McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This period is also referred to as the Second Red Scare, and coincided with increased fears about communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents. Red Menace redirects here For the 2007 Wildstorm Productions comic book series see Red Menace (comics. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Originally coined to criticize the actions of U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, "McCarthyism" later took on a more general meaning, not necessarily referring to the conduct of Joseph McCarthy alone. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U
During this time many thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators and union activists. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Suspicions were often given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence, and the level of threat posed by a person's real or supposed leftist associations or beliefs was often greatly exaggerated. Many people suffered loss of employment, destruction of their careers, and even imprisonment. Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts later overturned, laws that would be declared unconstitutional, dismissals for reasons later declared illegal or actionable, or extra-legal procedures that would come into general disrepute. In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy
The most famous examples of McCarthyism include the Hollywood Blacklist and the investigations and hearings conducted by Joseph McCarthy. "Hollywood Ten" redirects here For the 1950 short documentary film see The Hollywood Ten. It was a widespread social and cultural phenomenon that affected all levels of society and was the source of a great deal of debate and conflict in the United States.
The historical period that came to be known as McCarthyism began well before Joseph McCarthy's own involvement in it. Herbert Lawrence Block commonly known as Herblock ( October 13, 1909 &ndash October 7, 2001) was an American Herbert Lawrence Block commonly known as Herblock ( October 13, 1909 &ndash October 7, 2001) was an American Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U There are many factors that can be counted as contributing to McCarthyism, some of them extending back to the years of the First Red Scare (1917-1920), and indeed to the inception of Communism as a recognized political force. In American history, the First Red Scare took place in the period 1917–1920 and was marked by a widespread fear of Anarchism, as well as the effects of radical Thanks in part to its success in organizing labor unions and its early opposition to fascism, the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) increased its membership through the 1930s, reaching a peak of 50,000 members in 1942. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology The Communist Party of the United States of America ( CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist Political party in the United States. 
While the United States was engaged in World War II and allied with the Soviet Union, the issue of anti-communism was largely muted. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 With the end of World War II, the Cold War began almost immediately, as the Soviet Union installed repressive Communist puppet régimes across Central and Eastern Europe. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power
Events in 1949 and 1950 sharply increased the sense of threat from Communism in the United States. The Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb in 1949, earlier than many analysts had expected. Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. That same year, Mao Zedong's Communist army gained control of mainland China despite heavy financial support of the opposing Kuomintang by the U. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National S. In 1950, the Korean War began, pitting U. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the S. , U. N. and South Korean forces against Communists from North Korea and China. Although the Igor Gouzenko and Elizabeth Bentley affairs had raised the issue of Soviet espionage as far back as 1945, 1950 saw several significant developments regarding Soviet Cold War espionage activities. Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko ( January 13, 1919, Rahachow, Soviet Union &ndash June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Elizabeth Terrill Bentley ( January 1 1908 &ndash December 3 1963) was an American spy for the Soviet Union In January, Alger Hiss, a high-level State Department official, was convicted of perjury. Alger Hiss (November 11 1904 – November 15 1996 was a US State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. Hiss was in effect found guilty of espionage; the statute of limitations had run out for that crime, but he was convicted of having perjured himself when he denied that charge in earlier testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. The House Committee on Un-American Activities ( HUAC or HCUA 1938–1975 was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In Great Britain, Klaus Fuchs confessed to committing espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union while working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the War. Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs ( December 29, 1911 &ndash January 28, 1988) was a German -born theoretical physicist and The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL (previously known at various times as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested on charges of stealing atomic bomb secrets for the Soviets on July 17 and later executed. Julius Rosenberg (May 12 1918 &ndash June 19 1953 and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28 1915 &ndash June 19 1953 were American Communists who were executed Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians
There were also more subtle forces encouraging the rise of McCarthyism. It had long been a practice of more conservative politicians to refer to liberal reforms such as child labor laws and women's suffrage as "Communist" or "Red plots. " This tendency increased in reaction to the New Deal policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D Many conservatives equated the New Deal with socialism or Communism, and saw its policies as evidence that the government had been heavily influenced by Communist policy-makers in the Roosevelt administration.  In general, the vaguely defined danger of "Communist influence" was a more common theme in the rhetoric of anti-Communist politicians than was espionage or any other specific activity.
Joseph McCarthy's involvement with the ongoing cultural phenomenon that would bear his name began with a speech he made on Lincoln Day, February 9, 1950, to the Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, West Virginia. Lincoln Day is the primary annual celebration and fundraising event of many state and county organizations of the Republican Party in the United States. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Wheeling is a city in West Virginia, in the United States. Most of the city is in Ohio County, with a small He produced a piece of paper which he claimed contained a list of known Communists working for the State Department. McCarthy is usually quoted as saying: "I have here in my hand a list of 205—a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department. Secretary of State is an official in the State governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States, as well as Puerto Rico and other U The Communist Party of the United States of America ( CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist Political party in the United States. " This speech resulted in a flood of press attention to McCarthy and set him on the path that would characterize the rest of his career and life.
