Matthew Paris (c. 1200 – 1259) was a Benedictine monk, English chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts and cartographer, based at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire. Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in English historians in the Middle Ages is an overview of the history of English historians and their works in the Middle Ages. An illuminated manuscript is a Manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration such as decorated Initials borders and St Albans Cathedral (formerly St Albans Abbey, officially The Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban) is an Anglican church at Hertfordshire (ˈhɑːtfədʃə(r, abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of He wrote a number of works, mostly historical, which he scribed and illuminated himself, typically in drawings partly coloured with watercolour washes, sometimes called "tinted drawings". Watercolor ( US) or Watercolour ( UK) (and "aquarelle" in French is a Painting method Some were written in Latin, some in Anglo-Norman or French verse. The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066, although Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium His Chronica Majora is an oft-cited source, though modern historians recognize that Paris was not always extremely reliable since he tended to write to glorify Emperor Frederick II, and denigrate the Pope. The Chronica Majora is an important medieval Illuminated manuscript Chronicle by Matthew Paris, one of a number of redactions of his work on English history Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and 
In spite of his surname, and of his knowledge of the French language, he was of English birth but may have studied at Paris in his youth after early education at the St Albans Abbey School. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city History By c1100 the School had built for itself such a reputation that the Norman scholar Geoffrey de Gorham applied for the post of Master The first we know of Matthew Paris (from his own writings) is that he was admitted as a monk to St Albans in 1217. St Albans Cathedral (formerly St Albans Abbey, officially The Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban) is an Anglican church at It is on the assumption that he was in his teens on admission that his birth date is estimated; some scholars suspect he may have been ten years or more older; many monks only entered monastic life after pursuing a career in the world outside. He was clearly at ease with the nobility and even royalty, which may indicate that he came from a family of some status, although it is also clearly a tribute to his personality. His life was mainly spent in this religious house. In 1248, however, he was sent to Norway as the bearer of a message from Louis IX to Haakon IV; he made himself so agreeable to the Norwegian sovereign that he was invited, a little later, to superintend the reformation of the Benedictine monastery of Nidarholm outside Trondheim. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Haakon Haakonsson (1204 &ndash December 15, 1263) ( Norwegian Håkon Håkonsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson) also called Nidarholm Abbey was a Benedictine monastery located on the island of Munkholmen in the Trondheimfjord on the sea approach to Trondheim, (Trondhjem is a city and municipality in the county of Sør-Trøndelag, Norway.
Apart from these missions, his known activities were devoted to the composition of history, a pursuit for which the monks of St Albans had long been famous. Having been admitted to the order in 1217, he inherited the mantle of Roger of Wendover, the abbey's official recorder of events, in 1236. Roger of Wendover (died May 6, 1236) probably a native of Wendover in Buckinghamshire Paris revised Roger's work, and that of Abbot John de Cella, adding new material to cover his own tenure, and this Chronica Majora is an important historical source document, especially for the period between 1235 and 1259. John of Wallingford, also known as John de Cella, (died 1214 was Abbot of St Albans Abbey in the English county of Hertfordshire from 1195 to The Chronica Majora is an important medieval Illuminated manuscript Chronicle by Matthew Paris, one of a number of redactions of his work on English history Equally interesting are the illustrations Paris used in his work.
The Dublin MS (see below) contains interesting notes, which shed light on Paris's involvement in other manuscripts, and on the way his own ones were used. They are in French, and in his handwriting:
- it is presumed the last relates to Paris acting as commissioning agent and iconographical consultant for the Countess with another artist. St Thomas Becket (c 1118 &ndash December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last Whitsun ( Old English for "White Sunday" is the 49th day (seventh Sunday after Easter Sunday.
The lending out of his manuscripts to aristocratic households, apparently for periods of weeks or months at a time, suggests why he made several different illustrated versions of his Chronicle.
