Mathematics education is a term that refers both to the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, as well as to a field of scholarly research on this practice. In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or In the fields of Neuropsychology, Personal development and Education, Learning is one of the most important Mental function of humans Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. Researchers in math education are in the first instance concerned with the tools, methods and approaches that facilitate practice and/or the study of practice. However mathematics education research, known on the continent of Europe as the didactics of mathematics has developed into a fully fledged field of study, with its own characteristic concepts, theories, methods, national and international organizations, conferences and literature. A didactic method ( Greek: didáskein = to teach lore of teaching is a Teaching method that follows a consistent scientific approach or educational style to engage This article describes some of the history, influences and recent controversies concerning math education as a practice.
A mathematics lecture at Helsinki University of Technology.
Illustration at the beginning of a 14th century translation of Euclid's Elements.
Elementary mathematics was part of the education system in most ancient civilizations, including Ancient Greece, the Roman empire, Vedic society and ancient Egypt. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the History of India during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now In most cases, a formal education was only available to male children with a sufficiently high status, wealth or caste. Male (♂ refers to the sex of an organism or part of an organism which produces small mobile Gametes called spermatozoa. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power.
In Plato's division of the liberal arts into the trivium and the quadrivium, the quadrivium included the mathematical fields of arithmetic and geometry. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects taught first Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric. The quadrivium comprised the four subjects or arts taught in Medieval universities after the trivium. Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position This structure was continued in the structure of classical education that was developed in medieval Europe. Teaching of geometry was almost universally based on Euclid's Elements. Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Apprentices to trades such as masons, merchants and money-lenders could expect to learn such practical mathematics as was relevant to their profession.
The first mathematics textbooks to be written in English and French were published by Robert Recorde, beginning with The Grounde of Artes in 1540. Robert Recorde (c 1510 &ndash 1558 was a Welsh Physician and Mathematician.
In the Renaissance the academic status of mathematics declined, because it was strongly associated with trade and commerce. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Although it continued to be taught in European universities, it was seen as subservient to the study of Natural, Metaphysical and Moral Philosophy.
This trend was somewhat reversed in the seventeenth century, with the University of Aberdeen creating a Mathematics Chair in 1613, followed by the Chair in Geometry set up in University of Oxford in 1619 and the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, established by the University of Cambridge in 1662. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The University of Aberdeen is an Ancient university founded in 1495, in Old Aberdeen, Scotland. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The incumbent of the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, the Lucasian Professor is the holder of a mathematical Professorship at the University of Cambridge The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the However, it was uncommon for mathematics to be taught outside of the universities. Isaac Newton, for example, received no formal mathematics teaching until he joined Trinity College, Cambridge in 1661. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the industrial revolution led to an enormous increase in urban populations. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Basic numeracy skills, such as the ability to tell the time, count money and carry out simple arithmetic, became essential in this new urban lifestyle. Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone Within the new public education systems, mathematics became a central part of the curriculum from an early age. Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the Government, whether national regional or local provided by an institution
By the twentieth century mathematics was part of the core curriculum in all developed countries. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors
During the twentieth century mathematics education was established as an independent field of research. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Here are some of the main events in this development:
- In 1893 a Chair in mathematics education was created at the University of Göttingen, under the administration of Felix Klein
- The International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) was founded in 1908, and Felix Klein became the first president of the organization
- A new interest in mathematics education emerged in the 1960s, and the commission was revitalized
- In 1968, the Shell Centre for Mathematical Education was established in Nottingham
- The first International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME) was held in Lyon in 1969. Felix Christian Klein ( 25 April 1849 &ndash 22 June 1925) was a German Mathematician, known for his work in Group Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. The International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME is held every four years under the auspices of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI of ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. The second congress was in Exeter in 1972, and after that it has been held every four years
In the 20th century, the cultural impact of the "electric age" (McLuhan) was also taken up by educational theory and the teaching of mathematics. Exeter ( (IPA ˈeksɪtər is a city, district and County town of Devon, England. Education theory is the Theory or the Philosophy of the purpose application and interpretation of Education and Learning. While previous approach focused on "working with specialized 'problems' in arithmetic", the emerging structural approach to knowledge had "small children meditating about number theory and 'sets'. Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone Number theory is the branch of Pure mathematics concerned with the properties of Numbers in general and Integers in particular as well as the wider classes "
