the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, was a son of Japheth and one of the 16 grandsons Japheth (ˈdʒeɪfɪθ Hebrew. יפת Greek Ιάφεθ, Iapheth, Latin Iafeth or Iapetus Arabic يافث "Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks" Antiquities of the Jews, I:6. This article is about the Biblical name Javan. For Katherine Kurtz 's fictional character see Javan of Gwynedd. Madai, ma'dai Greek: Μηδος mɛː'dos according to the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, was a son of Japheth and one of the 16 grandsons Antiquities of the Jews ( Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the important Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about the
According to the Book of Jubilees (10:35-36), Madai had married a daughter of Shem, and preferred to live among Shem's descendants, rather than dwell in Japheth's allotted inheritance beyond the Black Sea; so he begged his brothers-in-law, Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad, until he finally received from them the land that was named after him, Media. Jubilee The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים sometimes called the Lesser Genesis ( Leptogenesis) is an ancient Jewish religious work considered Shem (; Greek: Σημ, Sēm; Arabic: ar سام; Ge'ez: ሴም Sēm; "renown prosperity name"
We can see how the Persian element gradually became dominant; princes with Persian names occasionally occur as rulers of other tribes. But the Gelae, Tapuri, Cadusii, Amardi, Utii and other tribes in northern Media and on the shores of the Caspian may not have been Persian stock. The Cadusii (in Greek Kαδoύσιοι were an ancient people living in north-western Iran. Polybius (V. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories 44, 9), Strabo (xi. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. 507, 508, 514), and Pliny (vi. 46), considered the Anariaci to be among these tribes; but this name, meaning the "non-Arians", is probably a comprehensive designation for a number of smaller indigenous tribes.
The Medes, people of the Mada, (the Greek form Μῆδοι is Ionic for Μᾶδοι), appear in history first in 836 BC. Ionic Greek was a sub-dialect of the Attic-Ionic dialectal group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects) Earliest records show that Assyrian conqueror Shalmaneser III received tribute from the "Amadai" in connection with wars against the tribes of the Zagros. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Shalmaneser III ( Šulmānu-ašarēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent" was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC and son of the previous ruler The Zagros Mountains (جبال زاجروس (رشته كوههاى زاگرس ( Sorani Kurdish: Zagros - زاگرۆس make up Iran 's and Iraq 's His successors undertook many expeditions against the Medes (Madai).
At this early stage, the Medes were usually mentioned together with another steppe tribe, the Scythians, who seem to have been the dominant group. In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th They were divided into many districts and towns, under petty local chieftains; from the names in the Assyrian inscriptions, it appears they had already adopted the religion of Zoroaster
In 715 BC and 713 BC, Sargon II of Assyria subjected them up to "the far mountain Bikni", i. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Zoroaster ( Latinized from Greek variants) or Zarathushtra (from Avestan Zaraθuštra) also referred to as Zartosht (زرتشت Sargon II ( Akkadian Šarru-kinu "legitimate king" reigned 722 – 705 BC was an Assyrian king e. the Elbruz (Damavand) and the borders of the desert. For the Iranian Frigate Alborz see Iranian frigate Alborz. For Alborz High School (in Persianدبیرستان البرز see Alborz High Mount Damāvand ( also known as Donbavand, is a Dormant volcano and the highest peak in Iran with a special place in the Persian mythology If the account of Herodotus is to be trusted, the Median dynasty descends from Deioces (Daiukku), a Median chieftain in the Zagros, who, along with his kinsmen, was transported by Sargon to Hamath (Haniah) in Syria in 715 BC. Deioces, Déjocès, Deiokes or Diyako (709 BC &ndash 656 BC was a Prince and the first king of the Medes. The Zagros Mountains (جبال زاجروس (رشته كوههاى زاگرس ( Sorani Kurdish: Zagros - زاگرۆس make up Iran 's and Iraq 's Hama (ancient Hamath; Arabic: حماة meaning fortress is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria north of Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية This Daiukku seems to have originally been a governor of Mannae, subject to Sargon prior to his exile. The Mannaeans (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי were an ancient people of unknown origin
In spite of repeated rebellions by the early chieftains against Assyrian rule, the Medes paid tribute to Assyria under Sargon's successors, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashur-bani-pal whenever these kings marched against them. Sennacherib ( Akkadian Sîn-ahhe-eriba "(moon god Sîn has replaced (lost brothers for me" was the son of Sargon II, whom he Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina " Ashur has given a brother to me" was a king of Assyria who reigned Ashurbanipal ( Akkadian: Aššur-bāni-apli, " Ashur has made a son" or "Ashur created an heir" (b Assyrian forts located in Median territory at the time of Esarhaddon's campaign (ca. 676) included Bit-Parnakki, Bit-kari and Harhar (Kar-Sharrukin).