Paris's manuscripts mostly contain more than one text, and often begin with a rather random assortment of prefatory full-page miniatures. Some have survived incomplete, and the various elements now bound together may not have been intended to be so by Paris. Unless stated otherwise, all were given by Paris to his monastery (from some inscriptions it seems they were regarded as his property to dispose of). The monastic libraries were broken up at the Dissolution, but it seems that these MS were always appreciated, and many fell quickly into the collections of bibliophiles. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the formal process between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded
Also, Latin biographies of Stephen Langton and Edmund Rich, and a verse biography of Rich. Stephen Cardinal Langton (c 1150 &ndash July 9, 1228) was Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228 and was a central Edmund Rich (also known as Saint Edmund or Eadmund of Canterbury and as Saint Edmund of Abingdon) (1175 &ndash 1240 was a 13th century Archbishop Various other works, especially maps.
A panel painting on oak of St Peter, the only surviving part of a tabernacle shrine (1850 x 750 mm), in the Museum of Oslo University has been attributed to him, presumably dating from his visit in 1248. The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo Universitas Osloensis is the oldest and largest University in Norway, situated in the Norwegian capital Local paintings are usually on pine, so he may have brought this with him, or sent it later. 
Recent scholarship, notably that of Nigel Morgan, suggests that Paris's influence on other artists of the period has been exaggerated, mainly because so much more is known about him than other English illuminators of the period, who are mostly anonymous. Most manuscripts seem to have been produced by lay artists in this period, although William de Brailes is shown with a clerical tonsure, but was also married, suggesting he had minor orders only. William de Brailes (active c 1230 — c 1260 was an English Early Gothic Manuscript illuminator, presumably born in Brailes, Warwickshire. The manuscripts produced by Paris show few signs of collaboration, but art historians detect a School of St Albans surviving after Paris's death, influenced by him.
In some manuscripts a framed miniature occupies the upper half of the page, and in others they are "marginal" - unframed and occupying the bottom quarter (approximately) of the page. Tinted drawings were an established style well before Paris, and became especially popular in the first half of the 13th century. They were certainly much cheaper and quicker than fully painted illuminations.
Paris's style suggests that it was formed by works from around 1200, and remained to a certain extent old-fashioned in retaining a roundness in his figures, rather than adopting the thin angularity of most of his artist contemporaries, especially those in London. His compositions are very inventive; his position as a well-connected monk may have given him more confidence in creating new compositions where a lay artist would prefer to stick to traditional formulae. It may also reflect the lack of a full training in the art of the period. His colouring emphasises green and blue, and together with his characteristic layout of a picture in the top half of a page, is relatively distinctive.
From 1235, the point at which Wendover dropped his pen, Paris continued the history on the plan which his predecessors had followed. Roger of Wendover (died May 6, 1236) probably a native of Wendover in Buckinghamshire He derived much of his information from the letters of important people, which he sometimes inserts, but much more from conversation with the eye-witnesses of events. Among his informants were Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King Henry III himself, with whom he appears to have been on intimate terms. Richard of Cornwall ( 5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (from 1225 to 1243 Earl of Cornwall (from Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216
The king knew that Paris was writing a history, and wanted it to be as exact as possible. In 1257, in the course of a week's visit to St Albans, Henry kept the chronicler beside him night and day, "and guided my pen," says Paris, "with much goodwill and diligence. " It is therefore curious that the Chronica majora should give so unfavourable an account of the king's policy. Henry Richards Luard supposes that Paris never intended his work to see the light of day in its present form, and many passages of the autograph have against them the note offendiculum, which shows that the writer understood the danger which he ran. Henry Richards Luard (1825-1891 was a British medieval historian and antiquary On the other hand, unexpurgated copies were made in Paris's lifetime; though the offending passages are duly omitted or softened in his abridgment of his longer work, the Historia Anglorum (written about 1253), the real sentiments of the author must have been an open secret. In any case there is no ground for the old theory that he was an official historiographer.
