"DC10" redirects here. For the Ibiza nightclub, see DC10 (nightclub)
. DC10 (pronounced DeeSee) is a world-renowned nightclub on the island of Ibiza in the Mediterranean.
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is an American three-engine medium- to long-range widebody airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Ghana Airways was an Airline based at Kotoka International Airport, Accra, Ghana. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts McDonnell Douglas was a major American Aerospace manufacturer and Defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. American Airlines Inc (AA is a US -based airline and the world's Largest airline in total passenger miles transported and passenger fleet size FedEx Express is a cargo airline based in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Omni Air International is a United States charter Airline, based in Tulsa Oklahoma, USA. Arrow Air is an American Cargo airline based in Miami, Florida, USA. Gemini Air Cargo was an American ACMI (Aircraft Crew Maintenance & Insurance Cargo airline headquartered in Dulles, Virginia, USA WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A trijet is an Aircraft powered by three Jet engines Early twin-jet designs were limited by the FAA 's " 60-minute rule " whereby wide-body aircraft is a large Airliner with twin aisles and typically a fuselage diameter of 5 to 6 metres (16 to 20 ft The vertical stabilizers, or fins, of Aircraft, Missiles or Bombs are typically found on the aft end of the Fuselage or body The model was a successor to the company's DC-8 for long-range operations, and competed in the same markets as the Airbus A300, Boeing 747, and Lockheed L-1011 Tristar, which has a similar layout to the DC-10. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Production of the DC-10 ended in December 1988 with 386 delivered to airlines and 60 to the U.S. Air Force as air-to-air refueling tankers, designated the KC-10 Extender. Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout  The DC-10 was succeeded by the related McDonnell Douglas MD-11 which entered service in 1990. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
The design of the DC-10 began in 1967.  It became McDonnell Douglas's first commercial airliner after the merger between McDonnell Aircraft Corporation and Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967. An airliner is a large Fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers The McDonnell Aircraft Corporation was an American Aerospace manufacturer based in St The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American Aerospace manufacturer, based in Long Beach California. It was built to a specification from American Airlines for a widebody aircraft smaller than the Boeing 747 but capable of flying similar long-range routes from airports with shorter runways. American Airlines Inc (AA is a US -based airline and the world's Largest airline in total passenger miles transported and passenger fleet size Although the Boeing 747 had commercial advantages due to its size, smaller airports could not accommodate it because of gate restrictions and runway length. McDonnell Douglas was able to capitalize on this with the DC-10.
The DC-10 first flew on August 29, 1970 and entered commercial service with launch customer American Airlines on August 5, 1971 on a round trip flight between Los Angeles and Chicago, nearly a year before the Lockheed L-1011 Tristar (which was built to a similar specification). Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The similarity to the L-1011 in terms of passenger capacity and launch in the same time frame resulted in a head to head sales competition which affected profitability of the aircraft. The launch customers for the DC-10 were American Airlines and United Airlines with orders for 25 and 60 respectively of the Series 10 model. United Air Lines Inc, trading as United Airlines ( is a major airline of the United States. Eventually, the DC-10 was able to distinguish itself from its competitors with a second engine supplier, which has the possible effect of controlling costs due to competition, as well as earlier introduction of longer range variants than the L-1011.
Northwest Airlines DC-10-30.
The first DC-10 version was the "domestic" series 10 with a range of 3,800 miles (6,112 km). The series 20 (only ordered by Northwest Orient and Japan Airlines) had a typical load range of 5,750 mi (9,265 km) or a maximum payload range of 7,520 km. The series 30 had a typical load range of 6,220 mi (10,010 km) or a maximum payload range of 7,410 km. The series 20 was powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines, whereas the series 10 and 30 engines were General Electric CF6.
Before delivery of its aircraft, Northwest's president asked that the "series 20" aircraft be redesignated "series 40" because he argued that the aircraft was much improved over the original design. The FAA issued the Series 40 certificate on 27 October 1972. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
One of the main visible differences between the models is that the series 10 has three sets of landing gear (one front and two main) while the series 30 and 40 have four gear (one front, three main). The center main 2-wheel landing gear (which extends from the center of the fuselage) was added to accommodate the extra weight by distributing the weight and providing additional braking.
The 446th and final DC-10 rolled off the production line in December 1988 and was delivered to Nigeria Airways in July 1989. Nigeria Airways was the former national Airline of Nigeria, founded in 1958 and headquartered in Lagos.  The DC-10 was assembled at McDonnell Douglas's Douglas Products Division in Long Beach, California. Long Beach is a city located in southern California, USA, on the Pacific coast 
FedEx DC-10 landing.
The DC-10 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit with a single fin and rudder. It has a retractable tricycle landing gear, the later series 30 and 40 have an additional two-wheel main landing gear. It is powered by two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stablizer. It was designed to be a medium to long-range airliner with a widebody fuselage to seat over 250 passengers. It is operated by a crew of three located on the flightdeck in the nose on the same level as the passenger cabin. The fuselage has underfloor stowage for cargo and baggage.