In the second 8th century BC, the Medes gained their independence and were united by a dynasty. Traditionally, the creator of the Median kingdom was one Deioces, who, according to Herodotus, reigned from 728 to 675 BC and founded the Median capital Ecbatana (modern Hamadan, Iran). Deioces, Déjocès, Deiokes or Diyako (709 BC &ndash 656 BC was a Prince and the first king of the Medes. Ecbatana ( Old Persian: Haŋgmatana, written Agbatana in Aeschylus and Herodotus, Agámtanu by Nabonidos Hamedān or Hamadān ( Persian: همدان, Old Persian: Hagmatana Hebrew: המזיין Ancient Greek: Ecbatana) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. 
According to Herodotus, the conquests of Cyaxares the Medes were preceded by a Scythian invasion and domination lasting twenty-eight years (under Madius the Scythian, 653-625 BC). Cyaxares, Hvakhshathra, or Kayxosrew (𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼 Uvaxštra, Greek Κυαξαρης; r In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th Madius or Madya was a Scythian king He conquered and ruled the Median Empire from c The Medes tribes seem to have come into immediate conflict with a settled state to the West known as Mannae, allied with Assyria. The Mannaeans (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי were an ancient people of unknown origin Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Assyrian inscriptions state that the early Medes rulers, who had attempted rebellions against the Assyrians in the time of Esarhaddon and Ashur-bani-pal, were allied with chieftains of the Ashguza (Scythians) and other tribes - who had come from the northern shore of the Black Sea and invaded Asia Minor. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The state of Mannae was finally conquered and assimilated by the Medes in the year 616 BC.
In 612 BC, Cyaxares conquered Urartu, and in alliance with Nabopolassar (who created the Neo-Babylonian Empire), succeeded in destroying the Assyrian capital, Nineveh, and by 606 BC, the remaining vestiges of Assyrian control. Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising Nabopolassar ( Akkadian: Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (ruled 625-605 BC of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The term Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean refers to Babylonia under the rule of the 11th ("Chaldean" dynasty from the revolt of Nabopolassar Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) From this point, the Medes king ruled over much of northern Mesopotamia, eastern Anatolia and Cappadocia. Cappadocia (or Capadocia, Turkish Kapadokya, from Greek: Καππαδοκία / Kappadokía which in turn is from the Persian: His power was a threat to his neighbors, and the exiled Jews expected the destruction of Babylonia by the Medes (Isaiah 13, 14m 21; Jerem. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital 1, 51. ).
When Cyaxares attacked Lydia in the Battle of Halys, the kings of Cilicia and Babylon intervened and negotiated a peace in 585 BC, whereby the Halys river was established as the Medes' frontier with Lydia. Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy The Battle of Halys, also known as the Battle of the Eclipse, took place at the Halys River (present-day "Kızılırmak" river in Turkey on May Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon married a daughter of Cyaxares, and an equilibrium of the great powers was maintained until the rise of the Persians under Cyrus the Great. Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar (c 630-562 BC was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c
Modern research by a professor of Assyriology, Robert Rollinger, has questioned the extent of the Median empire and its sphere of influence, proposing for example that it did not control the Assyrian heartland. Phraortes, also known as Fravartish (𐎳𐎼𐎺𐎼𐎫𐎡𐏁 Fravartiš; c Madius or Madya was a Scythian king He conquered and ruled the Median Empire from c Cyaxares, Hvakhshathra, or Kayxosrew (𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼 Uvaxštra, Greek Κυαξαρης; r Astyages ( Persian: ایشتوویگو ( Ištovigu) spelled by Herodotus as Astyages by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus Assyriology (from Greek grc Ἀσσυρίᾱ Assyriā; and grc -λογία -logia) is the archaeological historical and linguistic study 
In 553 BC, Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, rebelled against his grandfather, the Mede King Astyages, son of Cyaxares; he finally won a decisive victory in 550 BC resulting in Astyages' capture by his own dissatisfied nobles, who promptly turned him over to the triumphant Cyrus. Astyages ( Persian: ایشتوویگو ( Ištovigu) spelled by Herodotus as Astyages by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus Events and trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Thus were the Medes subjected to their close kin, the Persians. In the new empire they retained a prominent position; in honor and war, they stood next to the Persians; their court ceremony was adopted by the new sovereigns, who in the summer months resided in Ecbatana; and many noble Medes were employed as officials, satraps and generals. Ecbatana ( Old Persian: Haŋgmatana, written Agbatana in Aeschylus and Herodotus, Agámtanu by Nabonidos See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient Interestingly, at the beginning the Greek historians referred to the Achaemenid Empire as a Median empire.