At different times and in different cultures and countries, mathematics education has attempted to achieve a variety of different objectives. These objectives have included:
- The teaching of basic numeracy skills to all pupils
- The teaching of practical mathematics (arithmetic, elementary algebra, plane and solid geometry, trigonometry) to most pupils, to equip them to follow a trade or craft
- The teaching of abstract mathematical concepts (such as set and function) at an early age
- The teaching of selected areas of mathematics (such as Euclidean geometry) as an example of an axiomatic system and a model of deductive reasoning
- The teaching of selected areas of mathematics (such as calculus) as an example of the intellectual achievements of the modern world
- The teaching of advanced mathematics to those pupils who wish to follow a career in science
- The teaching of heuristics and other problem-solving strategies to solve non routine problems. "Innumeracy" redirects here For the book of same name see Innumeracy (book. Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone Elementary algebra is a fundamental and relatively basic form of Algebra taught to students who are presumed to have little or no formal knowledge of Mathematics beyond Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Circle-trig6svg|300px|thumb|right|All of the Trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O. The Mathematical concept of a function expresses dependence between two quantities one of which is given (the independent variable, argument of the function Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Greek Mathematician Euclid of Alexandria. In Mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of Axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logically derive Theorems Deductive reasoning is Reasoning which uses deductive Arguments to move from given statements ( Premises to Conclusions which must be true if the Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives The term modern period or modern era (sometimes also modern times) is the period of history that followed the Middle Ages between c Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding heuristic (hyu̇-ˈris-tik is a method to help solve a problem commonly an informal method
Methods of teaching mathematics have varied in line with changing objectives.
Throughout most of history, standards for mathematics education were set locally, by individual schools or teachers, depending on the levels of achievement that were relevant to and realistic for their pupils.
In modern times there has been a move towards regional or national standards, usually under the umbrella of a wider standard school curriculum. In England, for example, standards for mathematics education are set as part of the National Curriculum for England, while Scotland maintains its own educational system. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
Ma (2000) summarized the research of others who found, based on nationwide data, that students with higher scores on standardized math tests had taken more mathematics courses in high school. This led some states to require three years of math instead of two. But because this requirement was often met by taking another lower level math course, the additional courses had a “diluted” effect in raising achievement levels.
In North America, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) has published the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. In 2006, they released the Curriculum Focal Points, which recommend the most important mathematical topics for each grade level.
Ma, X. (2000). A longitudinal assessment of antecedent course work in mathematics and subsequent mathematical attainment. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 16-29.
Content and age levels
Different levels of mathematics are taught at different ages. Sometimes a class may be taught at an earlier age as a special or "honors" class. A rough guide to the ages at which the sub-topics of arithmetics and algebra are taught in the United States is as follows:
For comparison to American grade levels, most Americans begin kindergarten, the year before first grade in the American schooling system, between the ages of 4 and 6. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Addition is the mathematical process of putting things together Subtraction is one of the four basic Arithmetic operations it is the inverse of Addition, meaning that if we start with any number and add any number and then subtract In Mathematics, especially in elementary Arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation which is the inverse of Multiplication. Pre-algebra is a common name for a course in Elementary mathematics. Mathematics education is a term that refers both to the practice of Teaching and Learning Mathematics, as well as to a field of scholarly Research Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Circle-trig6svg|300px|thumb|right|All of the Trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives In American Mathematics education, Precalculus an advanced form of secondary school algebra, is a foundational mathematical discipline ( German, literally means "children's garden" is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling
The method or methods used in any particular context are largely determined by the objectives that the relevant educational system is trying to achieve. Methods of teaching mathematics include the following:
- Classical education - the teaching of mathematics within the classical education syllabus of the Middle Ages was typically based on Euclid's Elements, which was taught as a paradigm of deductive reasoning
- Rote learning - the teaching of mathematical results, definitions and concepts by repetition and memorization. Euclid's Elements ( Greek:) is a mathematical and geometric Treatise consisting of 13 books written by the Greek The word paradigm ( Greek:παράδειγμα (paradigmacomposite from para- and the verb δείχνυμι "to show" as a whole -roughly- meaning "example" Deductive reasoning is Reasoning which uses deductive Arguments to move from given statements ( Premises to Conclusions which must be true if the Rote learning is a Learning technique which avoids understanding of a subject and instead focuses on memorization. Typically used to teach multiplication tables. A derisory term is drill and kill. Parrot Maths was the title of a paper critical of rote learning.