Matthew Paris lived at a time when English politics were peculiarly involved and tedious. His talent is for narrative and description. Though he took a keen interest in the personal side of politics, his portraits of his contemporaries throw more light on his own prejudices than on their aims and ideas. Like most "historians" of the period, he never pauses to weigh the evidence or to take a comprehensive view of the situation. He admires strength of character, even when it goes along with a policy of which he disapproves. Thus he praises Robert Grosseteste, while denouncing Grosseteste's scheme of monastic reform. Robert Grosseteste (c 1175 &ndash October 9, 1253) English statesman scholastic philosopher, Theologian and Bishop of Paris is a vehement supporter of the monastic orders against their rivals, the secular clergy and the mendicant friars. The mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on the charity of the people for their livelihood He is violently opposed to the court and the foreign favourites. He despises the king as a statesman, though for the man he has some kindly feeling.
The frankness with which he attacks the court of Rome is remarkable; so, too, is the intense nationalism which he displays in dealing with this topic. His faults are often due to carelessness and narrow views, but he sometimes invents rhetorical speeches which are misleading as an account of the speaker's sentiments. In other cases he tampers with the documents which he inserts (as, for instance, with the text of Magna Carta). Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms His chronology is, for a contemporary, inexact; and he occasionally inserts duplicate versions of the same incident in different places. Hence he must always be rigorously checked when other authorities exist and used with caution where he is our sole informant. Nonetheless, he gives a more vivid impression of his age than any other English chronicler does; and it is a matter for regret that his great history breaks off in 1259, on the eve of the crowning struggle between Henry III and the baronage.
The relation of Matthew Paris's work to those of John de Celia (John of Wallingford) and Roger of Wendover may be studied in Henry Reynolds Luard's edition of the Chronica majora (7 vols. John of Wallingford, also known as John de Cella, (died 1214 was Abbot of St Albans Abbey in the English county of Hertfordshire from 1195 to Roger of Wendover (died May 6, 1236) probably a native of Wendover in Buckinghamshire , Rolls series, 1872-1881), which contains valuable prefaces. The Rolls Series, official title The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages, is a major collection of British and Irish historical The Historia Anglorum sive historia minor (1067-1253) has been edited by Frederic Madden (3 vols. Sir Frederic Madden ( February 16, 1801 - March 8, 1873) was an English palaeographer. , Rolls series, 1866-1869).
Matthew Paris is sometimes confused with "Matthew of Westminster", the reputed author of the Flores historiarum edited by Luard (3 vols. Matthew of Westminster, long regarded as the author of the Flores Historiarum, is now thought never to have existed The Flores Historiarum ( Flowers of History) is a Latin Chronicle dealing with English history from the creation to , Rolls series, 1890). This work, compiled by various hands, is an edition of Matthew Paris, with continuations extending to 1326. Matthew Paris also wrote a life of St Edmund of Canterbury, which has been edited and translated by C. Edmund Rich (also known as Saint Edmund or Eadmund of Canterbury and as Saint Edmund of Abingdon) (1175 &ndash 1240 was a 13th century Archbishop H. Lawrence (Oxford, 1996). Moreover, he wrote the Anglo-Norman La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei (the History of Saint Edward the King), which survives in a beautifully illuminated manuscript version, Cambridge, Cambridge University Library MS. The Anglo-Norman language is a term traditionally used to refer to the variety of French used in England and to some extent elsewhere in the British Isles following the Ee. 3. 59. The text is edited in K. Y. Wallace, La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, Anglo-Norman Text Society 41 (1983).
Paris House at St Albans High School for Girls is named after him. St Albans High School is a private (independent Church of England girls' Day school founded in 1889 for girls aged 4 to 18 located in the city of St Albans
(On manuscripts, and artistic style) Nigel Morgan, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, Volume 4: Early Gothic Manuscripts, Part 1 1190-1250, Harvey Miller Ltd, London, 1982, ISBN 0199210268