The first recorded use of the term McCarthyism was in a March 29, 1950 political cartoon by Washington Post editorial cartoonist Herbert Block (aka Herblock). Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration or Comic strip containing a political or Social message that usually The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D Herbert Lawrence Block commonly known as Herblock ( October 13, 1909 &ndash October 7, 2001) was an American Herbert Lawrence Block commonly known as Herblock ( October 13, 1909 &ndash October 7, 2001) was an American The cartoon depicted four leading Republicans trying to push an elephant (the traditional symbol of the Republican Party) to stand on a teetering stack of ten tar buckets, the topmost of which was labeled "McCarthyism. "
There were many anti-Communist committees, panels and "loyalty review boards" in federal, state and local governments, as well as many private agencies that carried out investigations for small and large companies concerned about possible Communists in their work force.
In Congress, the most notable bodies for investigating Communist activities were the House Un-American Activities Committee, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. The House Committee on Un-American Activities ( HUAC or HCUA 1938–1975 was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951-77 more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations ( PSI) is the oldest subcommittee of the U Between 1949 and 1954, a total of 109 investigations were carried out by these and other committees of Congress. 
In the federal government, President Harry Truman's Executive Order 9835 initiated a program of loyalty reviews for federal employees in 1947. States]] Executive Order 9835, sometimes known as The Loyalty Order, was signed March 21 1947 by U Truman's mandate called for dismissal if there were "reasonable grounds. . . for belief that the person involved is disloyal to the Government of the United States. " Truman, a Democrat, was probably reacting in part to the Republican sweep in the 1946 Congressional election, and felt a need to counter the growing criticism from conservatives and anti-communists. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The US House election 1946 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1946 which occurred in the middle of President Harry Truman 
When President Dwight Eisenhower took office in 1953, he strengthened and extended Truman's loyalty review program, while decreasing the avenues of appeal available to dismissed employees. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Hiram Bingham, Chairman of the Civil Service Commission Loyalty Review Board, referred to the new rules he was obliged to enforce as "just not the American way of doing things. Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham III, ( November 19, 1875 June 6, 1956) was an American academic explorer and politician " Similar loyalty reviews were established in many state and local government offices and some private industries across the nation. In 1958 it was estimated that roughly one out of every five employees in the United States was required to pass some sort of loyalty review. 
Once a person lost a job due to an unfavorable loyalty review, it could be very difficult to find other employment. "A man is ruined everywhere and forever," in the words of the chairman of President Truman's Loyalty Review Board. "No responsible employer would be likely to take a chance in giving him a job. "
The Department of Justice started keeping a list of organizations that it deemed subversive beginning in 1942. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department This list was first made public in 1948, when it included 78 items. At its longest, it comprised 154 organizations, 110 of them identified as Communist. In the context of a loyalty review, membership in a listed organization was meant to raise a question, but not to be considered proof of disloyalty. One of the most common causes of suspicion was membership in the Washington Bookshop Association, a left-leaning organization that offered lectures on literature, classical music concerts and discounts on books. 
In Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America, historian Ellen Schrecker calls the FBI "the single most important component of the anti-communist crusade" and writes: "Had observers known in the 1950s what they have learned since the 1970s, when the Freedom of Information Act opened the Bureau's files, 'McCarthyism' would probably be called 'Hooverism. Ellen Wolf Schrecker, PhD (born August 4, 1938) is a professor of American history at Yeshiva University. '" FBI director J. Edgar Hoover was one of the nation's most fervent anti-communists, and one of the most powerful. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Postnominal initials
Hoover designed President Truman's loyalty-security program, and its background investigations of employees were carried out by FBI agents. This was a major assignment that led to the number of agents in the Bureau being increased from 3,559 in 1946 to 7,029 in 1952. Hoover's extreme sense of the Communist threat and the politically conservative standards of evidence applied by his bureau resulted in thousands of government workers losing their jobs. Due to Hoover's insistence upon keeping the identity of his informers secret, most subjects of loyalty-security reviews were not allowed to cross-examine or know the identities of those who accused them. In many cases they were not even told what they were accused of. 
Hoover's influence extended beyond federal government employees and beyond the loyalty-security programs. The records of loyalty review hearings and investigations were supposed to be confidential, but Hoover routinely gave evidence from them to congressional committees such as HUAC.  From 1951 to 1955, the FBI operated a secret "Responsibilities Program" that distributed anonymous documents with evidence from FBI files of Communist affiliations on the part of teachers, lawyers, and others. Many people accused in these "blind memoranda" were fired without any further process. 
The FBI engaged in a number of illegal practices in its pursuit of information on Communists, including burglaries, opening mail and illegal wiretaps.  The members of the left-wing National Lawyers Guild were among the few attorneys who were willing to defend clients in communist-related cases, and this made the NLG a particular target of Hoover's. The National Lawyers Guild is a progressive/left-wing Bar Association in the United States "dedicated to the need for basic and progressive change The office of this organization was burglarized by the FBI at least fourteen times between 1947 and 1951.  Among other purposes, the FBI used its illegally obtained information to alert prosecuting attorneys about the planned legal strategies of NLG defense lawyers.
The FBI also used illegal undercover operations to harass and disrupt Communist and other dissident political groups. In 1956, Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute Communists. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. At this time he formalized a covert "dirty tricks" program under the name COINTELPRO. COINTELPRO (an acronym for Co unter Intel ligence Pro gram was a series of covert and often illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau  COINTELPRO actions included planting forged documents to create the suspicion that a key person was an FBI informer, spreading rumors through anonymous letters, leaking information to the press, calling for IRS audits, and the like. The The COINTELPRO program remained in operation until 1971.