Despite its troubled beginnings in the 1970s, which gave it an unfavorable reputation, the DC-10 ultimately proved a reliable aircraft, much loved by engineers and pilots. The original DC-10-10's notorious safety record continuously improved as design flaws were ironed out and fleet hours increased. In fact, the DC-10's lifetime safety record as of 2003 is comparable to similar second-generation passenger jets.  Increased inspections and modifications made the DC-10 among the safest aircraft for passenger travel.
The DC-10 was designed with cargo doors that opened outward instead of inward as inward-opening "plug-type" doors used on smaller pressurized aircraft. Outward-opening doors allowed larger openings required by baggage for a wide-body jet. Outward-opening doors rely on a heavy locking mechanism to secure the door against the outward force caused by the pressurization of the fuselage. Pressurization generally refers to the application of Pressure in a given situation or environment and more specifically refers to the process by which Atmospheric pressure In the event that the door lock malfunctioned, there was potential for explosive decompression. This was discovered in 1972 following an incident aboard American Airlines Flight 96, but no mandatory repair order was issued until the Turkish Airlines Flight 981 crash in 1974. American Airlines Flight 96 was a regular McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 flight operated by American Airlines. Turkish Airlines Flight 981, registration TC-JAV was a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 which crashed just outside Senlis, France, on March 3 The cargo door on all DC-10s then underwent a redesign that added an additional lock safety device to the system.
Other initial design problems included its lack of locking flap mechanisms designed to maintain their position in the event of a hydraulic failure. The lines from all three independent and redundant hydraulic systems were located in close proximity, directly beneath the tail engine. The MD-11, and later DC-10s incorporated hydraulic fuses to prevent such catastrophic loss of control in event of a hydraulic rupture. In hydraulic systems a fuse is a component which prevents the sudden loss of Hydraulic fluid pressure.
Although the design of the engine pylons was adequate, it was not designed to facilitate easy maintenance; the original procedure for an engine change was to detach the engine from the pylon first, which was tedious and time-consuming due to tight tolerances. To save time and costs, American and Continental Airlines both started to use a faster procedure, instructing their mechanics to remove the engine with pylon as one unit using forklift trucks. McDonnell-Douglas advised against this procedure.  This procedure was very difficult to execute successfully and led to damage that was the principal cause of the crash of American Airlines Flight 191. American Airlines Flight 191 was a flight to Los Angeles International Airport from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois. In November 1979, the FAA fined American Airlines $500,000 for using this faulty maintenance procedure. Continental Airlines was fined $100,000 on a similar charge. 
An acoustic/thermal insulation material known as metallized polyethylene terephthalate or Mylar which was subsequently found to be flammable in the investigation of the crash of Swissair flight 111, was used on some DC-10s. Biaxially-oriented Polyethylene terephthalate (boPET Polyester film is used for its high Tensile strength, Chemical and dimensional Stability Swissair Flight 111 (SR-111 SWR-111 was a Swissair McDonnell Douglas MD-11 on a scheduled airline flight from John F In November 2000, the FAA ordered this insulation to be removed by June 2005.  The high cost of complying with the Airworthiness Directive (FAA estimates a cost of $991,010 per airplane) was a factor for some airlines to withdraw the airplane from passenger service prematurely.  This material has been removed from all commercial aircraft since 2005.
Japan Airlines DC-10-40
The DC-10 was manufactured in a number of different variants:
- DC-10-10 (122 built): Original version, produced from 1970. ( or JAL, is an airline of Japan It is one of the largest Airline operators in Asia. The customers for this domestic version were American Airlines (35), Continental Airlines (8), Laker Airways (6), National Airlines (11), Turkish Airlines (3), United Airlines (46) and Western Airlines (13). Continental Airlines Inc ( is a United States certificated air carrier. Laker Airways was a privately owned British airline founded by Sir Freddie Laker in 1966 National Airlines was founded in 1934 and was based in Miami, Florida. Turkish Airlines Inc ( Turkish Türk Hava Yolları Anonim Ortaklığı) (THY is the national airline of Turkey based in İstanbul WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The DC-10-10 was equipped with GE CF6-6 engines, which was the first civil engine from the successful CF6-family. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
- DC-10-10CF (9 built): Convertible passenger/cargo transport aircraft. Only built for Continental Airlines (8) and United Airlines (1). Continental Airlines Inc ( is a United States certificated air carrier.
- DC-10-15 (7 built): Also known as the "DC-10 Sport", designed for use at hot high-altitude airports. The series 15 was fitted with higher-thrust GE CF6-50 powerplants. Only built for Mexican carriers Aeroméxico and Mexicana. Aerovías de México SA de CV, operating as AeroMéxico, is an Airline based in Mexico City, Mexico. Produced between 1979 and 1982.
- DC-10-20 : Proposed but unbuilt DC-10-10 powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofans. With minimal airline interest for the original -20, the name was initially recycled to cover the Pratt-powered version of the intercontinental-range DC-10-30. Northwest, one of the launch customers for this longer-range JT9D-powered DC-10 requested the name change to -40 (see -40 entry below).