- Exercises - the reinforcement of mathematical skills by completing large numbers of exercises of a similar type, such as adding vulgar fractions or solving quadratic equations. In Mathematics, a fraction (from the Latin fractus, broken is a concept of a proportional relation between an object part and the object In Mathematics, a quadratic equation is a Polynomial Equation of the second degree.
- Problem solving - the cultivation of mathematical ingenuity, creativity and heuristic thinking by setting students open-ended, unusual, and sometimes insoluble problems. Problem solving forms part of thinking. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions problem solving has been defined as higher-order Cognitive heuristic (hyu̇-ˈris-tik is a method to help solve a problem commonly an informal method The problems can range from simple word problems to problems from international mathematics competitions such as the International Mathematical Olympiad. The term word problem has several meanings Word problem (mathematics education is a type of textbook problem designed to help students apply abstract mathematical Mathematics competitions or mathematical olympiads are competitive events where participants write a mathematics test The International Mathematical Olympiad ( IMO) is an annual six-problem 42-point Mathematical olympiad for pre- collegiate students and is the oldest of
- New math - a method of teaching mathematics which focuses on abstract concepts such as set theory, functions and bases other than ten. New Math was a brief dramatic change in the way Mathematics was taught in American Grade schools during the 1960s The name is commonly given Adopted as a response to the challenge of early Soviet technical superiority in space, it would be largely abandoned and discredited by the late 1960s. The new math was the topic of one of Tom Lehrer's most popular parody songs, with his introductory remarks to the song: ". Thomas Andrew "Tom" Lehrer (born April 9 1928)is an American Singer-songwriter, satirist, Pianist, and mathematician . . in the new approach, as you know, the important thing is to understand what you're doing, rather than to get the right answer. "
- Historical method - teaching the development of mathematics within an historical, social and cultural context. Provides more human interest than a purely abstract approach. A human interest story is a News story that discusses a person or persons in an interactive and/or emotional way
- Reform or Standards-based mathematics. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a book produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in 2000 to set forth a national vision for precollege Often called the "new new" maths, it was a vision for precollege mathematics education in the US and Canada, based on the Constructivism (learning theory), and formalized by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics which created the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Constructivism is a psychological theory of knowledge ( Epistemology) which argues that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM was founded in 1920. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a book produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in 2000 to set forth a national vision for precollege
Recent controversy over U. S. mathematics education
Near the end of the 20th century diverse and changing ideas about the purpose of mathematical education would lead to wide adoption of reform-based standards and curricula funded by the US federal government, and also adopted by other national curriculum standards These were based on student-centered learning methods and equity in mathematics as a centerpiece of the standards based education reform movement. Math wars is the debate over modern Mathematics education, textbooks and curricula in the United States that was triggered by the publication in 1989 of the Curriculum The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM was founded in 1920. Student-centred learning (also called child-centred learning) is an approach to Education focusing on the needs of the Students rather than those Education reform in the United States since the late 1980s has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do This movement in turn was met with opposition which called for a return to traditional direction instruction of time-tested arithmetic methods by the start of the 21st century as some schools and districts supplemented or replaced standards-based curricula.
With the adoption of substantially different teaching reform standards and the development and widespread adoption of federally funded curricula during the 1990s, mathematics education has become the most hotly debated subject since the original 1960s "New Math" in mainstream news journals such as the Wall Street Journal and New York Times. New Math was a brief dramatic change in the way Mathematics was taught in American Grade schools during the 1960s The name is commonly given There is a significant difference in perspective between the relative few who practice mathematics in their careers, and those who have been tasked with teaching mathematics to children. The goals for educators since the 1990s have been expanded in the context of systemic standards based education reform in the United States and other nations to promote increased learning for all students. Education reform in the United States since the late 1980s has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do It is a goal to achieve equity and success for all groups in society. It is no longer acceptable to many in the education community that some were historically excluded from the full range of opportunities open to those who learned the most advanced mathematics.