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was the most prominent and active government committee involved in anti-Communist investigations. The House Committee on Un-American Activities ( HUAC or HCUA 1938–1975 was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. Formed in 1938 and known as the Dies Committee and chaired by Martin Dies until 1944, HUAC investigated a variety of "activities," including those of German-American Nazis during World War II. Martin Dies Jr ( November 5 1900 &ndash November 14 1972) was a Texas politician and a Democratic member of the The Committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in 1938. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP was a New Deal project to fund Theatre and other live artistic performances in the United States during the A significant step for HUAC was its investigation of the charges of espionage brought against Alger Hiss in 1948. Alger Hiss (November 11 1904 – November 15 1996 was a US State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss's trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion.
HUAC achieved its greatest fame and notoriety with its investigation into the Hollywood film industry. United States cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century In October 1947, the Committee began to subpoena screenwriters, directors, and other movie industry professionals to testify about their known or suspected membership in the Communist Party, association with its members, or support of its beliefs. "Hollywood Ten" redirects here For the 1950 short documentary film see The Hollywood Ten. A subpoena (səˈpiːnə is commonly defined as a written command to a person to Testify before a Court or be punished It was at these testimonies that what became known as the "$64 question" was asked: "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party of the United States?" Among the first film industry witnesses subpoenaed by the Committee were ten who decided not to cooperate. These men, who became known as the "Hollywood Ten" cited the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech and free assembly, which they believed legally protected them from being required to answer the Committee's questions. "Hollywood Ten" redirects here For the 1950 short documentary film see The Hollywood Ten. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the United States Bill of Rights that expressly prohibits the United States Congress This tactic failed, and the ten were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress. Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees. Two of the ten were sentenced to 6 months, the rest to a year.
In the future, witnesses (in the entertainment industries and otherwise) who were determined not to cooperate with the Committee would claim their Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination. The Fifth Amendment ( Amendment V) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure While this usually protected them from a contempt of Congress citation, it was considered grounds for dismissal by many government and private industry employers. The legal requirements for Fifth Amendment protection were such that a person could not testify about his own association with the Communist Party and then refuse to "name names" of colleagues with Communist affiliations.  Thus many faced a choice between "crawl[ing] through the mud to be an informer," as actor Larry Parks put it, or becoming known as a "Fifth Amendment Communist,"—an epithet often used by Senator McCarthy. Larry Parks ( December 13, 1914, Olathe Kansas – April 13, 1975, 
In the Senate, the primary committee for investigating Communists was the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS), formed in 1950 and charged with ensuring the enforcement of laws relating to "espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States. The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951-77 more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security " The SISS was headed by Democrat Pat McCarran and gained a reputation for careful and extensive investigations. Patrick Anthony McCarran ( August 8, 1876 &ndash September 28, 1954) was a Democratic United States Senator from This committee spent a year investigating Owen Lattimore and other members of the Institute of Pacific Relations. Owen Lattimore ( July 29, 1900 &ndash May 31, 1989) was a distinguished U The Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR was an international organization established in 1925 to provide a forum for discussion of problems and relations between nations of the Pacific As had been done numerous times before, the collection of Scholars and diplomats associated with Lattimore (the so-called China Hands) were accused of "losing China," and while some evidence of pro-communist attitudes was found, there was nothing to support McCarran's accusation that Lattimore was "a conscious and articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy". The term "China Hand" originally referred to 19th Century Merchants in the Treaty ports of China but evolved to reflect anyone with expert knowledge Lattimore was charged with perjuring himself before the SISS in 1952. After many of the charges were rejected by a Federal Judge and one of the witnesses confessed to perjury, the case was dropped in 1955. 
Joseph McCarthy himself headed the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 1953 and 1954, and during that time used it for a number of his Communist-hunting investigations. The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations ( PSI) is the oldest subcommittee of the U McCarthy first examined allegations of Communist influence in the Voice of America, and then turned to the overseas library program of the State Department. Voice of America ( VOA) is the official external radio and Television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. Card catalogs of these libraries were searched for works by authors McCarthy deemed inappropriate. A library catalog (or library catalogue) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a Library or group of libraries such as a network of libraries McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers, etc. In some political contexts the term fellow traveler refers to a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization but does not belong to that organization " Some libraries actually burned the newly-forbidden books.  McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the United States Army. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. This began at the Army Signal Corps laboratory at Fort Monmouth. Fort Monmouth is an installation of the Department of the Army in Monmouth County New Jersey McCarthy garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but ultimately nothing came of this investigation.  McCarthy next turned his attention to the case of a U. S. Army dentist who had been promoted to the rank of major despite having refused to answer questions on an Army loyalty review form. McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a Brigadier General, led to the Army-McCarthy hearings, with the Army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nation-wide television audience. Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. The Army-McCarthy Hearings were a series of hearings held by the United States Senate 's Subcommittee on Investigations between March 1954 and June 1954 While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity.  In less than a year, McCarthy was censured by the Senate and his position as a prominent force in anti-communism was essentially ended.
On November 25, 1947 (the day after the House of Representatives approved citations of contempt for the Hollywood Ten), Eric Johnston, President of the Motion Picture Association of America, issued a press release on behalf of the heads of the major studios that came to be referred to as the Waldorf Statement. Red Channels The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television is an anti-Communist tract published in the United States at the height of the Red Scare. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "Hollywood Ten" redirects here For the 1950 short documentary film see The Hollywood Ten. Eric Allen Johnston ( December 21, 1896 – August 22, 1963) was a business owner president of the United States Chamber of Commerce The Waldorf Statement was a two-page press release issued on December 3, 1947, by Eric Johnston, president of the Motion Picture Association of America This statement announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten and stated: "We will not knowingly employ a Communist or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the government of the United States[…]" This open capitulation to the attitudes of McCarthyism marked the beginning of the Hollywood blacklist. "Hollywood Ten" redirects here For the 1950 short documentary film see The Hollywood Ten. In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed.