- DC-10-30 (164 built): The most common model, built with General Electric CF6-50 turbofan engines and larger fuel tanks to increase range and fuel efficiency, as well as a set of rear center landing gear to support the increased weight. A turbofan is a type of Jet engine, similar to a Turbojet. It essentially consists of a Ducted fan with a smaller diameter turbojet engine In Aviation, the undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually wheels that supports an Aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi It was the second long-range model after the -40 and very popular with European flag carriers. Produced from 1972 to 1988, the DC-10-30 was delivered to 38 different customers, amongst which Lufthansa (11), Swissair (11), VARIG (11), KLM (10) and Iberia (9) were the largest. Swissair ( Swiss Air Transport Company Limited) was the former national Airline of Switzerland. VRG Linhas Aéreas SA, Operating as VARIG (an acronym for V iação A érea RI o G randense is the Brazilian KLM Royal Dutch Airlines ( Dutch: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, literally Royal Aviation Company; usual English translation Iberia Líneas Aéreas de España SA (Iberia Airlines of Spain ( or Iberia as it is commonly known is the largest Airline of Spain, based
- DC-10-30CF (26 built): Convertible cargo/passenger transport version and delivered to Martinair Holland (4), Overseas National Airways (5), Sabena (5), Trans International Airlines (3) and World Airways (9). Martinair is an Airline based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It operates passenger and cargo services to over 50 destinations worldwide The original Overseas National Airways was an American Airline, formed in June 1950 as a Supplemental carrier. SABENA was the national airline of Belgium from 1923 to 2001 with its base at Brussels National Airport. Not to be confused with Trans World Airlines, Texas International Airlines, or Transamerican Airlines. Sabena was the only commercial operator to fly both cargo and passengers at the same time with its DC-10-30CF.
- DC-10-30ER (6 built): Extended range version. The first aircraft was delivered to Finnair in 1981, followed by Swissair with two aircraft in 1982 and finally Thai Airways International with two in 1987 and one in 1988. Finnair Plc is Finland 's largest Airline and the Flag carrier, with its headquarters in Vantaa, Finland and its main hub at Helsinki-Vantaa Thai Airways International Public Company Limited (การบินไทย ( SET: THAI is the national air carrier of Thailand, operating out The -30ER aircraft have a higher Maximum Take Off Weight of 263,160 kg/580,000 lb, are powered by three GE CF6-50C2B engines each producing 54,000 lb of thrust and are equipped with an additional fuel tank in the rear cargo hold providing an additional 700 miles of range (10,620 km/6,600 mi/5,730 nm). In 1983, United Airlines leased three DC-10-30s from CP Air. Canadian Pacific Airlines, also called CP Air, was a Canadian airline that operated from 1942 to 1987 These aircraft were modified to -30ER standards to allow the US carrier to fly non-stop on its Seattle-Hong Kong route. When returned to the Canadian operators these aircraft were kept in that version and two more DC-10-30s were converted by Canadian Airlines to extended range specifications. Canadian Airlines International Ltd was from 1987 until 2001 Canada 's second largest Airline after Air Canada, carrying more than 11
- DC-10-30AF (10 built): The all freight version production could have started in 1979 if Alitalia had confirmed its order for two aircraft then. Thus, that variant of the trijet was only launched into production in May 1984 with the first order for five aircraft from FedEx. The express carrier ordered more DC-10-30AF in July 1985 to bring its order to twelve freighters. The last two were later canceled as the carrier was building up a fleet of second hand aircraft, and reconfigured to passenger by the manufacturer and sold to Biman Bangladesh and Nigeria Airways respectively. Biman Bangladesh Airlines (বিমান বাংলাদেশ এয়ারলাইনস
KC-10 Extender during refueling
- DC-10-40 (42 built): Produced from 1972 to 1982, this was the first long-range version, fitted with Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Originally designated DC-10-20, this model was renamed DC-10-40 after a special request from Northwest Orient Airlines as the aircraft was much improved compared to its original design, with a higher MTOW (in par with the Series 30) and more powerful engines, the airline's president wanted to advertise he had the latest version. Northwest Airlines Inc (often abbreviated NWA) is the principal subsidiary  Northwest Orient Airlines and Japan Airlines were the only airlines to order the series 40 with 22 and 20 aircraft respectively. ( or JAL, is an airline of Japan It is one of the largest Airline operators in Asia. The DC-10-40s delivered to Northwest were first equipped with three Pratt & Whitney JT9D-15 producing 45,700 lb of take off thrust, before the introduction of the JT9D-20J, generating 50,000 lb of thrust through water injection), and had a MTOW of 555,000 lb (251,815 kg), while those produced for Japan Airlines were equipped with P&W JT9D-49A that produced a maximum thrust of 53,000 lb and had a MTOW of 565,000 lb (256,350 kg).
- DC-10-50 (none built): This was a proposed version using Rolls-Royce RB211 engines. It was hoped that by offering these engines British Airways would place an order for the DC-10. Such an order never came and the plans for the DC-10-50 were abandoned.
