|Municipality of Medellín|
|Nickname: "The City of Everlasting Spring", "Mountain's Capital", "City Of The Flowers", "Orchids' Capital", "Beautiful Village", "Little Silver Cup", "Medallo"|
Location of the city (urban in red) and municipality (dark gray) of Medellín in Antioquia Department. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name.
|Region||Valle de Aburrá|
|Founded||March 2, 1616|
|- Mayor||Alonso Salazar Jaramillo|
|- City||382 km² (147. Colombia is a unitary republic conformed by thirty-two departments ( Spanish: departamentos, sing The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 5 sq mi)|
|- Metro||1,152 km² (444. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 8 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,495 m (4,905 ft)|
|- Density||5,320. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 75/km² (13,780. 7/sq mi)|
|Website: Government of Medellín official website|
Medellín (Spanish pronunciation IPA: [mɛdəˈjiːn] or [mɛdəˈliːn], Spanish: [með̞eˈʝin] or [með̞eˈʎin]) is the second largest city in Colombia and is located in the Aburrá Valley, one of the more northern regions of the Andes in South America. This is a list of national capitals in the world in alphabetical order by country Countries In case that the capital is not the largest city the third column Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a It has a population of 2. 4 million inhabitants.  Medellín also serves as the core of the Metropolitan Area (Area Metropolitana de Medellín), the second largest in Colombia in terms of population with more than 3. The Metropolitan Area of Medellín or the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley ( Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Medellín) is a 2 million and the 95th world most populous metropolitan area in the world.
Medellín was founded in 1616 by the Spaniard Francisco Herrera y Campuzano as Poblado de San Lorenzo (Saint Lawrence Town) in the nowadays El Poblado District. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. El Poblado is a Commune of the Colombian city of Medellín within its Metropolitan Area with a 2005 population of 94 In 1675 Regent Mariana of Austria created the Villa de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria (Our Lady of Candelaria). A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Mariana of Austria (or sometimes Maria-Anna of Austria) ( 24 December 1634, Vienna, Austria – 16 may 1696 A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably In 1826 was proclaimed by the Spaniard Colonial Administration as Provincial Capital of Antioquia. For the game see 1826 (board game. Year 1826 ( MDCCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display In 1803 was founded the University of Antioquia, one of the most prestigious government-owned education centers in Colombia. 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The University of Antioquia is located in Antioquia Department, Colombia. After the Colombian Independence from Spain, Medellín became the Capital of the Federal State of Antioquia until 1888 with the proclamation of a centralized Political Constitution. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a During the 19th century Medellín was a dynamic commercial center with the exportation of gold first and after with the growing production of coffee. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom After the Thousand Days War (1899 - 1902), Medellín was the first Colombian center to start its Industrial Revolution with the opening of textile companies, transport projects like the train that made possible the development of import-export activities of its industry and the founding of several centers of superior education and vocational training that created an industrialist and intellectual class. The Thousand Days War ( 1899 - 1902) (Spanish Guerra de los Mil Días) was a civil armed conflict in the newly created Republic of Colombia, (including Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the
During the second half of the 20th century, Medellín became the headquarter of the infamous Pablo Escobar, leader of its criminal organization, that became the seventh richest man of the world from drug trade according with a 1989 Forbes Magazine's report. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Infamy, in common usage is notoriety gained from a negative incident or reputation (as opposed to fame) Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria', aka El Patrón or El Doctor ( December 1, 1949 – December 2, 1993) gained The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly  It was because he and his associated settled their business in the industrial urban center, that his organization was named by the American Media as "Cartel of Medellín". The Medellín Cartel was an organized network of drug smugglers ( Drug cartel) originating in the city of Medellín in Colombia and operating  Escobar led a terrorist war (1980's - 1990's) against the Colombian government in order to dissuade any intention of extradition to the U. S. A until he was killed by police forces in December 2, 1993. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The Medellin Cartel War was one of the most notable factors causing the city's reputation as a violent and dangerous city, being the motive for a large number of murders. This reputation is one that the city is still trying hard to shake off, and holds true in a reduced with varied estimates averaging around 40 per 100,000 people.
The city gained its former industrial dynamism at the beginning of the 21st century with the construction of the Metro de Medellín urban railway, liberalised development policies, improved security, improved education; and the international promotion of the city as a tourist destination. The 21st century is the current century of the Christian Era or Common Era in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The Metro de Medellín is an urban train that crosses the Metropolitan Area of Medellín from North to South and from Centre to West
The Medellín Metropolitan Area makes the 67% of the State of Antioquia's GDP and the 11% of the National Economy. Colombia is a free market economy with major commercial and investment ties to the United States. 
Medellín is also regarded as important to the region for its universities, academies, commerce, industries, science, health services, flower production, festivities and nightlife. NightLife with Tony Delroy is a popular late night talkback show across ABC Local Radio, Broadcasting from the 702 ABC Sydney studios in Ultimo The Metropolitan Area of Medellín is the birthplace of several personalities like the rock musician Juanes, the inspirational city of painter Botero, the birth place of movements of literature like Nadaism, philosophers like González and Zuleta, the Colombian capital of tango where Gardel came to die in 1935, the seat of the International Festival of Poetry and many others. Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Juan Esteban Aristizábal Vásquez best known as Juanes (born August 9 1972 in Carolina del Príncipe Antioquia) is a Colombian rock musician Nadaism ( Nadaísmo in Spanish was a Colombian literary movement that developed from 1960 to 1965 Fernando González Ochoa ( April 24, 1895 - February 16, 1964) was a Colombian writer and Existentialist Philosopher Estanislao Zuleta (born in 1935 in Medellín, Antioquia - died in 1990 in Cali, Valle) was a Latin American Philosopher The TAco Next Generation Objects ( TANGO) control system is a free open source object oriented control system for controlling accelerators experiments and any kind of hardware Carlos Gardel ( 11 December 1887 /1890 1 - 24 June 1935 Medellín, Colombia) is Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It is claimed that Medellín is a much safer city than previously in recent times. Partly thanks to this, it is one of the main tourist destinations in Colombia. 