At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or who, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services. For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations. At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser. These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists. Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals. Red Channels The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television is an anti-Communist tract published in the United States at the height of the Red Scare.  Insofar as the various blacklists of McCarthyism were actual physical lists, they were created and maintained by these private organizations.
There were several attempts to introduce legislation or apply existing laws to help to protect the United States from the perceived threat of Communist subversion.
The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to "knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the […] desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association". The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act ( of 1940 is a United States federal statute that makes it a criminal offense for anyone to knowingly or willfully advocate Hundreds of Communists were prosecuted under this law between 1941 and 1957. Eleven leaders of the Communist Party were charged and convicted under the Smith Act in 1949. Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years. All of the defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and were also given prison sentences. Contempt of court is a court ruling which in the context of a court trial or hearing deems an individual as having been disrespectful of the court its process and its invested In 1951, twenty-three other leaders of the party were indicted, including Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn ( August 7, 1890 &ndash September 5, 1964) was a labor leader activist and Feminist who played a leading The American Civil Liberties Union ( ACLU) consists of two separate Non-profit organizations the ACLU Foundation a 501(c(3 organization which focuses By 1957 over 140 leaders and members of the Communist Party had been charged under the law. 
Described by scholar Ellen Schrecker as "the McCarthy era's only important piece of legislation," the McCarran Internal Security Act became law in 1950 (the Smith Act technically predated McCarthyism). The Internal Security Act (also known as the Subversive Activities Control Act, McCarran Act or ISA) of 1950 is a United States federal However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment. It required the registration of Communist organizations with the Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate possible Communist-action and Communist-front organizations so they could be required to register. The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement The Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB was a United States government committee to investigate Communist infiltration of American society during the 1950s Red Scare Due to numerous hearings, delays and appeals, the act was never enforced, even with regard to the Communist Party of the United States itself, and the major provisions of the act were found to be unconstitutional in 1965 and 1967. 
In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality, or McCarran-Walter, Act was passed. This law allowed the government to deport immigrants or naturalized citizens engaged in subversive activities and also to bar suspected subversives from entering the country.
The Communist Control Act of 1954 was passed with overwhelming support in both houses of Congress after very little debate. The Communist Control Act was a piece of United States federal legislation, signed into law by Dwight Eisenhower on 24 August 1954, which outlawed Jointly drafted by Republican John Marshall Butler and Democrat Hubert Humphrey, the law was an extension of the Internal Security Act of 1950, and sought to outlaw the Communist Party by declaring that the party, as well as "Communist-Infiltrated Organizations" were "not entitled to any of the rights, privileges, and immunities attendant upon legal bodies". John Marshall Butler ( July 21, 1897 &ndash March 14, 1978) was a Republican member of the United States Senate, representing Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr ( May 27, 1911 &ndash January 13, 1978) was the thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving The Communist Control Act never had any significant effect, and was perhaps most notable for the odd mix of liberals and conservatives among its supporters. It was successfully applied only twice: in 1954 it was used to prevent Communist Party members from appearing on the New Jersey state ballot, and in 1960 it was cited to deny the CPUSA recognition as an employer under New York State's unemployment compensation system. The New York Post called the act "a monstrosity", "a wretched repudiation of democratic principles," while The Nation accused Democratic liberals of a "neurotic, election-year anxiety to escape the charge of being 'soft on Communism' even at the expense of sacrificing constitutional rights. The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually This article is about the US Publication. For other newspapers magazines and alternate uses by the same name see The Nation (disambiguation. "
McCarthyism was supported by a variety of groups, including the American Legion, Christian fundamentalists and various other anti-communist organizations. For other uses of American Legion see American Legion (disambiguation The American Legion was chartered by the U Fundamentalist Christianity, also known as Christian Fundamentalism or Fundamentalist Evangelicalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and One core element of support was a variety of militantly anti-communist women's groups such as the American Public Relations Forum and the Minute Women of the U.S.A.. The American Public Relations Forum (APRF was a conservative Anti-communist organization for Catholic women established in southern California in 1952 The Minute Women of the USA was one of the largest of a number of militant Anti-communist women's groups that were active during the 1950s and early 1960s These organized tens of thousands of housewives into study groups, letter-writing networks, and patriotic clubs that coordinated efforts to identify and eradicate subversion. 