- KC-10A Extender (60 built): Military version of the DC-10-30 used for aerial refueling. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is The aircraft was ordered by the U. S. Air Force. Produced from 1981. It is the longest-ranged production aircraft in the world.
- KDC-10 (4 built): Aerial refueling tanker for the Royal Netherlands Air Force. Converted from civil airliners (DC-10-30CF) to a similar standard as the KC-10. Also, commercial refueling companies Omega Air and Global Airtanker Service operate two KDC-10 tanker for lease. 
The 10 Tanker during a water drop demonstration.
- MD-10: This was retrofit cockpit upgrade to the DC-10 and a re-designation to MD-10. The upgrade included an Advanced Common Flightdeck (ACF) used on the MD-11. A glass cockpit is an Aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays.  The new cockpit eliminated the need for the flight engineer position and allowed common type rating with the MD-11. In Aviation, a flight engineer is a member of the aircrew of some Aircraft. This allows companies such as Federal Express, which operate both the MD-10 and MD-11, to have a common pilot pool for both aircraft. FedEx Express is a cargo airline based in Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
- 10 Tanker: A DC-10-10 converted into a firefighting tanker aircraft. T910CockpitJPG|thumb|right|Inside view of Tanker 910's cockpit]] Tanker 910 is the call-sign of the only wide-body jet air tanker currently in Fire service.
Incidents and accidents
"If there are in America or the world people who hesitate to fly by DC-10, those people are, like our airplane and our company, victims of a great mass of misinformation and baseless speculation. They have been misled, as we have been maligned, by so much falsehood that the truth, when it finally emerged, was scarcely recognized. "
- Sanford McDonnell, 1980
The early DC-10s suffered a trying time during the 1970s when a string of notorious incidents and crashes led to a brief grounding by the United States Federal Aviation Administration. The Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of
Cargo door problem
The outward-opening cargo door design problem was first identified on June 12, 1972, when American Airlines Flight 96 lost its aft cargo door after takeoff from Detroit, Michigan, but the crew was able to perform an emergency landing with no further incident. Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. American Airlines Flight 96 was a regular McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 flight operated by American Airlines. Before Flight 96 took off, an airport employee had forced the door shut, weakening the locking pin and causing the door to blow out as the plane reached altitude.
In 2006, FedEx
became the first U. FedEx Corporation ( is a Logistics services company based in the United States.
S. carrier to equip its aircraft with an anti-missile defense system. The gray oval Northrop Grumman Guardian
pod can be seen on the belly of this FedEx MD-10 between and just aft of the main landing gear
Although many carriers voluntarily modified the cargo doors and re-trained their ground crews, there was not yet a mandatory redesign of the system. The Northrop Grumman Guardian is a passive anti-missile Countermeasure system designed specifically to protect commercial airliners from shoulder-launched missiles Severe design problems still persisted with the aircraft's cargo doors, and two years after the American Airlines incident, an almost identical cargo door blow-out caused Turkish Airlines Flight 981 to crash into a forest near the town of Ermenonville shortly after leaving Orly Airport in Paris on March 3, 1974. Turkish Airlines Flight 981, registration TC-JAV was a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 which crashed just outside Senlis, France, on March 3 Ermenonville is a town and commune 45 kilometers North-East of Paris, in the Oise département of France. Paris - Orly Airport (Aéroport de Paris - Orly is an Airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. 346 people were killed in one of the deadliest air crashes of the twentieth century, recorded in Aviation History books as the "Ermenonville air disaster". The circumstances surrounding this crash were similar to those surrounding the previous accident; however, a modified seating configuration on the Turkish aircraft exacerbated the effects of decompression which caused the floor of the aircraft to collapse into the cargo bay. Vents were not present to allow the pressure between the cargo and passenger compartments to equalize. Control cables running through the floor of the plane were severed when the floor collapsed and this rendered the aircraft uncontrollable. In the aftermath of this crash, all DC-10s underwent a mandatory door redesign.
American Airlines Flight 191
In 1979, with the cargo door issues resolved, DC-10s (all series) around the world were grounded following the crash of American Airlines Flight 191. American Airlines Flight 191 was a flight to Los Angeles International Airport from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois. Flight 191 lost its number one wing engine after taking off from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, USA, May 25, 1979. Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar)  As the engine separated upwards, it ripped through the leading edge of the wing, rupturing hydraulic lines which caused a hydraulic cylinder that locked the port wing slats to fail. As airspeed was reduced per AA emergency climb-out procedures, the slats retracted, the left wing stalled, the plane rolled left and crashed before the flight crew could recover. All 271 people on board, plus two on the ground, were killed in this accident; the worst single plane crash in America.
The United States National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) officials discovered that a maintenance procedure was the culprit: American Airlines mechanics had removed the engine and its pylon together, rather than removing the engine from the pylon then the pylon from the wing, as recommended by McDonnell Douglas. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB is an independent U This was done using a forklift and the pylon was inadvertently cracked in the process. The short-cut procedure, thought to save several man hours on maintenance, was used by three major airlines, although McDonnell Douglas advised against it.  Although McDonnell Douglas was not directly at fault for the pylon separation, it redesigned the DC-10 to allow more redundancies in the hydraulic systems.