The new Spaniard settlement got five names before the actual: Aburrá de los Yamesíes, San Lorenzo de Aburrá, San Lorenzo de Aná, Valle de San Bartolomé, Villa de la Candelaria de Medellín and Medellín.
The name of the city honours Medellín of Extremadura (Spain) because some of the Spaniard conquerors, like Gaspar de Rodas, the first governor of Antioquia, came from that region of Badajoz. Medellín is a village in the province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, notable as the birthplace of Hernán Cortés in 1485 Extremadura is an autonomous community of western Spain whose capital city is Mérida. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Gaspar de Rodas (1518-1607 was a Spanish administrator in the area that now comprises the present-day departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío Badajoz is a province of western Spain located in the autonomous community of Extremadura. The Iberian Medellín was founded in 75 BC by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius (ca 130 BC or 127 BC &ndash 63 BC was a pro- Sullan state figure 
Count Pedro Portocarrero y Luna, President of the Council for the Western India (Consejo de Indias), asked the Monarchy to give the name of his town, Medellín of Extremadura, to the new foundation in America. A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or His request was accepted on November 22, 1674 when Regent Mariana of Austria proclaimed the name of Villa de Nuestra Señora de Medellín. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Mariana of Austria (or sometimes Maria-Anna of Austria) ( 24 December 1634, Vienna, Austria – 16 may 1696 The official proclamation was given by Miguel Aguinaga y Mendiogoitia, Governor, on November 2, 1675.
There are archaeological evidences of human settlements in the Aburrá Valley since 10,500 years by hunters and collectors. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. The Spaniard conquers of the Valley found groups like Aburrá, Yamesí, Pequé, Ebejico, Norisco and Maní that were in the Valley since about the 5th century. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. The Aburrá people gave the name to the Valley. They lived from agriculture (maize, beans and cotton), textile weaving and decoration, commercialization of salt and goldsmith. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants A goldsmith is a Metalworker who specializes in working with Gold and other Precious metals usually in modern times to make Jewelry. Under the Spaniard rule they lost the possession of the land and were located in mines and feudalist systems. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Sickness brought by the Europeans, the heavy work and mistreatments caused their extinction, at least from the Valley. Descendants and peoples related to the Aburrá Valley ancient ancestors could be found today in other regions of the Antioquia State like Urabá and the West and South regions.
In August 1541 Marshal Jorge Robledo was in what is today Heliconia, when he saw at the distant what he thought was a valley. Other names In Arabic, the month is called أغسطسص ʾUġusṭuṣ or آب ʾĀb; usage varies from place to place and Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches Heliconia is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. He sent Jerónimo Luis Tejelo to explore the territory and Tejelo arrived during the night of August 23 to a plain field. Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire The Spaniards gave the name of Valley of Saint Bartholomew that was to be changed for the Aboriginal one of Aburrá that is translated as the "Painters" due to the textile decorations of the natives. Saint Bartholomew was one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bartholomew (Βαρθολομαίος transliterated "Bartholomaios" comes from  However, the conquerors did not feel attracted by the valley due to the lack of wealth and the bellicosity of the aborigines.
In 1574 Gaspar de Rodas asked to the Antioquia's Cabildo four miles of land to establish herds and food stays in the valley. For a discussion of the contemporary Spanish and Latin American cabildo see Ayuntamiento. The Cabildo granted three miles. 
In 1616 the Colonial Visitor Francisco de Herrera y Campuzano founded a settlement with 80 aborigines naming it "Poblado de San Lorenzo" in what is today "El Poblado Square". El Poblado is a Commune of the Colombian city of Medellín within its Metropolitan Area with a 2005 population of 94 In 1646 a racist Colonial law ordered the separation of aborigines from mestizos and mulattos and for this reason the colonial administration began the construction of a new town in Aná, where is today the Berrio Square and where it was built a place called Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria de Aná (Our Lady of Candelaria of Aná). List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin Mulatto is a term used to describe a person with one white parent and one black parent or a person whose Ancestry is a mixture of black and white Three years after they started the construction of the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria, rebuilt at the end of the 18th century. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system 
After 1574 with the establishing of Gaspar de Rodas in the Valley, population started to grow according with weddings registered in the San Lorenzo Church: six couples between 1646 and 1650 to 41 couples between 1671 and 1675.  The development of gold mines in the Northeast of Antioquia required an agricultural region to provide enough food, therefore, the Aburrá Valley became the nearest supplier. Moreover, the Aburrá Valley is located in a strategic position between the gold mines' region and what was the first provincial capital of Antioquia, Santa Fe. Santa Fe de Antioquia is a Municipality in the Antioquia Department, Colombia. 
Santa Fe became an old and poor town, while trade and prominent personalities of the region were passing through the Aburrá Valley where rich families started to buy lands. Soon the first settlers asked the creation of the Cabildo in the Valley, thus gaining a most autonomous administration from Santa Fe. For a discussion of the contemporary Spanish and Latin American cabildo see Ayuntamiento.  Such intention was opposed by the Santa Fe administration, but Regent Mariana of Austria signed the edict of its creation on November 22, 1674. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Mariana of Austria (or sometimes Maria-Anna of Austria) ( 24 December 1634, Vienna, Austria – 16 may 1696 Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran The governor Miguel de Aguinaga proclaimed the royal edict on November 2, 1675 where it was given the title of Villa de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 
Before the creation of the Villa, the inhabitants were dispersed in the Valley and there were only some families concentrated in the junction of Aná Stream (today Santa Helena Stream) and Medellín River and others were living in El Poblado San Lorenzo. A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably The Medellín River ( Spanish for Rio Medellín) in some of its trayectory called the Porce river is a River that flows though the With the royal edict the settlers chose the Aná Site as the heart of the future city with the Candelaria Church as the centre.