Although far-right radicals were the bedrock of support for McCarthyism, they were not alone. A broad "coalition of the aggrieved" found McCarthyism attractive, or at least politically useful. Common themes uniting the coalition were opposition to internationalism, particularly the United Nations; opposition to social welfare provisions, particularly the various programs established by the New Deal; and opposition to efforts to reduce inequalities in the social structure of the United States. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security "Social welfare" redirects here For other uses see Welfare A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D There is considerable controversy regarding social class in the United States, and it remains a concept with many competing definitions 
One focus of popular McCarthyism concerned the provision of public health services, particularly vaccination, mental health care services and fluoridation, all of which were deemed by some to be communist plots to poison or brainwash the American people. Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations Vaccination is the administration of Antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or Emotional wellbeing or an absence of a Mental disorder. Water fluoridation is the addition of a chemical to increase the concentration of Fluoride Ions in Drinking water with the purpose of reducing the This viewpoint led to major collisions between McCarthyite radicals and supporters of public health programs, most notably in the case of the Alaska Mental Health Bill controversy of 1956. The Alaska Mental Health Enabling Act of 1956 ( Public Law 84-830 was an Act of Congress passed to improve Mental health care in the United States 
Right-wing intellectuals found the decisiveness of McCarthyism refreshing. William F. Buckley, Jr., the founder of the influential conservative political magazine National Review, wrote a defense of McCarthy, McCarthy and his Enemies, in which he asserted that "McCarthyism . William Frank Buckley Jr ( November 24 1925  – February 27 2008) was an American Author and conservative National Review ( NR) is a biweekly Magazine and Web site, founded by the late author William F . . is a movement around which men of good will and stern morality can close ranks. "
In addition, as Richard Rovere points out, many ordinary Americans became convinced that there must be "no smoke without fire" and lent their support to McCarthyism. In January 1954, a Gallup poll found that 50% of the American public supported McCarthy, while only 29% had an unfavorable opinion of the senator. Earl Warren, the Chief Justice of the United States, commented that if the United States Bill of Rights had been put to a vote it probably would have been defeated. Earl Warren ( March 19, 1891 July 9, 1974) was the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and the only person ever elected thrice The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the U In the United States the Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known 
Those who sought to justify McCarthyism did so largely through their characterization of Communism, and American Communists in particular. The CPUSA was said to be under the complete control of Moscow, and in fact, there is documentary evidence that the general policies of the CPUSA were set by the Soviet Communist Party.  Proponents of McCarthyism claimed that this control was so complete that any American Communist was inevitably a puppet of the Soviet Union. As J. Edgar Hoover put it in a 1950 speech, "Communist members, body and soul, are the property of the Party. " This attitude was not confined to arch-conservatives. In 1940, The American Civil Liberties Union ejected founding member Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, saying that her membership in the Communist Party was enough to disqualify her as a civil libertarian. The American Civil Liberties Union ( ACLU) consists of two separate Non-profit organizations the ACLU Foundation a 501(c(3 organization which focuses Elizabeth Gurley Flynn ( August 7, 1890 &ndash September 5, 1964) was a labor leader activist and Feminist who played a leading In the government's prosecutions of Communist Party members under the Smith Act (see above), the prosecution case was based not on specific actions or statements by the defendants, but on the premise that a commitment to violent overthrow of the government was inherent in the doctrines of Marxism-Leninism. Passages of the CPUSA's constitution that specifically rejected revolutionary violence were dismissed as deliberate deception. 
In addition, it was often claimed that the Party did not allow any member to resign, so a person who had been a member for a short time decades previously could be considered as suspect as a current member. Many of the hearings and trials of McCarthyism featured testimony by former Communist Party members such as Elizabeth Bentley, Louis Budenz and Whittaker Chambers, speaking as expert witnesses. Elizabeth Terrill Bentley ( January 1 1908 &ndash December 3 1963) was an American spy for the Soviet Union Louis Francis Budenz ( July 17, 1891 &ndash April 27, 1972) was an American activist and writer as well as a Soviet Whittaker Chambers ( April 1, 1901 &ndash July 9, 1961) born Jay Vivian Chambers and also known as David Whittaker Despite the obvious contradiction, these ex-communists were the source of some of the most vivid descriptions of how the Party permanently enslaved its members. 
It is difficult to estimate the number of victims of McCarthyism. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs.  In many cases, simply being subpoenaed by HUAC or one of the other committees was sufficient cause to be fired.  Many of those who were imprisoned, lost their jobs or were questioned by committees did in fact have a past or present connection of some kind with the Communist Party. But for the vast majority, both the potential for them to do harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous.  Suspected homosexuality was also a common cause for being targeted by McCarthyism. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. According to some scholars, this resulted in more persecutions than did alleged connection with Communism. 
In the film industry, over 300 actors, authors and directors were denied work in the U. United States cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century S. through the unofficial Hollywood blacklist. "Hollywood Ten" redirects here For the 1950 short documentary film see The Hollywood Ten. Blacklists were at work throughout the entertainment industry, in universities and schools at all levels, in the legal profession, and in many other fields. A port security program initiated by the Coast Guard shortly after the start of the Korean War required a review of every maritime worker who loaded or worked aboard any American ship, regardless of cargo or destination. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the As with other loyalty-security reviews of McCarthyism, the identities of any accusers and even the nature of any accusations were typically kept secret from the accused. Nearly 3,000 seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this program alone. 