After the assassination of the usurper Smerdis, a Mede Fravartish (Phraortes), claiming to be a scion of Cyaxares, tried to restore the Mede kingdom, but was defeated by the Persian generals and executed in Ecbatana (Darius in the Behistun inscr. ). Another rebellion, in 409 BC, against Darius II (Xenophon, Hellen. ~. 2, 19) was of short duration. But the non-Aryan tribes to the north, especially the Cadusii, were always troublesome; many abortive expeditions of the later kings against them are mentioned.
Under Persian rule, the country was divided into two satrapies: the south, with Ecbatana and Rhagae (Rey near modern Tehran), Media proper, or Greater Media, as it is often called, formed in Darius' organization the eleventh satrapy (Herodotus iii. See Rayshahr for the Sassanid center of learning in Fars province Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of 92), together with the Paricanians and Orthocorybantians; the north, the district of Matiane (see above), together with the mountainous districts of the Zagros and Assyria proper (east of the Tigris) was united with the Alarodians and Saspirians in eastern Armenia, and formed the eighteenth satrapy (Herod. iii. 94; cf. v. 49, 52, VII. 72).
When the Persian empire decayed and the Cadusii and other mountainous tribes made themselves independent, eastern Armenia became a special satrapy, while Assyria seems to have been united with Media; therefore Xenophon in the Anabasis always designates Assyria by the name of "Media". Xenophon (Ancient Greek, Modern Greek "Ξενοφών" "Ξενοφώντας" ca
Alexander the Great occupied the satrapy of Media in the summer of 330 BC. Atropatene was the Seleucid -era Koine Greek name given to a kingdom established in the 4th century BCE and the nominal ancestor of the name ' Azerbaijan Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' In 328 he appointed as satrap a former general of Darius called Atropates (Atrupat), whose daughter was married to Perdiccas in 324, according to Arrian. See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient Atropates ( Greek Aτρoπάτης from Old Persian Aturpat "protected by fire" c Perdiccas ( Greek: Περδίκας, Perdikas; died 321 BC or 320 BC was one of Alexander the Great 's generals For others with this name see Arrianus (disambiguation. Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' (ca In the partition of his empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonian Peithon; but the north, far off and of little importance to the generals squabbling over Alexander's inheritance, was left to Atropates. Peithon (about 355 BC - about 314 BC was the son of Crateuas, a nobleman from Eordaia in western Macedonia One of the bodyguards of Alexander the
While southern Media, with Ecbatana, passed to the rule of Antigonus, and afterwards (about 310 BC) to Seleucus I, Atropates maintained himself in his own satrapy and succeeded in founding an independent kingdom. Ecbatana ( Old Persian: Haŋgmatana, written Agbatana in Aeschylus and Herodotus, Agámtanu by Nabonidos Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed" (382 BC - 301 BC son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman general and Satrap Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, Greek: Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, i Thus the partition of the country, that Persia had introduced, became lasting; the north was named Atropatene (in Pliny, Atrapatene; in Ptolemy, Tropatene), after the founder of the dynasty, a name still said to be preserved in the modern form 'Azerbaijan'. Atropatene was the Seleucid -era Koine Greek name given to a kingdom established in the 4th century BCE and the nominal ancestor of the name ' Azerbaijan Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South
The capital of Atropatene was Gazaca in the central plain, and the castle Phraaspa, discovered on the Araz river by archaeologists in April 2005. Ganzak ( Greek: Gazaca, Latin: Gaza, Ganzaga, Arabic: Janza, Jaznaq. The kings had a strong and warlike army, especially cavalry (Polyb. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on v. 55; Strabo xi. 253). Nevertheless, King Artabazanes was forced by Antiochus the Great in 220 BC to conclude a disadvantageous treaty (Polyb. Antiochus III the Great, ( Greek; ca 241&ndash187 BC ruled 222&ndash187 BC younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus v. 55), and in later times, the rulers became dependent in turn upon the Parthians, upon Tigranes of Armenia, and in the time of Pompey who defeated their king Darius (Appian, Mithr. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation 108), upon Antonius (who invaded Atropatene) and upon Augustus of Rome. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was In the time of Strabo (AD 17), the dynasty still existed; later, the country seems to have become a Parthian province. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.