The first constructions were simple: straw roofs, the houses of the most important persons were of two floors, while the church and the Cabildo had nothing to admire. It was only during the 18th century when they started to beautify the church. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The Cabildo had only one floor located at the western part of the plaza and it had straw roof until 1742 when it was changed by roof tiles. Year 1742 ( MDCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In 1682 traders and foreigners started the construction of Veracruz Hermitage that was consecrated as a church by the Bishop of Popayán in 1712. Popayán is a municipality and def is a capital city of the Colombian department of Cauca, with a population of about 215000 people Year 1712 ( MDCCXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap 
The first census during the Colonial times in the Valley was done in 1675: there were 3,000 persons and 280 families. There was not other census in the following hundred years until the colonial visitor Antonio Mon y Velarde ordered one that was done between 1786 and 1787: there were 14,507 persons and 241 families. Year 1786 ( MDCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In 1808, two years before the independence, there were 15,347 persons and 360 families. Year 1808 ( MDCCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year 
In 1803 was founded the Royal College of the Franciscans in the Central Plaza (today Berrío Square) with faculties as grammar, philosophy and theology. 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective  Soon after they translated the College to a new building in the San Ignacio Plazoleta. College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. In 1821 was renamed as Colegio de Antioquia (Antioquia's College} and finally it was named Universidad de Antioquia in 1901. Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year The University of Antioquia is located in Antioquia Department, Colombia. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The first Antioquian university was also the seat for the first skill training school, the first cultural radio broadcasting of Latin America, the first regional botanical garden and it is nowadays popular for development in medicine and organ transplant. This article is about radio broadcasting for other uses see Radio (disambiguation. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of Plants primarily to categorize and document for scientific purposes
The population of Medellín grew six times during the first part of the 20th century from 59. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on 815 inhabitants in 1905 to 358,189 in 1951. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January During the 19th century the city got a national importance because its production of gold and coffee and the construction of the regional railway (Ferrocarril de Antioquia). The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Thousand Days War (1899-1902), stopped the industrial development of the city , although the civil war did not touch the region in a direct way. The Thousand Days War ( 1899 - 1902) (Spanish Guerra de los Mil Días) was a civil armed conflict in the newly created Republic of Colombia, (including Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state Thanks to reforms by President Rafael Reyes after the conflict, the city restarted its industrial development with the foundation of the Chamber of Commerce of Medellín. Rafael Reyes Prieto (born December 5, 1849, Santa Rosa de Viterbo, Boyacá, Colombia &ndash died February 18, 1921 A chamber of commerce (also referred to in some circles as a board of trade) is a form of Business network. The Chamber was the responsible of the development of a regional transport project that put Medellín in contact with other Colombian regions and the international economies at the time.
However the importance of gold production in the development of the city, the product that would make the city to grow during the 20th century, was coffee that was to become of international dimensions as the first export product of the country as Café de Colombia. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Café de Colombia was a Colombian based professional Road bicycle racing Cycling team active from 1985 to 1990 The industrial and commercial dynamism of Medellín created also a caste of traders and entrepreneurs that were to open the first industries with a national projection.  However, the hot part of the industrialization came during the 1930's with the development of textiles created by families which fortunes came from the gold mine exploitation during the Colonial time. Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. There were also production of glass, drinks and food that put Medellín as the first industrial region of Colombia. It is during the 1930s that most of the Antioquian industries were created and many of them still alive, either with their original names or with modifications.
The discovering of coal mines in Amagá, few miles at the south of the Aburrá Valley, and the building of industrial hydroelectric plants gave the energy that the big new industries required and they supported the creation of several small companies. Amagá is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water The Antioquia Railway (constructed in 1875) defeated the difficult geography of one of the most mountainous regions of South America, especially with the construction of La Quiebra Tunnel which allowed the industrial center to get in connection with the Magdalena River, the main fluvial commercial way of Colombia. Year 1875 ( MDCCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Magdalena River (Spanish Río Magdalena) also called Yuma River (Spanish Río Yuma) is the principal River of Colombia, running Also during the 1930s Medellín became a main trade center in the region and it got its first airport, the Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport in 1932. Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. 
The study of Charles H. Savage about the ways of production in the Antioquia region for ten years (1960 - 1972) is an example of how important the Medellín industries came to be in the Colombian and South American context. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He studied the consequence of the social changes produced by the introduction of technologies to give as a result a kind of development. Savage examined three factories from Antioquia: two pottery works in Santuario and La Blanca and a tailoring factory in Medellín. Santuario is a town and Municipality in the Colombian department of Antioquia. What was admired by Savage was not only the kind of production of the Antioquian factories, but the working relationships of the workers and their patrons, giving as a result an industrial productivity and efficiency that he called the "Culture of Work". Savage died in 1973, but his conclusions were published by his college George F. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Lombardi as Sons of the Machines. 
The University of Antioquia, the National University of Colombia with its Medellín branch and the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, have been the historical academic centres in the city and the responsible for the formation of an intellectual class in the region with a national and international projection. The University of Antioquia is located in Antioquia Department, Colombia. National University of Colombia (Universidad Nacional de Colombia also referred to as UN, is a public, Coeducational Research University The Pontifical Bolivarian University (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana also referred to as UPB, is a private university in Colombia with its main campus
Arts and literature have been an important social element in Medellín. During the first part of the 20th century the city saw in literature the transition from romanticism to the most modern art and literary movements of the new century. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Tomás Carrasquilla (1858 - 1940) was among those who represent such transition with a work that focused on the people of his native Antioquia, accurately portraying their daily lives and customs. Tomás Carrasquilla Naranjo (1858 - 1940 was a Colombian writer who lived among two centuries in the region of Antioquia. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The writer and philosopher Fernando González from Envigado (in the Metropolitan Area of Medellín), the cartoonist Ricardo Rendón and the poet León de Greiff, all of these founders among others of Los Panidas, a Medellín literature movement of the time. Fernando González Ochoa ( April 24, 1895 - February 16, 1964) was a Colombian writer and Existentialist Philosopher Envigado is a city of Colombia in the department of Antioquia, located at the south of the Aburrá Valley and belonging to the Metropolitan Area Other featured poets and writers were Porfirio Barbajacob and Efe Gómez, while as painters the masters were Eladio Vélez and Pedro Nel Gómez. Pedro Nel Gómez (1899 - 1984 was a Colombian engineer architect painter sculptor Among musicians were Carlos Vieco Ortiz and the city became a national centre of home record music like Sonolux, Ondina and Silver. 