A few of the more famous people who were blacklisted or suffered some other persecution during McCarthyism are listed here:
The nation was by no means united behind the policies and activities that have come to be identified as McCarthyism. Elmer Bernstein ( April 4 1922 - 18 August 2004) was an Academy and two-time Golden Globe award winning American Aaron Copland (November 14 1900 &ndash December 2 1990 was an American Composer of concert and film music as well as an accomplished Pianist. Bartley Cavanaugh Crum (1900- December 9 1959) was a prominent American Lawyer. Jules Dassin, born Julius Dassin ( &ndash) was an American Film director. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist Howard Melvin Fast (11 November 1914 New York City - 12 March 2003 Old Greenwich, Connecticut) was a Jewish American Novelist and Lee Grant (born October 31, 1927) is an American Academy Award -winning Golden Globe -nominated Theater, Film Samuel Dashiell Hammett ( May 27, 1894 — January 10, 1961) was an American Author of Hardboiled detective Lillian Florence Hellman ( June 20, 1905 &ndash June 30, 1984) was an American playwright linked throughout her life with many John Hubley ( May 21, 1914 – February 21, 1977) was an American Animator and animation director known for both his formal Langston Hughes (February 1 1902 &ndash May 22 1967 was an American Poet, Novelist Playwright, Short story writer and Columnist Sam Jaffe ( March 10, 1891 – March 24, 1984) was an American actor teacher and engineer Gypsy Rose Lee (also known as Rose Louise Hovick and Louise Hovick) (born January 8 1911 &ndash April 26 1970) was Philip Loeb ( March 28, 1892 – September 1, 1955) was an American stage Film, and Joseph Losey ( January 14, 1909 in La Crosse Wisconsin – June 22, 1984 in Oliver Burgess Meredith ( November 16, 1908 He graduated from Hoosac School in 1926 Arthur Asher Miller (October 17 1915 &ndash February 10 2005 was an American Playwright and Essayist. Samuel Joel “Zero” Mostel ( February 28 1915 – September 8 1977) was an American Actor of stage and Clifford Odets ( July 18, 1906 - August 18, 1963) was an American Playwright, Screenwriter, Socialist Linus Carl Pauling (February 28 1901 – August 19 1994 was an American Scientist, Peace activist, Author and educator. Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson ( April 9, 1898 &ndash January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American Actor, athlete Edward Goldenberg Robinson Sr (born Emanuel Goldenberg; Yiddish: עמנואל גאלדנבערג December 12 1893 &ndash January Waldo Pressman Salt ( October 18, 1914 &ndash March 7, 1987) was an American Screenwriter who was blacklisted Peter "Pete" Seeger (born May 3 1919 is an American folk singer political Activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American Arthur Jacob Arshawsky ( May 23, 1910 &ndash December 30, 2004) better known as Artie Shaw, was an American Jazz Howard Da Silva ( May 4, 1909 – February 16, 1986) was an American Actor. Paul Marlor Sweezy ( April 10, 1910 – February 27 2004) was a Marxist economist Monthly Review is an independent Marxist journal published in New York City. Tsien Hsue-shen ( born December 11, 1911) is a Scientist who was a major figure in the Missile and space programs of both the United States George Orson Welles (May 6 1915 – October 10 1985 was an Academy Award -winning director, writer actor and producer for film stage radio and television There were many critics of various aspects of McCarthyism, including many figures not generally noted for their liberalism.
For example, in his overridden veto of the McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950, President Truman wrote, "In a free country, we punish men for the crimes they commit, but never for the opinions they have. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. The Internal Security Act (also known as the Subversive Activities Control Act, McCarran Act or ISA) of 1950 is a United States federal " Truman also unsuccessfully vetoed the Taft-Hartley Act, which among other provisions limited the power of labor unions and denied unions National Labor Relations Board protection unless the union's leaders signed affidavits swearing they were not and had never been Communists. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The National Labor Relations Board (or NLRB) is an Independent agency of the United States Government charged with conducting An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant or deponent) and witnessed (as to the veracity of the In 1953, after he had left office, Truman criticized the current Eisenhower administration:
|“||It is now evident that the present Administration has fully embraced, for political advantage, McCarthyism. I am not referring to the Senator from Wisconsin. He is only important in that his name has taken on the dictionary meaning of the word. It is the corruption of truth, the abandonment of the due process law. It is the use of the big lie and the unfounded accusation against any citizen in the name of Americanism or security. It is the rise to power of the demagogue who lives on untruth; it is the spreading of fear and the destruction of faith in every level of society. ||”|
On June 1, 1950, Senator Margaret Chase Smith, a Maine Republican, delivered a speech to the Senate she called a "Declaration of Conscience". Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Margaret Chase Smith ( December 14, 1897 – May 29, 1995) was a Republican Senator from Maine, and one The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean Declaration of Conscience was a speech made by Senator Margaret Chase Smith on June 1, 1950, less than four months after Senator Joe McCarthy In a clear attack upon McCarthyism, she called for an end to "character assassinations" and named "some of the basic principles of Americanism: The right to criticize; The right to hold unpopular beliefs; The right to protest; The right of independent thought. " She said "freedom of speech is not what it used to be in America," and decried "cancerous tentacles of 'know nothing, suspect everything' attitudes. " Six other Republican Senators—Wayne Morse, Irving M. Ives, Charles W. Tobey, Edward John Thye, George Aiken, and Robert C. Hendrickson—joined Smith in condemning the tactics of McCarthyism. Wayne Lyman Morse ( October 20, 1900 – July 22, 1974) was a United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 until Irving McNeil Ives ( January 24, 1896 Bainbridge, Chenango County New York - February 24, 1962 Norwich, Charles William Tobey (July 22 1880 July 24 1953 Governor of New Hampshire and United States senator, was born in Roxbury Massachusetts, the son Edward John Thye ( April 26 1896 August 28 1969) was an American Politician for the state of Minnesota who For the playwright see George Aiken (playwright. George David Aiken ( August 20, 1892 – November 19, Robert Clymer Hendrickson ( August 12, 1898 &ndash December 7, 1964) was a United States Senator from New Jersey.
