McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated Hyangchal (literally vernacular letters or local letters) is an archaic writing system of Korea and was used to transcribe the Korean language Gugyeol is a system for rendering texts written in Classical Chinese into understandable Korean. Idu is an archaic Writing system which represents the Korean language using Hanja. Korean mixed script is a form of writing that uses both Hangul (an alphabetical script and Hanja (Chinese characters Korean romanization is a system for representing the Korean language using the Roman alphabet The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language Romanization system in South Korea. The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system In Linguistics, romanization (or latinization, also spelled romanisation or latinisation) is the representation of a Word or The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language Romanization system in South Korea. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Another variant of McCune-Reischauer is used as the official system in North Korea. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia,
The system was created in 1937 by two Americans: George M. McCune and Edwin O. Reischauer. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the George McAfee "Mac" McCune ( June 16, 1908 - November 5, 1948) was co-developer with Edwin O Edwin Oldfather Reischauer ( Tokyo, October 15, 1910 – September 1, 1990) was the leading U With a few exceptions, it does not attempt to transliterate hangul but rather to represent the phonetic pronunciation. McCune-Reischauer is widely used outside of Korea. A variant of it was used as the official romanization system in South Korea from 1984 to 2000. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) A third system—the Yale Romanization system, which is a transliteration system—exists, but is only used in academic literature, especially in linguistics. The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. Transliteration is the practice of Transcribing a Word or text written in one Writing system into another writing system or system of rules for such practice During the period of Russian interest in Korea at the beginning of the 20th century, attempts were also made at representing Korean in Cyrillic. The Kontsevich system ( Russian: Система Концевича/Sistema Kontsevicha for the Cyrillization of the Korean language was created by the Russian
According to some people, the McCune-Reischauer system is basically friendly to Westerners. For example, Korean has phonologically no distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants, but it phonetically distinguishes them. Phonology ( Greek φωνή (phōnē voice sound + λόγος (lógos word speech subject of discussion is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning Voice or voicing is a term used in Phonetics and Phonology to characterize speech sounds, with sounds described as either voiceless Phonetics (from the Greek φωνή ( phonê) "sound" or "voice" is the study of the physical sounds of human speech Aspirated consonants like "p' ", "k' ", and "t' " are distinguished by apostrophe from unaspirated ones, which may be falsely understood as a separator between syllables (as in 뒤차기 → twich'agi, which consists of the syllables twi, ch'a and gi). The apostrophe is also used to mark transcriptions of ㄴㄱ as opposed to ㅇㅇ: 잔금 → chan'gŭm vs. 장음 → changŭm).
Critics of the McCune-Reischauer system claim that casual users of the system omit the breves over the o for 어 and the u for 으, because typing o or u without the breves is often easier than adding them. Length The breve sign indicates a short vowel as opposed to the Macron  ¯ which indicates long vowels in academic transcription This, in turn, can lead to confusion over whether the o being Romanized is 오 or 어 or the u being Romanized is 우 or 으. Casual users also often omit the apostrophe that differentiates aspirated consonants (ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, and ㅊ) from their unaspirated counterparts (ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ), which can also lead to confusion. Defenders of the McCune-Reischauer system, however, respond that a casual user unfamiliar with Korean can easily approximate the actual pronunciation of Korean names or words even when breves and apostrophes are omitted, although it is still best to include them.
Such common omissions were the primary reason the South Korean government adopted a revised system of romanization in 2000. Critics of the revised system claim it fails to represent 어 and 으 in an easily recognizable way, and that it misrepresents the unaspirated consonants as they are actually pronounced.
Meanwhile, despite official adoption of the new system in South Korea, many in the Korean Studies community, both in and out of South Korea, and international geographic and cartographic conventions generally continue to use either the McCune-Reischauer or Yale system, and North Korea uses a version of McCune-Reischauer. Even within South Korea, usage of the new system is less than universal, as was the case with the variant of McCune-Reischauer that was the official Romanization system between 1984/1988 and 2000.
This is a simplified guide for the McCune-Reischauer system. It is very useful for the transliteration of names but will not convert every word properly as several Korean letters are pronounced differently depending on their position.
* e - written as ë afterㅏand ㅗ
|Initial consonant of the next syllable|
† An initial consonant before a vowel to indicate absence of sound.
Basically, when deciding whether g or k, b or p, d or t and j or ch is used, use g, b, d or j if it is voiced, and k, p, t or ch if it is not. Pronunciations such as these take precedence over the rules in the table above.
Examples with assimilation:
Examples where pronunciation takes precedence:
For an example of a short text transcribed in the McCune-Reischauer system, see Aegukka, the national anthem of North Korea. Aegukka is the name of the national anthem of North Korea. Aegukka (The Patriotic Song is the National anthem of North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia,
In North Korea's variant of McCune-Reischauer, aspirated consonants are not represented by an apostrophe, but instead by adding an "h". North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, For example, 평안 is written as Phyŏngan. With the original system this would be written as P'yŏngan.
In South Korea's variant of McCune-Reischauer, in official use from 1984 to 2000, 시 is written as shi instead of the original system's si, and others like 샤, 셔 and so on, where the pronunciation is deemed closer to a sh sound than a s sound, are romanised with sh instead of s. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː The original system deploys sh only in the combination 쉬, as shwi.
ㅝ is written as wo instead of the original system's wŏ in this variant. Because the diphthong w (ㅗ or ㅜ as a semivowel) + o (ㅗ) does not exist in Korean phonology, the South Korean government omitted a breve in wŏ. Semivowels — also known as glides or non-syllabic vowels —are Vowels that form Diphthongs with full syllabic vowels
Hyphens are used to distinguish between ㄴㄱ and ㅇㅇ in this variant system, instead of the aspostrophes in the original version. Therefore apostrophes are only used for aspiration marks in the South Korean system.
Additionally, assimilation-induced aspiration by an initial ㅎ is indicated, e. g. 직할시 (直轄市; "a directly-governed city") is written as chik'alshi, which under the official system is chikhalsi.