The Medellín Clubs, many of them with a long tradition traced in the city since the end of the 19th century, became also a centre for intellectual and industrialist movements like Club Union (founded in 1894) and Club Campestre (founded in 1924). Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1909 was created Circo España and Teatro Bolívar in 1919. Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The beautiful Teatro Junín was demolished for the construction of the Coltejer Tower. Cine Colombia, the first movie distributor of the country, was founded in Medellín in 1927. Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
During the 1950s the industrialists, traders and local government traced what was called the "Medellín Master Plan" (MMP) (Plan Piloto) consisting in an urban projection of the city in the Aburrá Valley that would give way to the creation of the first Metropolitan Area in Colombia. Paul Wiener and José Luis Sert were the architects that leaded the project. Josep Lluís Sert i López (1902—1983 was a Spanish Architect from Catalonia. Among the main features of the MMP were the canalization of the Medellín River, the control of new settlements in the Valley slops, the creation of an industrial zone in the Guayabal District, the planning of the city in harmony with the river, the construction of a main sport zone with the city stadium and an administrative centre in La Alpujarra. The Medellín River ( Spanish for Rio Medellín) in some of its trayectory called the Porce river is a River that flows though the 
However, Colombia entered in a new era of political instability with the murder of presidential candidate Jorge Eliecer Gaitán in Bogotá in 1949 and political violence punished the rural areas of Colombia. Jorge Eliécer Gaitán ( January 23, 1898 &ndash April 9, 1948) was a politician a leader of a Populist movement in Colombia El Bogotazo (from "Bogotá" and the ''-azo'' suffix of violent augmentation refers to the massive riots that followed the assassination in Bogotá, Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Farmers fled to the cities and Medellín saw the fast growing of its population in the spam of few years. The Valley slopes became soon popular quarters with poor conditions that would change the history of the industrialist centre. In 1951 the city had 358,189 inhabitants and only 20 years after, in 1973, the population was of 1,071,252 inhabitants, thus three times more. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar.
This demographic explosion had several consequences in the MMP: the urban limits of the city grew to areas that were not contemplated in the MMP making that Medellín touched the urban areas of other cities of the Aburrá Valley like Envigado, Bello and Itagüí among others; the new Medellín settlers were poor families without credit to buy their housing, therefore, several quarters were built out of the MMP; several old downtown buildings were demolished to construct tall towers, offices and avenues. Envigado is a city of Colombia in the department of Antioquia, located at the south of the Aburrá Valley and belonging to the Metropolitan Area Itagüí (pron /i ta 'gwi/ ee-tah-GWEE is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. For example, the other time beautiful and traditional Junin Theatre along the Santa Elena Stream was demolished to build the Coltejer Tower. The migration provided with enough workforces that contributed in a bigger expansion of textile factories that were modernized during this period, but it created new problems for the city as the rising of unemployment, lack of services for poor quarters, urban violence in several districts and a collapse of any transport system that so far has served the city. It was the perfect conditions for the development of mafia that were to punish the city in the following decades, while the MMP had to wait better times. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century
The 1950s decade saw also a new generation of writers and artists in Medellín with new literature tendencies and many of them strong critics of the local and national life. Manuel Mejía Vallejo established a new narrative style without abandon his regional preferences. Manuel Mejía Vallejo, (1923 - 1998 was a Colombian writer and journalist It was also the time of Nadaism, a literature movement founded by Gonzalo Arango and many other companions that was openly anti-clerical, expressing against the traditional institutions of society and culture and considered philosophically nihilist. Nadaism ( Nadaísmo in Spanish was a Colombian literary movement that developed from 1960 to 1965 Gonzalo Arango Arias (born in Andes Antioquia 1931 - Tocancipá, Cundinamarca 1976 was a Colombian poet journalist and philosopher The painter Debora Arango joined the social and political reviews of the Colombian arena with her works. Debora Arango ( November 11 1907 – December 4 2005) was a Colombian artist born in Medellín, Colombia as the daughter of Castor Other painter that would make Medellín famous in art was Fernando Botero who found in the daily life of the city and its dramas the inspiration for his work. He donated most of this works to the Museum of Antioquia and the city dedicated to him the Botero Square. The Museum of Antioquia is an art museum in Medellín, Colombia. In the 1970s the artist Rodrigo Arenas Betancur would let his monumental works of sculptures not only in Medellín but also in many other regions of Colombia. Rodrigo Arenas Betancur was a Colombian sculptor born on October 23th 1919 in Fredonia, Antioquia. His famous work, the Monument to the Race in La Alpujarra Administrative Center was homage to the Paisa culture. This article is about paisa the coin used in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan.
There were many cultural centres built during this time that enriched the city like the Pablo Tobón Uribe Theatre (1967), the Modern Art Museum (1978) and the Metropolitan Theatre (1987). Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) In 2000 the traditional Museum of Antioquia had a second official opening with many works of Fernando Botero. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It was also the time of new universities in the city like Medellín University (1950) and Eafit University (1960). Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. EAFIT University (Spanish "Universidad EAFIT" is a Colombian College located in El Poblado Distric - Medellín, being one of Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The 1980s and mid 1990's was a critical time for Medellín as it came to be the base of powerful international drug trafficking organisations named by the American press as Medellín Cartel, a name that would associate the prestigious industrial city to crime and violence and gave to it the infamous title of "Murder Capital of the World". The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs The Medellín Cartel was an organized network of drug smugglers ( Drug cartel) originating in the city of Medellín in Colombia and operating  The infamous Pablo Escobar led a criminal organization. Infamy, in common usage is notoriety gained from a negative incident or reputation (as opposed to fame) Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria', aka El Patrón or El Doctor ( December 1, 1949 – December 2, 1993) gained The Colombian conflict would have its effects in the Andean coffee city with urban dispute for its control by guerrilla and paramilitary groups. The Colombian armed conflict or Colombian Civil War are terms that are employed to refer to the current asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict in Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc It was, however, primarily common delinquent elements such as street gangs that made Medellín one of the violent cities in the world. In the year 1991, for example, the city recorded 6,349 homicides and a rate eleven times higher than that of Chicago. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. 