The Chicago incident also highlighted a major deficiency in the DC-10 design—its lack of locking flap mechanisms designed to maintain their position in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic failure. Other wide-body aircraft of the day carried such a feature, but it was omitted from the DC-10. Another deficiency highlighted in the NTSB report was the vulnerable placement of wiring at the leading edge (front) of the wing. When the engine pulled up and over the wing, it tore out these wires, thus rendering inoperable vital warning instruments in the cockpit. Other aircraft of this era typically placed this kind of wiring in the center of the wing, in a less vulnerable position. In addition, only the pilot had a stick-shaker to warn of stalling, as the co-pilot was the one flying the plane, there was no warning that the plane was stalling.
United Airlines Flight 232
Perhaps the most infamous instance of a DC-10 crash was the Flight 232 disaster at Sioux City, Iowa, USA, on July 19, 1989. United Airlines Flight 232 was a scheduled flight operated by United Airlines between Denver and Philadelphia via Chicago. Sioux City (ˌsuːˈsɪti is a city located in northwest Iowa in the United States. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) After the #2 engine (tail engine) suffered an uncontained fan disk failure in flight which ruptured critical hydraulic lines, the crew, led by Captain Al Haynes and assisted by a senior pilot flying as a passenger (Dennis E. "Denny" Fitch), performed an emergency landing by varying remaining engine power to control the plane. Alfred C "Al" Haynes (born 1932 in Dallas Texas) is a former Airline pilot and a regular guest speaker at social events Dennis E (Denny Fitch (born 1942 was the off-duty DC-10 training captain who helped captain Al Haynes minimize loss of life on United Airlines Flight Although the aircraft was destroyed with the loss of many lives, the crew flew the aircraft onto the runway in a partially controlled manner and 185 of the 296 people on board survived. It is the closest any passenger jet has come to a safe landing without hydraulics.
The Sioux City crash concerned investigators because the total loss of hydraulic pressure aboard the DC-10 was considered nearly impossible. The design had lines from all three independent and redundant hydraulic systems in close proximity, directly beneath the #2 (tail) engine. Debris from the #2 fan disk separation failure penetrated all three lines resulting in total loss of control to the elevators, ailerons and rudder.
Other notable accidents and incidents
Other than the American Airlines, Turkish Airlines and United Airlines crashes well covered by the media and mentioned above, many other DC-10s were lost in different types of accidents. Other notable incidents involved DC-10s.
- November 3, 1973 - National Airlines Flight 27, a DC-10-10 experienced an uncontained failure of the right (#3) engine. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. This article describes an accident to National Airlines Flight 27 in 1973 The cabin was penetrated by engine shrapnel from the engine and lost pressure. One passenger was killed. The crew initiated an emergency descent, and landed the aircraft safely. 
- December 17, 1973 – Iberia DC-10-30 EC-CBN crashed in bad weather at Boston after having hit landing lights on approach. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar.
- November 12, 1975 – Overseas National Airways DC-10-30CF N1032F was taking off at New York JFK Airport when it encountered a flock of birds. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous John F Kennedy International Airport is an International airport located in Queens County on Long Island in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 Take-off was rejected, but the aircraft could not be stopped on the runway. The pilot steered it on a taxiway Z at a speed of 40 knots. The main undercarriage collapsed and the DC-10 came to a halt on the taxiway’s shoulder where it burned out.
- January 2, 1976 – Overseas National Airways DC-10-30CF N1031F was operating a Hajj on behalf of Saudia. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Saudi Arabian Airlines ( Arabic: الخطوط الجوية العربية السعودية is the national Airline of Saudi Arabia, based While the aircraft was on approach to Ankara, Turkey it reportedly suffered engine troubles. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The DC-10 made a heavy landing and came off the runway. The trijet was then damaged beyond economical repair.
- March 1, 1978 – Continental Airlines DC-10-10 N68045 was destroyed by fire following an aborted take-off at Los Angeles Airport and the collapse of its left main landing gear. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Los Angeles International Airport is the primary Airport serving Los Angeles, California, the second-most populated metropolitan area of
- October 31, 1979 – Western Air Lines DC-10-10 N903WA was destroyed by fire at Mexico City after attempting to land on the wrong runway and having crashed into a building. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico
- November 28, 1979 - An Air New Zealand DC-10-30 flew into Mount Erebus in Antarctica during a sight-seeing trip. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Air New Zealand Limited (, Air New Zealand is a scheduled passenger Airline based in Auckland, New Zealand, and the national Flag carrier Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active Volcano on Earth All 257 on board Air New Zealand Flight 901 were killed. Air New Zealand Flight 901 (TE901 was a scheduled Antarctic sightseeing flight from Auckland International Airport in New Zealand The accident was caused by complex factors not related to the airworthiness of the aircraft.