Atropatene is that country of western Asia which was least of all other countries influenced by Hellenism; there exists not even a single coin of its rulers. The Hellenistic period of European history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon in 323 BC and the annexation Southern Media remained a province of the Seleucid Empire for a century and a half, and Hellenism was introduced everywhere. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Media was surrounded everywhere by Greek towns, in pursuance of Alexander's plan to protect it from neighboring barbarians, according to Polybius (x. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories 27). Only Ecbatana retained its old character. But Rhagae became the Greek town Europus; and with it Strabo (xi. See Rayshahr for the Sassanid center of learning in Fars province Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. 524) names Laodicea, Apamea Heraclea or Achais. Nahāvand is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. It is located in south of Hamadan, east of Malayer and shouthwest of Borujerd Most of them were founded by Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I. Antiochus I Soter (unknown - 261 BC was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
In 221 BC, the satrap Molon tried to make himself independent (there exist bronze coins with his name and the royal title), together with his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, but they were defeated and killed by Antiochus the Great. Apollonius Molon was a Greek rhetorician who flourished about 70 BC Molon (in Greek Moλων; died in 220 BC was a general Alexander (in Greek Αλέξανδρος; died in 220 BC brother of Molon. In the same way, the Mede satrap Timarchus took the diadem and conquered Babylonia; on his coins he calls himself the great king Timarchus; but again the legitimate king, Demetrius I, succeeded in subduing the rebellion, and Timarchus was slain. Timarchus was a usurper in the Seleucid empire between 163-160 BCE But with Demetrius I, the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire began, brought about chiefly by the intrigues of the Romans, and shortly afterwards, in about 150, the Parthian king Mithradates I conquered Media (Justin xli. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Mithridates I (B 195 BC? D 138 BC was the "Great King" of Parthia from ca 6).
From this time Media remained subject to the Arsacids or Parthians, who changed the name of Rhagae, or Europus, into Arsacia (Strabo xi. 524), and divided the country into five small provinces (Isidorus Charac. ). From the Parthians, it passed in 226 to the Sassanids, together with Atropatene. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire
By this time the older tribes of Aryan Iran had lost their distinct character and had been amalgamated into one people, the Iranians. The revival of Zoroastrianism, enforced everywhere by the Sassanids, completed this development. Atropatene, already center of the fire cult during Parthian times (see Takht-i-Suleiman) now became the site of one of the legendary Great Fires. For the similarly named locations see Takht-e-Sulaiman in Balochistan, and Sulayman Mountain near Osh, Kyrgyzstan. A Zoroastrian Fire Temple is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. Under the patronage of Kartir, the 'priest of priests' of the early Sassanid kings, Arsacia/Rhagae advanced to become one of the two (the other being Ishtakhr, ancestral seat of the Sassanid priest-kings) centers of the Zoroastrian priesthood. Kartir Hangirpe (alternatively Karder or Kirdir) was a highly influential Zoroastrian high-priest of the late 3rd century CE and served as advisor to at
The name of Ariana is further extended to a part of Persia and of Media, as also to the Bactrians and Sogdians on the north; for these speak approximately the same language, with but slight variations. The Median language (also Medean or Medic) is the language of the Iranian Medes. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family and its subfamily Indo-Iranian. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Bactrians were an Indo-European people originally of Bactria, situated in what is now modern northern Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and southern History Hellenistic period The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great
– Geography, 15. 8
Words probably of Mede origin appear in various other Iranian dialects, including Old Persian. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) For example, Herodotus mentions the word Spaka (dog), still found in Iranic languages such as Talyshi. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Other words also thought to be of Mede origin (I. M Diakonoff, Medes) include
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