In the early 21st century, Medellín has become a normal city for its residents and international travellers due to recent economic and social changes.
 The local government and its citizens in general have gone to great lengths to shake off its bad reputation and improve the image of the city, with tangible results. In 2006 the rate of intentional homicides was 33 per 100,000 people, the lowest in over 20 years, and one of the best improvements of any city in the world. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  Most of the homicides tend to occur in the poorer northern sections of the city, and much work is being done to build greater infrastructure, such as public libraries, new schools and strong community programmes. In fact, by way of comparison, the homicide rate in Medellín is now lower than that of Caracas with 110 per 100,000, Recife with 90 and Cali with 62. Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. Recife ( heˈsifi is the fifth largest Metropolitan area in Brazil and the capital of the state of Pernambuco. .
The vocation of Medellín as the industrial city of Colombia has been the main factor to support the overcoming of its 1980's-1990's crisis. The Metro de Medellín, a massive urban transport service, became the proud of the city and so far the only Colombian Metro that helped the city to recover the Medellín Master Plan designed in the 1950s. The Metro de Medellín is an urban train that crosses the Metropolitan Area of Medellín from North to South and from Centre to West The construction of the Plaza Mayor, an international centre for congresses and expositions, was designed to show the globalized economy of Colombia to the world. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Medellín is today a modern city with a 3 million population Metropolitan Area that is recovering the rithm of its vocation as a main trade and industrial centre.
The former violent crisis served also to make the purpose of demolish the heavy social barriers that were in a big part the reason of many social evils. The same Metro joined the Metropolitan Area from poor to rich districts and a new planning of the public buses is undergoing with the so-called "Metroplus". The spaces for art, poetry, drama, the construction of public libraries, the foundation of new ecological parks and the integration of the Medellineans to the development of their own city, can be widely proven today. 
Medellín has an area of 382 km². It has 16 comunas (districts), 5 townships and 271 barrios. A commune (comuna is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile and may contain Cities, Towns Villages, Hamlets as well as Rural Corregimiento is Spanish language term used for Country subdivisions It is used in Corregimientos of Colombia, below departments Barrio is a Spanish word meaning District or Neighborhood. The Word has come into use in English mostly through the large The metropolitan area of Medellín lies within the Aburrá valley at an elevation of 1,538 meters and is bisected by the Medellín River, which flows northward. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The Medellín River ( Spanish for Rio Medellín) in some of its trayectory called the Porce river is a River that flows though the North of the valley are the towns of Bello, Copacabana, Girardota and Barbosa. Bello is a town and Municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia and is a suburb of Medellín, the department capital Copacabana is a town and Municipality in the Colombian department of Antioquia. Girardota is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. Barbosa is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. To the south of the valley Itagüí, Envigado, Sabaneta, La Estrella and Caldas can be found. Itagüí (pron /i ta 'gwi/ ee-tah-GWEE is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. Envigado is a city of Colombia in the department of Antioquia, located at the south of the Aburrá Valley and belonging to the Metropolitan Area Sabaneta is a town and Municipality in the Colombian department of Antioquia, also part of the Metropolitan Area of Medellín
Because Medellín is located at 5,000 ft (1,500 m) above sea level, its climate is not as hot as other cities located at the same latitude near the equator. Because of its altitude above sea level and privileged location in the Andes Range, Medellín's weather is more characteristic of a Humid subtropical climate rather than that of a Tropical climate. Humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by hot humid summers and chilly to mild winters A tropical climate is a kind of Climate typical in the Tropics. The city's average annual temperature is 22 °C (72 °F) and because of its proximity to the equator, its temperature is constant year round with minimal temperature variations. Temperatures range from 15 °C (52 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F). The pleasant spring-like climate year round makes it known as 'La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera' or 'City of the Eternal Spring'. However, as the city as located in a Valley and many of its districts are on slops, temperatures can be even cooler on its surrounding mountains.
|Weather averages for Medellín City|
|Raining average, sun brightness and relative humidity|
|Average raining (mm)||55||77||114||179||191||153||108||154||178||218||150||79|
|Relative humidity (%)||66||66||67||70||71||68||63||64||68||72||73||70|
|Sun brightness (hour/month)||177||148||154||128||142||170||204||192||150||135||140||156|
|Information according to:|
Olaya Herrera Airport
Medellín is a city based in a republican democratic system that comes from the Administrative decentralisation processes stated in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport (Aeropuerto Enrique Olaya Herrera is an airport located in Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia, near the center of The Political Constitution of Colombia, promulgated in 1991 and better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia Government is shared by the Mayor of Medellín and the Municipal Council, both elected by popular vote. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government
The municipality is made by official departments (secretarías): Social promotion, urban culture, social development, education, evaluation and control, government, resources, public works, administrative services, environment, general department, private department, transport and women. There are also many departments with a certain autonomy: the Olaya Herrera Airport, the Public Library (Biblioteca Pública Piloto), the College of Antioquia (Colegio Mayor), the Urban Development Enterprise (EDU), the Public Service Enterprise (EEPPM), the Sport and Recreation Institute (INDER), the General Enterprises of Medellín (EEVVM), the Medellín Bus stations, the General Hospital of Medellín, the health service enterprise "Metrosalud", the Metropolitan Institute of Technology (ITM), the Metro de Medellín, the Department for the Administration of the Medellín parks (Metroparques) and Metroseguridad. The Metro de Medellín is an urban train that crosses the Metropolitan Area of Medellín from North to South and from Centre to West
The city belongs to the Medellín Metropolitan Area that is made by ten municipalities. Medellín is divided into six zones and these are subdivided into 16 Communes. The barrios and urban institutional areas make the Communes. Barrio is a Spanish word meaning District or Neighborhood. The Word has come into use in English mostly through the large There are more than 249 barrios and 5 townships, which are part of the municipality of Medellín. Corregimiento is Spanish language term used for Country subdivisions It is used in Corregimientos of Colombia, below departments
Streets in Medellín are somewhat defined based on the Cartesian coordinate system. In Mathematics, the Cartesian coordinate system (also called rectangular coordinate system) is used to determine each point uniquely in a plane Certain definitions for these streets are:
The present-day economy of Medellín is one of the largest of Colombia and is led by a powerful group of people from the private sector known as the Grupo Empresarial Antioqueño (Antioquian Enterprises Group). (It was known as the Sindicato Antioqueño -Antioquian Union-, but after being mistakenly associated with working unions abroad, which hampered its international growth for many years; the more formal name was created) . Represented by David Bojanini; who leads Suramericana de Seguros (an insurance conglomerate), Carlos Piedrahita; with the Compañía Nacional de Chocolates (Food industry), José Alberto Velez; Cementos Argos (a multinational cement company) and Jorge Londoño; leading Bancolombia, (Colombia's largest bank). Together they consolidated this group that has an aggregate market capitalization of approximately US$17 billion dollars and who employ more than 80,000 Colombians. 