- February 2, 1981 – Pakistan International Airlines DC-10-30 AP-AXE was destroyed in a hangar fire at Karachi, Pakistan. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Pakistan International Airlines Corporation, more commonly known as Pakistan International Airlines or PIA ( Urdu: پی آئی اے or پاکستان (ڪراچي) is the largest city in Pakistan. It is the world's second largest city proper behind Mumbai in terms of population which exceeds 10 million Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and
- January 23, 1982 – World Airways DC-10-30CF N113WA was damaged beyond economical repair after touching down late and overrunning the icy runway into Boston harbor. Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored Two people were killed.
- September 13, 1982 – Spantax Flight 995 DC-10-30CF EC-DEG was destroyed by fire after an aborted take-off at Malaga, Spain. Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Spantax Flight 995 was a charter flight from Malaga Airport to New York. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
- December 23, 1983 – Korean Air Cargo Flight 084, DC-10-30CF HL7339 was destroyed after colliding head-on with a Piper PA-31 while taxiing at Anchorage, Alaska. Events 962 - Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) These accidents occurred with Korean Air. Korean Air's Disasters perished more than 715 people 16 February 1958 – ( Douglas DC-3) departed from Piper Aircraft Inc, is a manufacturer of General aviation Aircraft, located at the Vero Beach Municipal Airport in Vero Beach Florida The PA-31 Navajo is a family of cabin-class twin-engine aircraft designed and built by Piper Aircraft for the general aviation market using Lycoming engines. All on board both aircraft survived. 
- August 10, 1986 – American Trans Air DC-10-40 N184AT was destroyed by fire while parked at Chicago O'Hare with no injuries or loss of life. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) ATA Airlines Inc, formerly known as American Trans Air, was an American low-cost scheduled service and Charter airline based in Indianapolis
- January 10, 1987 – Nigeria Airways DC-10-30 5N-ANR caught fire after overshooting the runway at Ilorin International Airport, Nigeria during training flights. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Ilorin International Airport is an airport serving Ilorin, a city in the Kwara State of Nigeria.
- May 21, 1988 – American Airlines DC-10-30 N136AA was damaged beyond repair after overrunning the runway during an aborted take-off at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. Events 878 - Syracuse Italy is captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar)
- July 27, 1989 – Korean Air Flight 803, DC-10-30 HL7328 crashed short of the runway in bad weather at Tripoli, Libya. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Korean Air Lines Co Ltd ( Operating as Korean Air, is the national and largest Airline of South Korea; its global headquarters Tripolis ( Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb Libyan vernacular: Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab
- September 19, 1989 – UTA Flight 772, DC-10-30 N54629, crashed in Ténéré Desert following an in-flight bomb explosion, claiming the lives of all on board. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Union des Transports Aériens (UTA was the largest wholly privately owned Independent airline in France. UTA Flight 772 of the French airline Union des Transports Aériens, was a scheduled flight operating from Brazzaville in the Republic of Congo The Ténéré is a Desert region in the south central Sahara.
- December 21, 1992 – Martinair Flight 495 DC-10-30CF PH-MBN crashed while landing in bad weather at Faro, Portugal. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Martinair is an Airline based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It operates passenger and cargo services to over 50 destinations worldwide Martinair Flight 495 was a Dutch DC-10 that crash-landed on Runway 28 of Faro Airport, Portugal, in severe Weather Faro (ˈfaɾu is a city and municipality in southern Portugal.
- April 14, 1993 – American Airlines DC-10-30 N139AA was damaged beyond repair at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport during a landing with crosswind. Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) After the aircraft touched down, it drifted off to the runway's right.
- June 13, 1996 – Garuda Indonesia DC-10-30 PK-GIE had just taken off from Fukuoka Airport, Japan when a high-pressure blade from engine n°3 separated. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) PT (Persero Perusahaan Penerbangan Garuda Indonesia is the national Airline of Indonesia. formerly known as Itazuke Air Base, is an international and domestic Airport in Fukuoka, Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The aircraft was just a few feet above the runway and the pilot decided to abort the take-off. Consequently, the DC-10 skidded off the runway and came to a halt 1,600 ft past it, having lost one of its engines and its landing gear.
- September 5, 1996 – FedEx DC-10-10F N68055 was destroyed by fire at Stewart International Airport, Newburgh, NY, following an emergency landing caused by smoke warnings in the maindeck cargo hold. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) For the military use of this facility see Stewart Air National Guard Base Stewart International Airport is located west of Newburgh
- December 21, 1999 – AOM French Airlines DC-10-30 F-GTDI overran the wet runway at Guatemala City while landing. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Guatemala City (in full La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or Guate) is the Capital and largest city of the At the time of the accident, the trijet was operating for Cubana. For the Russian airline see Kuban Airlines. ||-||-||} Cubana de Aviación S
- April 30, 2000 – DAS Air Cargo DC-10-30F N800WR was damaged beyond repair after overrunning into Lake Victoria while landing at Kampala, Uganda. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. DAS Air Cargo was a Ugandan Cargo airline based at Entebbe. It operated all-cargo services between Europe and 20 cities throughout Africa Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nalubaale) is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. Kampala is the Capital city of Uganda. With a population of 1208544 (2002 it is the largest city in Uganda The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa.