Elmer Davis, one of the most highly respected news reporters and commentators of the 1940s and 1950s, often spoke out against what he saw as the excesses of McCarthyism. Elmer Davis ( January 13, 1890 - May 18, 1958) was a well-known news reporter author the Director of the United States Office of War On one occasion he warned that many local anti-Communist movements constituted a "general attack not only on schools and colleges and libraries, on teachers and textbooks, but on all people who think and write[. . . ] in short, on the freedom of the mind. "
In 1952, the Supreme Court upheld a lower court decision in Alder v. Board of Education of New York, thus approving a law that allowed state loyalty review boards to fire teachers deemed "subversive. " In his dissenting opinion, Justice William O. Douglas wrote: "The present law proceeds on a principle repugnant to our society — guilt by association. William Orville Douglas ( October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. [. . . ] What happens under this law is typical of what happens in a police state. Teachers are under constant surveillance; their pasts are combed for signs of disloyalty; their utterances are watched for clues to dangerous thoughts. "
The 1952 Arthur Miller play The Crucible used the Salem witch trials as a metaphor for McCarthyism, suggesting that the process of McCarthyism-style persecution can occur at any time or place. Arthur Asher Miller (October 17 1915 &ndash February 10 2005 was an American Playwright and Essayist. The Crucible by Arthur Miller is a play based upon the events in 1692, which led to the Salem Witch Trials, a series of hearings before The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court Trials to prosecute people accused of Witchcraft in Essex The play focused heavily on the fact that once accused, a person would have little chance of exoneration, given the irrational and circular reasoning of both the courts and the public. Miller would later write: "The more I read into the Salem panic, the more it touched off corresponding images of common experiences in the fifties. "
One of the most influential opponents of McCarthyism was the famed CBS newscaster and analyst Edward R. Murrow. Edward R Murrow (born Egbert Roscoe Murrow; April 25 1908 &ndash April 27 1965) was an American journalist Edward R Murrow (born Egbert Roscoe Murrow; April 25 1908 &ndash April 27 1965) was an American journalist On October 20, 1953, Murrow's show See It Now aired an episode about the dismissal of Milo Radulovich, a former reserve Air Force lieutenant who was accused of associating with Communists. Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. See It Now was a television Newsmagazine and documentary broadcast by CBS in the 1950s Milo John Radulovich ( October 28, 1926 &ndash November 19, 2007) was an American citizen (born in Detroit) of Serbian The show was strongly critical of the Air Force's methods, which included presenting evidence in a sealed envelope that Radulovich and his attorney were not allowed to open. On March 9, 1954, See It Now aired another episode on the issue of McCarthyism, this one attacking Joseph McCarthy himself. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Titled "A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy," it used footage of McCarthy speeches to portray him as dishonest, reckless and abusive toward witnesses and prominent Americans. In his concluding comment, Murrow said:
|“||We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. We must remember always that accusation is not proof and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law. We will not walk in fear, one of another. We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason, if we dig deep in our history and our doctrine, and remember that we are not descended from fearful men. ||”|
This broadcast has been cited as a key episode in bringing about the end of McCarthyism. 
In April 1954, Senator McCarthy was also under attack in the Army-McCarthy Hearings. The Army-McCarthy Hearings were a series of hearings held by the United States Senate 's Subcommittee on Investigations between March 1954 and June 1954 These hearings were televised live on the new American Broadcasting Company, allowing the public to view first-hand McCarthy's interrogation of individuals and his controversial tactics. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. In one exchange, McCarthy reminded the attorney for the Army, Joseph Welch, that he had an employee in his law firm who had belonged to an organization that had been accused of Communist sympathies. Welch famously rebuked McCarthy: "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?" This exchange reflected a growing negative public opinion of McCarthy.
As the nation moved into the mid and late fifties, the attitudes and institutions of McCarthyism slowly weakened. Changing public sentiments undoubtedly had a lot to do with this, but one way to chart the decline of McCarthyism is through a series of court decisions.
A key figure in the end of the blacklisting of McCarthyism was John Henry Faulk. John Henry Faulk ( August 21, 1913 &ndash April 9, 1990) from Austin Texas was a storyteller and Radio show host Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA is a performers' union that represents a wide variety of talent including actors in radio and television as well as radio He was scrutinized by AWARE, one of the private firms that examined individuals for signs of communist "disloyalty". Marked by AWARE as unfit, he was fired by CBS Radio. This article is about the radio group for the radio network see CBS Radio Network. Almost uniquely among the many victims of blacklisting, Faulk decided to sue AWARE in 1957 and finally won the case in 1962.  With this court decision, the private blacklisters and those who used them were put on notice that they were legally liable for the professional and financial damage they caused. Although some informal blacklisting continued, the private "loyalty checking" agencies were soon a thing of the past.  Even before the Faulk verdict, many in Hollywood had decided it was time to break the blacklist. In 1960, Dalton Trumbo, one of the best known members of the Hollywood Ten, was publicly credited with writing the films Exodus and Spartacus. Exodus is a 1960 epic War film made by Alpha and Carlyle Productions and distributed by United Artists.