This group also participates in other sectors of the city industry and is an active trader in the Colombian stock exchange. The city serves as headquarters for many national and multinational companies and its centres of higher education constantly contribute to the modernization of the region and its industry.
Tourism has strongly developed in the city in recent years. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The main economic products are steel, textiles, confections, food and beverage, agriculture (from its rural area), public services, chemical products and pharmaceuticals, refined oil and flower exports. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Confectionery is a set of Food items that are rich in Sugar; modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by Government to its Citizens, either directly (through the Public sector) or An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also
According to Proexport Colombia, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) can be studied in two areas: Medellín as a Metropolitan Area and Medellín itself. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central As a Metro Area, it contributes the 67% of the total State of Antioquia's GDP. As the only city it contributes the 55% of the GDP State. At its level the State of Antioquia is the second national economical region of Colombia. The Antioquia's GDP was by 2005 more than USD 14,700 and it is the first exporter State of Colombia. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The Aburrá Valley is the first economical concentration of the State and its GDP was of USD 7,800 million. 
In the National GDP, Medellín contributes the 8%. If we combined the Medellín GDP contribution with the one of Valle del Cauca State the total is 11%. It means that Medellín is the second economical region in Colombia after Bogotá as far as 2005. Bogotá —officially named Bogotá DC (DC for " Distrito Capital " which means "Capital District" formerly called Santa Fe de Bogotá
The 2005 Report of the Economic Colombian Review of Proexport and the International Cooperation Agency of Medellín, concluded also that Medellín was at the same level of GDP contribution to the national economy with cities like Panama, Lima and San José de Costa Rica. Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama. Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking San José ( Spanish: San José; ˌsɑːn hɒˈsɛː is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica, and is at the heart of the sprawling Gran Area Metropolitana The % GDP contribution of Medellín to the national economy was superior to cities like Monterrey - Mexico (6,47%); Cali - Colombia (6,26%) and Miami - USA (0,58%). This article is about the Mexican city for other uses see Monterrey (disambiguation. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Medellín created the first Colombian Business cluster being with the Antioquia State the first exporter region of the country with 1,750 exporter enterprisers based in Medellín. A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected Businesses suppliers and associated institutions in a particular field  The Cluster was created with the support of the Chamber of Commerce of Medellín and the City Administration for an actual total of 21,000 companies that share the 40% of total exportations, the 25% of the regional GDP and the 40% of the Metro Area employment.  The main economical activities of the Medellín Cluster (MC) are located in electricity generation, textile, fashion design, construction, tourism and business. Electricity generation is the process of converting non-electrical Energy to Electricity. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Fashion design is the Applied art dedicated to Clothing and lifestyle Accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to  As a goal of the MC is the inclusion of the health services, a sector that is also very important in the local economy.
Medellín became in the last decade as a main destination for national and international tourism. The city has the infrastructure to answer the exigencies of a tourist industry at any level. As a trade and industrial centre, its tourism is rather of business, congresses, international and national meetings and the health tourism due to its world reputation in medicine and modern health centres. Plaza Mayor was built for congresses and expositions with all the facilities of any international space of such kind. Several hotels are specialized in this kind of events, most of them with halls and meeting rooms for conventions, seminars, rooms with offices, translation services and many other facilities for business people. In health service Medellín is leader in plastic surgery, organ transplant and health treatments related to cancer and circulatory system pathology. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty interested in the correction of form and function Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled
As setting, the Aburrá Valley is a favourite place for photographers due to the high mountains that surround the city as green-blue walls, sun settings and hills among the urban areas with several parks. The Arví Regional Park with 11,241 hectares in the Santa Elena Township is one of the most visited. That is a place for camping, ecological scouting and contemplation of stunning views of the city. In many other hills there are tourist spots for view seen, restaurants, music and dance, shopping and ecology.
December is one of the best times to visit Medellín, because is the month where the city is adorned with thousand of colorful lights and designs that attracts national and international visitors.
Among the several Catholic churches in the city, the most visited are the Metropolitan Cathedral in the Bolívar Square (downtown) that is said to be the biggest only-brick temple of the world with 45 metres of high and 5,000 meters square of area. Other old temples can be seen downtown like the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria, the Veracruz Church, one of the oldest in the Aburrá Valley, the Saint Ignatius Church, Saint Joseph Church, Saint Anthony Church and many others.
Medellín is also a city of Museums, sculptures, popular festivities (Feria de las Flores, Desfile de Mitos y Leyendas, International Festival of Poetry, Feria Taurina and many others), concerts, theatre, opera, parks, tourist areas and a very busy nightlife with the traditional rumba.