- January 31, 2001: Japan Airlines Flight 958, bound for Narita International Airport from Gimhae International Airport, nearly collided with another Japan Airlines aircraft. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. On Wednesday January 31, 2001, two Japan Airlines aircraft narrowly avoided a Mid-air collision. is an international Airport located in Narita, Chiba, Japan, in the eastern portion of the Greater Tokyo Area. Gimhae International Airport (formerly Kimhae International Airport) is located on the western end of Busan in South Korea. The other aircraft, a Boeing 747, suddenly dived and avoided the Narita-bound DC-10.
- December 18, 2003 – FedEx MD-10-10F N365FE was destroyed by fire during landing at Memphis, Tennessee. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Memphis is a City in the southwest corner of Tennessee, and the County seat of Shelby County.
- April 28, 2004 – Centurion Air Cargo DC-10-30F N189AX hit a pot hole and overran the runway at Bogotá, Colombia. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Centurion Air Cargo is a Cargo airline based in Miami, Florida, USA. Bogotá —officially named Bogotá DC (DC for " Distrito Capital " which means "Capital District" formerly called Santa Fe de Bogotá Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. During the overran, n°1 and 3 engines broke off and the aircraft's belly was damaged beyond repair.
- July 1, 2005 – Biman Bangladesh Airlines DC-10-30 S2-ADN was damaged beyond repair after the aircraft ran off the runway during landing at Chittagong, Bangladesh. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Biman Bangladesh Airlines (বিমান বাংলাদেশ এয়ারলাইনস Chittagong ( Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম Chôţţogram) is Bangladesh 's main Seaport and its second-largest city ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially
- June 4, 2006 – Arrow Air DC-10-10F N68047 overran the runway while landing at Managua, Nicaragua. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Arrow Air is an American Cargo airline based in Miami, Florida, USA. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America The aircraft's front lower fuselage was substantially damaged following the nose landing gear collapse.
The Air France Concorde crash of 2000 was attributed to a fragment of titanium that fell from the thrust reverser of a Continental Airlines DC-10 that had taken off some four minutes earlier. Air France Flight 4590 was a Concorde flight from Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris, France to John F This fragment was traced to a third party parts replacement which had not been approved by the FAA. The Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of A similar incident occurred in the following months when a Northwest Airlines DC-10 lost part of a thrust reverser after departure from Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, also blamed on non-FAA approved parts. Northwest Airlines Inc (often abbreviated NWA) is the principal subsidiary Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport is the largest and busiest airport in the five-state Upper Midwestern region of Minnesota, Iowa,
Sources:  and Jet Airliner Production List
- See also: List of McDonnell Douglas DC-10 operators
Bangladesh Airlines DC-10-30 with landing gear
extended. The following is a list of all current airlines operating the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 as of September 2007 In Aviation, the undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually wheels that supports an Aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi
On January 8, 2007 Northwest Airlines retired its last remaining DC-10 being used for scheduled passenger service, replacing it with an Airbus A330 for a route between Minneapolis-St. Paul and Honolulu, thus ending the aircraft operations with all major airlines. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport is the largest and busiest airport in the five-state Upper Midwestern region of Minnesota, Iowa, Honolulu International Airport is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and is identified as one of the busiest Regarding the retirement of Northwest's DC-10 fleet, Wade Blaufuss, spokesman for the Northwest chapter of the Air Line Pilots Association said, "The DC-10 is a reliable airplane, fun to fly, roomy and quiet, kind of like flying an old Cadillac Fleetwood. We're sad to see an old friend go. " "The DC-10 is going to be remembered as a better cargo plane than passenger plane," said Richard Aboulafia, an analyst at the Teal Group.  In November 2006, ATA Airlines announced it had purchased seven of Northwest's remaining DC-10s, to replace ATA's L-1011 airplanes. ATA Airlines Inc, formerly known as American Trans Air, was an American low-cost scheduled service and Charter airline based in Indianapolis Omni Air International purchased six of Northwest's DC-10 aircraft, recently putting five of them into service, modernizing its fleet and accomplishing considerable upgrades to the flight decks of these aircraft. Omni Air International is a United States charter Airline, based in Tulsa Oklahoma, USA.