Much of the undoing of McCarthyism came at the hands of the Supreme Court. As Richard Rovere wrote in his biography of Joseph McCarthy: ". Richard H Rovere ( 5 May 1915 — 23 November 1979) was an American Journalist. . . the United States Supreme Court took judicial notice of the rents McCarthy was making in the fabric of liberty and thereupon wrote a series of decisions that have made the fabric stronger than before. " Two Eisenhower appointees to the court — Earl Warren (who was made Chief Justice) and William J. Brennan, Jr.— proved to be more liberal than Eisenhower had anticipated, and he would later refer to the appointment of Warren as his "biggest mistake. Earl Warren ( March 19, 1891 July 9, 1974) was the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and the only person ever elected thrice William Joseph Brennan Jr ( April 25, 1906 &ndash July 24, 1997) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the "
In 1956, the Supreme Court heard the case of Slochower v. Board of Education. Slochower was a professor at Brooklyn College who had been fired by New York City for invoking the Fifth Amendment when McCarthy's committee questioned him about his past membership in the Communist Party. The court prohibited such actions, ruling ". . . we must condemn the practice of imputing a sinister meaning to the exercise of a person's constitutional right under the Fifth Amendment. […] The privilege against self-incrimination would be reduced to a hollow mockery if its exercise could be taken as equivalent either to a confession of guilt or a conclusive presumption of perjury. "
Another key decision was in the 1957 case Yates v. United States, in which the convictions of fourteen Communists were reversed. Yates v United States, 354 US 298 ( 1957) was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States involving free speech and congressional In Justice Black's opinion, he wrote of the original "Smith Act" trials: "The testimony of witnesses is comparatively insignificant. Guilt or innocence may turn on what Marx or Engels or someone else wrote or advocated as much as a hundred years or more ago. [. . . ] When the propriety of obnoxious or unfamiliar view about government is in reality made the crucial issue, [. . . ] prejudice makes conviction inevitable except in the rarest circumstances. "
Also in 1957, the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Watkins v. United States, curtailing the power of HUAC to punish uncooperative witnesses by finding them in contempt of Congress. Watkins v United States, 354 US 178 ( 1957) was brought forward after John Watkins was convicted under, for failing to answer questions while posed Justice Warren wrote in the decision: "The mere summoning of a witness and compelling him to testify, against his will, about his beliefs, expressions or associations is a measure of governmental interference. And when those forced revelations concern matters that are unorthodox, unpopular, or even hateful to the general public, the reaction in the life of the witness may be disastrous. "
In its 1958 decision on Kent v. Dulles, the Supreme Court halted the State Department from using the authority of its own regulations to refuse or revoke passports based on an applicant's communist beliefs or associations. 
Though McCarthyism might seem to be of interest only as a historical subject, the political divisions it created in the United States continue to make themselves manifest, and the politics and history of anti-Communism in the United States are still contentious. One source of controversy is the comparison that a number of observers have made between the oppression of liberals and leftists during the McCarthy period and recent actions against Muslims and suspected terrorists. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion In The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism, author Haynes Johnson compares the "abuses suffered by aliens thrown into high security U. S. prisons in the wake of 9/11" to the excesses of the McCarthy era.  Similarly, David D. Cole has written that the Patriot Act "in effect resurrects the philosophy of McCarthyism, simply substituting 'terrorist' for 'communist. For other David Cole's see David Cole (disambiguation David D The USA PATRIOT Act, commonly known as the Patriot Act, is a controversial Act of Congress that U '"
From the opposite pole, Ann Coulter devotes much of her book Treason to drawing parallels between past opposition to McCarthy and McCarthyism and the efforts of modern-day liberals that, in her view, hinder the War on Terrorism. Ann Hart Coulter (born December 8 1961 is an American Political commentator, Syndicated columnist, and best-selling Author. Treason Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism is a 2003 book by Ann Coulter. The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U  Other authors who have drawn on a comparison between current anti-terrorist policies and McCarthyism include Geoffrey R. Stone, Ted Morgan  and Jonah Goldberg. Geoffrey R Stone (1946 is an American law professor He is currently the Edward H Ted Morgan is a French - American writer biographer journalist and historian Jonah Jacob Goldberg (born March 21, 1969) is an American syndicated columnist and author 
McCarthyism also attracts controversy purely as a historical issue. Through declassified documents from Soviet archives and Venona project decryptions of coded Soviet messages, it has become known that the Soviet Union engaged in substantial espionage activities in the United States during the 1940s. The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between Intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved It is also known that the CPUSA was substantially funded and its policies controlled by the Soviet Union, and that CPUSA members were often recruited as spies.  In the view of some contemporary authors, these revelations stand as at least a partial vindication of McCarthyism. Some feel that there was a genuinely dangerous subversive element in the United States, and that this danger justified extreme measures.  Others, while accepting that there were inexcusable excesses during McCarthyism, argue that some contemporary historians of McCarthyism often deny the seriousness of Communist espionage during the period.  The contrary view holds that, recent revelations notwithstanding, by the time McCarthyism began in the late 1940s, the CPUSA was an ineffectual fringe group, and the damage done to U. S. interests by Soviet spies after World War II was minimal.  As historian Ellen Schrecker put it, "in this country, McCarthyism did more damage to the constitution than the American Communist Party ever did. "
Since the time of McCarthy, the word "McCarthyism" has entered American speech as a general term for a variety of distasteful practices: aggressively questioning a person's patriotism, making poorly supported accusations, using accusations of disloyalty to pressure a person to adhere to conformist politics or to discredit an opponent, subverting civil rights in the name of national security and the use of demagoguery are all often referred to as McCarthyism. Demagogy (also demagoguery) ( Ancient Greek δημαγωγία from dēmos "people" and agein "to lead" refers to a political