There are obvious signs of heavy urban development within the city of Medellín, particularly with the construction of new skyscrapers. In fact, Medellín is outpacing all other major Colombian cities in the construction and proposed development of new high-rises, including Bogotá, the nation's capital and economic centre. As April 2008, there were 127 high-rises under construction in Medellín, including 25 being approved, and 17 being proposed.  Interestingly, there are more high-rises under construction in Medellín today than in New York City, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia combined. The City of New York Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə
Medellín is also home to over 30 universities that serve mainly the Antioquia State, the "Eje Cafetero" (Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis) region and the Caribbean Coast. Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis (Spanish Eje Cafetero de Colombia a part the Colombian Paisa region famous for the growing and production of a majority of the Colombian Among the most important are the public universities Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Nacional and Politecnico Jaime Isaza Cadavid, and the private EAFIT University, Universidad de Medellín, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, Universidad Santo Tomas, Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje SENA and CES. The University of Antioquia is located in Antioquia Department, Colombia. National University of Colombia (Universidad Nacional de Colombia also referred to as UN, is a public, Coeducational Research University The Pontifical Bolivarian University (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana also referred to as UPB, is a private university in Colombia with its main campus There are also important technological centres such as the Metropolitan Institute of Technology (ITM).
During the last decade the administration of the city has given importance to the popular education with the building of several schools and libraries in poor quarters. Many private schools and colleges have a long tradition in the city, several of them run by the Catholic Church, private organizations and foreign institutions. Among of them can be mentioned: Theodoro Hertzl School, The Columbus School, San Ignacio de Loyola School, Colegio Colombo Britanico, El Corazonista School, Marymount School, Montessori School, Gimnasio Los Pinares, Gimnasio Los Alcázares, San José De La Salle, Instituto Jorge Robledo, the Salesian Technical School Pedro Justo Berrío, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Colegio Cumbres and many others. The Salesians of Don Bosco (or the Salesian Society, originally known as the Society of St
Many NGOs and official organizations have very important nets in the city to support the development of children and youth from poor communities, for example Ciudad Don Bosco that cares for street children. Street children is a term used to refer to children who live on the streets  The process of pacification of the city brought several organizations to the poorest quarters to work with youth that have been involved in urban violence in order to give to them better opportunities. In that process the Medellín universities, public and private, played a good role together with official institutions of the local and national level.
International flights are served through the José María Córdova International Airport (MDE), in Rionegro, another municipality east of Medellín and outside the Aburrá Valley. José María Córdova International Airport is the main Airport serving the Colombian city of Medellín and its surrounding metropolitan area José María Córdova International Airport is the main Airport serving the Colombian city of Medellín and its surrounding metropolitan area Rionegro is a City and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia, located in the subregion of Eastern Antioquia. The José María Córdova Intl. is better suited for large aircraft and instrument/night time operation. Its international terminal is served with daily international flights to and from Miami, New York, Caracas, Quito, Panama City, Porlamar, Aruba and other important cities. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. Quito, officially San Francisco de Quito, is the Capital of Ecuador in northwestern South America. Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama. Porlamar is the largest city on Isla Margarita, Nueva Esparta State in Venezuela. Aruba is a -long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Sea, north of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Falcón State, Venezuela Olaya Herrera Airport (EOH) serves mainly regional flights, commuter and light aircraft. Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport (Aeropuerto Enrique Olaya Herrera is an airport located in Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia, near the center of
Diesel buses, taxis and an urban train referred as Metro de Medellín served as public transportation in the city. The Metro de Medellín is an urban train that crosses the Metropolitan Area of Medellín from North to South and from Centre to West . The Metro of Medellín connects the cities of Medellín, Itagüí, Envigado and Bello. Itagüí (pron /i ta 'gwi/ ee-tah-GWEE is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. Envigado is a city of Colombia in the department of Antioquia, located at the south of the Aburrá Valley and belonging to the Metropolitan Area Bello is a town and Municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia and is a suburb of Medellín, the department capital Line A departs from Itagüí to Niquía, while Line B goes from San Antonio to San Javiér. The metro is complemented with Line K and Line J, an air cable car, locally known as Metrocable, which serves a depressed and geographically difficult area. Metrocable is an Aerial tramway system implemented by the local government of Medellín, Colombia whose main function is to be a complementary service of Medellín's Line K begins on Acevedo Station on Metro Line A, and continues uphill ending in Santo Domingo Savio. Line J begins on San Javiér Station on Metro Line B, and continues uphill ending in La Aurora. A new Metrocable line (Line S) is projected to be inaugurated in 2009, and will connect Santo Domingo Savio with El Tambo in Arví Park near Guarne. This article is about the year For the film see 2009 Lost Memories. Guarne is a town and Municipality in the Colombian department of Antioquia. Medellín is the only Colombian city with such transportation systems.
Despite the variety of options, traffic in Medellín has become chaotic, as the number of vehicles have exceeded highway capacity; furthermore, the pollution produced by the diesel buses has become a major issue, most notably in the center of the city and the southern district of El Poblado. The city has no further space for the construction of new highways.
In 2006, the construction of Metroplus began, a service of buses with an exclusive road, which will allow faster transit for the service's buses, and stations, much like Bogotá's TransMilenio. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The TransMilenio is a Bus rapid transit The service will be inaugurated in 2008, and it will cover most of the city, the first step will be the Troncal Medellín that will go from the Universidad de Medellín in the west, to Aranjuez, in the north east part of the city. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The service will help to decrease the city's contamination and traffic problems, as many old buses will be retired and the service's buses will work with natural gas. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane,
|Growing of the population of|
Medellín between 1905-2005
| % growing|
year base 1905
|1973**||1. 077. 252||1791%|
|1985**||1. 468. 089||2454%|
|1993**||1. 630. 009||2725%|
|2005**||2. 223. 078||3717%|
|*Historia de Antioquia - **Censos del DANE|
The 58% of the Antioquian State population lives in the Aburrá Valley. From that number, the 67% lives in the Medellín municipality. From those who live now in Medellín, 61. 3% were born in the city, 38% in other Colombian municipality and 0,3% in other country. 