The aging models are now largely being used as dedicated freight aircraft. American Airlines and United Airlines have sold their large DC-10-10 fleets to cargo carrier FedEx. Many have been modernized to MD-10s by adding a glass cockpit, which eliminates the need for a flight engineer. A glass cockpit is an Aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays. Other DC-10 aircraft continue in charter and cargo services with their three-person flight deck configuration. Omni Air International and World Airways, continue to operate the DC-10 on charter passenger services as well as for the Air Mobility Command. World Airways Inc is an American non-scheduled Airline currently headquartered in Peachtree City Georgia. Air Mobility Command (AMC is a Major Command (MAJCOM of the U Biman Bangladesh Airlines operates five DC-10-30s as one of their primary passenger aircraft. Biman Bangladesh Airlines (বিমান বাংলাদেশ এয়ারলাইনস
Non-airline operators include The Royal Netherlands Air Force with three DC-10-30CFs converted to KDC-10 flying tankers, the USAF with its 59 KC-10, the 10 Tanker Air Carrier with its modified DC-10-10 used for fighting wildfires, and Orbis International, which uses a single DC-10-10 converted into a flying eye hospital. ORBIS International is an international non-profit Non-governmental organization (NGO dedicated to saving sight worldwide  As of December 2007, there are 21 military and civilian operators of DC-10s. 
|Passengers||380 (1 class), 250 (2 class)|
|Length||182 ft 3 in (55. 5 m)||180 ft 8 in (55 m)||181 ft 7 in (55. 4 m)||182 ft 3 in (55. 5 m)|
|Height||58 ft 1 in (17. 7 m)|
|Wingspan||155 ft 4 in (47. 3 m)||165 ft 4 in (50. 4 m)|
|Fuselage width||19 ft 9 in (6. 02 m)|
|Fuselage height||19 ft 9 in (6. 02 m)|
|Max interior width||18 ft 2 in (5. 54 m)|
|Operating empty weight||240,171 lb (108,940 kg)||266,191 lb (120,742 kg)||270,213 lb (122,567 kg)|
|Maximum take-off weight||430,000 lb|
|Typical Cruise speed||Mach 0. 82|
(564 mph, 908 km/h, 490 kt)
|Max Cruise speed||Mach 0. 88|
(610 mph, 982 km/h, 530 kt)
|Max Range, loaded||3,800 miles (6,114 km)||4,350 mi (7,000 km)||6,220 mi (10,010 km)||5,750 mi (9,252 km)|
|Maximum fuel capacity||21,700 US gal|
|26,647 US gal|
|36,650 US gal|
|36,650 US gal|
|Takeoff run on MTOW||8,612 ft (2,625 m)||7,257 ft (2,212 m)||9,341 ft (2,847 m)||9,242 ft (2,817 m)|
|Service ceiling||42,000 ft (12,802 m)|
|Engine model (x 3)||GE CF6-6D||GE CF6-50C2F||GE CF6-50C||PW JT9D-59A|
|Engine thrust (x 3)||40,000 lbf (177. 9 kN)||46,500 lbf (206. 8 kN)||51,000 lbf (226. 9 kN)||53,000 lbf (235. 8 kN)|
- Sources: , ,  and 
- ^ a b McDonnell Douglas DC-10/KC-10 Transport. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Boeing. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Retrieved on 2006-02-28. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule
- ^ "DC-10 History" on dc-10.net
- ^ a b c Waddington, Terry (July 2000). 'McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (Great Airliners Series: Volume 6). World Transport Press. ISBN 189243704X.
- ^ a b Roach, John; Eastwood, Anthony (July 2006). Jet Airliner Production List Volume 2. (The Aviation Hobby Shop online).
- ^ Hopfinger, Tony (23 October-29 October, 2003). I Will Survive: Laurence Gonzales: 'Who Lives, Who Dies, and Why'. Anchorage Press. The Anchorage Press is a free alternative Weekly newspaper based in Anchorage Alaska and owned by Wick Communications Retrieved on 2007-02-09. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- ^ "Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Airplane Accidents (1959-2005)".
- ^ a b c Aircraft Accident report, DC-10-10, N110A, NTSB, 1979
- ^ Flight 191 accident description, Aviation-Safety.net
- ^ Transport Canada Civil Aviation Airworthiness Notice - B066
- ^ a b FAA Airworthiness Directive 2000-11-2
- ^ Troubled airline industry in for more costs, Reuters
- ^ Omega Air Refuelling FAQs, Omega Air Refueling.
- ^ KDC-10 Air Refueling Tanker Aircraft, Global Airtanker Service.
- ^ McDonnell Douglas (1996-09-16). Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers "McDonnell Douglas and Federal Express to Launch MD-10 Program". Press release. A news release, media release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded Communication directed at members of the News Retrieved on 2007-02-09. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- ^ Northwest Airlines (2007-01-08). Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army "Northwest Brings Customer Comforts Of Airbus A330 Aircraft To Twin Cities-Honolulu Route". Press release. A news release, media release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded Communication directed at members of the News Retrieved on 2007-02-09. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- ^ a b Reed, Ted (2006-06-30). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper End of an Era at Northwest. TheStreet.com. TheStreetcom is a financial company and Website started in 1996 by Jim Cramer and registered on the NASDAQ Stock Market Retrieved on 2007-02-09. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- ^ DC-10 list, planelist. net, December 28, 2007. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
- McDonnell Douglas DC-10 by Terry Waddington (ISBN 189243704X)
- McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and KC-10 Extender by Arthur A C Steffen (ISBN 1857800516)
- McDonnell Douglas DC-10 by Günter Endres (ISBN 1853109142)
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