According with DANE, Medellín had by 2005 a population of 2,223,078 inhabitants becoming the second most populated city of Colombia. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Metropolitan Area of Medellín had that year 3,312,165 inhabitants. The density for km. sq in the city is 5,820. There were 130,031 Medellineans living in the city townships. 46,7% of Medellineans is males and 53,3% is females. Illiteracy is 9,8% in persons older than 5 years old. The 98,8% of the houses in Medellín has electricity, the 97. 3% has drinking water and the 91,0% has fix phone. 
According to the 2005 DANE census, in that year Medellín registered 33,307 new born, a little less than year 2004 (33,615). "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Dead numbers for year 2005 were 10,828, less than year 2004 with 11,512.
The vast majority of Paisas are of mixed white European and native descendant, followed closely by Italians. This article is about paisa the coin used in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Medellin also received a lot of immigration during the 17th and 18th centuries mainly from Spain. Later, some immigrants arrived from Syria, Jordan, Germany and Portugal during the 19th century. There are also Zambo-Colombians and Afro-Colombians.
The Chocó Department is just west of Antioquia and leading the move of many Afro-Colombian and Zambo-Colombian migrants to Medellín and other municipalities near Medellín. Migration from the Colombian Caribbean coasts has been important in the city especially through young people who come to study in the Medellinian universities and remain to work. The main foreign migration is of Ecuadorians dedicated to informal trade. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics.
According with the 2005 DANE census, the ethnicity of the Medellinians during that year was 93,4% Mestizos & White, 6,5% Black and 0,1% Yellow. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin
The city is universally known as the City of Eternal Spring.
People from Medellín are actually called by their State denomination: Antioqueños (Antioquians), as opposed to a city-derived name: Medellinenses (Medellinians). They are also known as Paisas, which some suggest is derived from the coffee growers. Paisa (pl Paisas) A person from the “Paisa region” in Colombia, South America The term Paisa comes from the word Paisano (fellow countrymen). They make up one of the five different regional cultures within Colombia, also called the Paisa region with the states of Caldas, Risaralda, Quindío and some towns of Valle del Cauca and Tolima. Paisa (pl Paisas) A person from the “Paisa region” in Colombia, South America
Although the Paisa culture is dominant in Medellín (the "Paisa Capital"), it is possible to find variety as the city starts to be more cosmopolitan. Some streets of the city start to reflect such reality: places where you can find vallenatos, traditional music from Chocó, national and international food, Chinese restaurants, Mexicans and even Argentinean cafés. Vallenato, along with Cumbia, is presently the most popular Folk music of Colombia. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The universities in special became a meeting of a human variety with the richness of students coming from Aborigin communities of Colombia and foreigners.
The Paisa culture is made rather by Spanish background; evident Catholic traditions, business people and they are famous for being very welcoming and friendly. Paisas like Fiesta Brava, rodeo, music, poetry and soccer. Bullfighting or Tauromachy (from Greek ταυρομαχία - tauromachia, "bull-fight" is a traditional spectacle of Spain Rodeo (ˈroʊdioʊ or /roʊˈdeɪoʊ/ is a sport which arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later the United States Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered They are very proud of their city, their success and future and they talk about that every moment. Paisas like people, they speak loudly, they smile very easy and can create a party in a short time. They are famous for being hard workers. It is common to discuss prizes with Paisas in popular markets. The traditional rumba is the way they call the nightlife of enjoying weekends in discos, pubs, parks or certain appropiated streets. 
La Feria de las Flores (The Festival of the Flowers) is the most important festival of Antioquia and it takes place in Medellín in early August. Festival of the Flowers (Feria de las Flores is a festival that takes place in the Colombian city of Medellín. A festival is an event usually and ordinarily staged by a local community which centers on some unique aspect of that community The event has been celebrated every year since 1957. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) This festival has several activities such as antique cars parade, Desfíle de Silleteros (flower carriers parade), mass horse rides down the streets, exhibition of fondas from much of the towns in Antioquia, etc. A parade (also called march or marchpast) is a procession of people usually organized along a street often in Costume, and often accompanied by Fire A cavalcade is a Procession or Parade (of sorts on Horseback, or a mass Trail ride by a company of riders.
Other festivals are the International Poetry Festival (June) (which received the 2006 Right Livelihood Award ), the Parade of Myths and Legends (December) and ColombiaModa (fashion industry event). The Right Livelihood Award, established in 1980 by Jakob von Uexkull, is an award that is presented annually usually on December 9 to honour those "working on
Medellín's best known and most popular sports clubs are Atlético Nacional and Independiente Medellín football (soccer) teams. Corporación Deportiva Club Atlético Nacional is a Colombian football team based in Medellín. Corporación Deportiva Independiente Medellín is a professional Colombian Football (soccer team competing in Fútbol Profesional Colombiano, the Colombian They play at the Atanasio Girardot Stadium. Medellín is also known for its two main swimming teams, which are Calamares Pilsen and Huracanes. Three times Tour de France stage winner Santiago Botero Echeverry was also born in the city. Santiago Botero Echeverry (born October 27, 1972 in Medellín, Colombia) is a Colombian professional Road bicycle racer. Medellín is also the birthplace of professional golfer and PGA Tour player Camilo Villegas. Professional career Villegas began playing on the PGA Tour in 2004 and earned his PGA Tour card just prior to the 2006 season
Besides being called the "industrial capital of Colombia", Medellín is also called "Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera" (The City of Everlasting Spring), "Capital de la Montaña" (Mountain's Capital), "Ciudad de las Flores" (City Of The Flowers), "Capital de las Orquídeas" (Orchids' Capital), "La Bella Villa" (Beautiful Village), "Tacita de Plata" (Little Silver Cup), and "Medallo".
Iglesia Nuestra Iglesia de la Candelaria
Plazuela San Ignacio
Estacion del Ferrocaril
Facultad de Minas
Race Monument by Rodrigo Arenas
Biblioteca España (Spain Library)
Library Publica Piloto
Leon de Greiff Library
Museo El Castillo
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