By the late 1980s, a movement for systemic education reform took hold based on constructivist practices and the belief in success for all groups including minorities and women. Outcome-based education (OBE is a recurring Education reform model Among the development of a number of controversial standards across reading, science and history, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics  of the United States produced the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics in 1989. Whole language describes a literacy instructional philosophy which emphasizes that children should focus on meaning and moderates skill instruction Inquiry-based learning or inquiry-based science describes a range of philosophical curricular and pedagogical approaches to teaching The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM was founded in 1920. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics  included new goals such as equity and de-emphasized the traditional idea of relying solely on standard algorithms to get solutions. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a book produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in 2000 to set forth a national vision for precollege
The controversial 1989 NCTM standards recommended teaching elements of algebra as early as grade 5, and elements of calculus as early as grade 9, though this was rarely adopted even as late as the 2000s. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a book produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in 2000 to set forth a national vision for precollege In standards based education reform, all students, not only the college bound must take advanced mathematics. Education reform in the United States since the late 1980s has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do In some large school districts, this means requiring algebra of all students by the end of junior high school, compared to the tradition of tracking only college bound and the most advanced junior high school students to take algebra.
The standards soon became the basis for many new federally funded curricula such as the Core-Plus Mathematics Project and became the foundation of many local and state curriculum frameworks. The Core-Plus Mathematics Project is one of the five NCTM -standards-based High school Mathematics Curriculum development projects funded by the A curriculum framework is an organized plan or set of standards or learning outcomes that defines the content to be learned in terms of clear definable standards of what the Although the standards were the consensus of those teaching mathematics in the context of real life, they also became a lightning rod of criticism as math wars erupted in some communities that were opposed to some of the more radical changes to mathematics instruction such as Mathland's Fantasy Lunch and what some dubbed "rainforest algebra". Consensus has two common meanings One is a general agreement among the members of a given group or Community, each of which exercises some discretion in MathLand was one of many controversial mathematics curricula that were designed around the 1989 NCTM standards. Some students complained that their new math courses placed them into remedial math in college.
In 2000 and 2006 NCTM released another standards document and the Curriculum Focal Points which expanded on the work of the previous standards documents. Refuting reports and editorials  that it was largely an admission that the previous standards had mistakenly de-emphasized instruction of basic skills, NCTM spokesmen maintained that it provided more grade by grade specificity on key areas of study for a coherent and consistent development of mathematical understanding and skill.
In 2000 and 2006, the same NCTM issued new studies that criticized American math standards as a "mile wide and an inch deep" in comparison to the math of nations such as Singapore Math. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM was founded in 1920. In the United States the Singapore Math Method of teaching Mathematics is based on textbooks from the national curriculum of Singapore. Rather than backing research which had called them harmful, it called for strong instruction of basic skills. The New York Times and the Wall Street Journal called it a significant retreat back towards traditional mathematics, and some warned it might lead to a generation who could solve equations accurately, but not deeply understand mathematics, or relate it to real life issues such as the environment. 
The following people all taught mathematics at some stage in their lives, although they are better known for other things:
- Lewis Carroll, pen name of British author Charles Dodgson, lectured in mathematics at Christ Church, Oxford
- John Dalton, British chemist and physicist, taught mathematics at schools and colleges in Manchester, Oxford and York
- Tom Lehrer, American songwriter and satirist, taught mathematics at Harvard, MIT and currently at University of California, Santa Cruz. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (ˈdɒdsən (27 January 1832 &ndash 14 January 1898 better known by the Pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/ was an English The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Not to be confused with Christchurch, a city in New Zealand. Christ Church (Ædes Christi the temple or house of Christ and thus sometimes known as John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 &ndash 27 July 1844 was an English Chemist, Meteorologist and Physicist. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. Thomas Andrew "Tom" Lehrer (born April 9 1928)is an American Singer-songwriter, satirist, Pianist, and mathematician The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
- Brian May, rock guitarist and composer, worked briefly as a mathematics teacher before joining Queen
- Georg Joachim Rheticus, Austrian cartographer and disciple of Copernicus, taught mathematics at the University of Wittenberg
- Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury in the 13th century, lectured on mathematics at the universities of Oxford and Paris
- Éamon de Valera, a leader of Ireland's struggle for independence in the early 20th century and founder of the Fianna Fáil party, taught mathematics at schools and colleges in Dublin
- Archie Williams, American athlete and Olympic gold medalist, taught mathematics at high schools in California
The following people had a significant influence on the teaching of mathematics at various periods in history:
- Tatyana Alexeyevna Afanasyeva, Dutch/Russian mathematician who advocated the use of visual aids and examples for introductory courses in geometry for high school students. Brian Harold May, CBE Queen were an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Georg Joachim von Lauchen, also known as Rheticus ( February 16 1514 &ndash December 4 1574) was a Mathematician, Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg also referred to as MLU, is a public University in the cities of Edmund Rich (also known as Saint Edmund or Eadmund of Canterbury and as Saint Edmund of Abingdon) (1175 &ndash 1240 was a 13th century Archbishop The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach shortened to Fianna Fáil ( is currently the largest Political party in the Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Archibald ("Archie" Franklin Williams ( May 1, 1915 &ndash June 24, 1993) was an African-American athlete The United States of America —commonly referred to as the California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Tatyana Alexeyevna Afanasyeva (Татьяна Алексеевна Афанасьева ( Kiev, November 19, 1876 &ndash Leiden, April The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending 
- Georges Cuisenaire, Belgian primary school teacher who invented Cuisenaire rods
- Euclid, author of The Elements
- Leonhard Euler, author of Elements of Algebra
- Robert Lee Moore, originator of the Moore method
- Robert Parris Moses, founder of the nationwide US Algebra project
- George Pólya, author of How to Solve It
- Robert & Ellen Kaplan, international best-selling authors of Nothing That Is, Chances Are: Adventures in Probability , and The Art of the Infinite: The Pleasures of Mathematics
- Toru Kumon, originator of the Kumon method based on mastery through exercise
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics which created the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics
- U. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Cuisenaire rods are a versatile Mathematical manipulative used in Elementary school as well as other levels of learning and even with adults Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Euclid's Elements ( Greek:) is a mathematical and geometric Treatise consisting of 13 books written by the Greek Robert Lee Moore ( 14 November 1882, Dallas Texas &ndash 4 October 1974 Austin Texas) was an American The Moore method is a deductive manner of instruction used in advanced Mathematics courses Robert Parris Moses (born Harlem, New York, January 23, 1935, usually known as Bob Moses) is an American Harvard The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Algebra Project is a national US Mathematics literacy effort aimed at helping low-income students and students of color successfully achieve mathematical skills George Pólya (b December 13, 1887 &ndash d September 7, 1985, in Hungarian Pólya György) was a Hungarian George Pólya 's 1945 Book How to Solve It is a small volume describing methods of Problem solving. was a Japanese Mathematics educator born in Kochi Prefecture, Japan The Kumon Method, created by Japanese educator Toru Kumon, is the largest Mathematics and Language educational system in the world. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM was founded in 1920. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a book produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in 2000 to set forth a national vision for precollege S. Department of Education exemplary mathematics programs which implement the NCTM standards
- Mathematically Correct which is critical of the NCTM standards
- Anti-racist mathematics using mathematics education to fight racism
- Traditional mathematics
- Traditional education
- Computer Based Mathematics Education
- Math worksheet generator
- Philosophy of education
- ^ Marshall McLuhan (1964) Understanding Media, p. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a book produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in 2000 to set forth a national vision for precollege Mathematically Correct is a website created by educators parents mathematicians and scientists who were concerned about the direction of reform mathematics curricula based Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a book produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in 2000 to set forth a national vision for precollege Anti-racist mathematics is a branch of Education reform theory that attempts to form an Anti-bias curriculum in Mathematics. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Traditional mathematics (sometimes classical math education) is a term used to describe the predominant methods of Mathematics education in the United States Traditional education refers to long-established customs found in schools that society has traditionally deemed appropriate Constructivism is a psychological theory of knowledge ( Epistemology) which argues that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences Computer Based Mathematics Education (CBME refers to a mathematics education method that is enriched by using computers Dyscalculia is a type of specific learning disability (SLD involving innate difficulty in learning or comprehending Mathematics. A math worksheet generator is a Software program that generates Math problems The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose process nature and ideals of Education. 13 
- ^ Wall Street Journal, New York Times, Chicago Sun Times
- ^  Report Urges Changes in the Teaching of Math in U. S. Schools by TAMAR LEWIN New York Times September 13, 2006
- ^ Freddie Mercury Interview, Melody Maker, May 2, 1981
Teacher organizations and others associated with mathematics education
Scholarly journals: print
Scholarly journals: on-line The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM was founded in 1920. The National Centre for Excellence in Teaching Mathematics ( NCETM) is the new institution set up in the wake of the Smith Report to improve Mathematics teaching Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE is a National Centre of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR Mumbai India Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Agricultural education is instruction about Crop production Livestock management soil and water conservation and various other aspects of agriculture For general education in the broad range of Arts see Arts education, for education in the Performing arts see Performing arts education Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States instruction occurs in English and a minority language such as Chemistry Education (or often “Chemical Education” is a comprehensive term that refers to topics related to the study or description of the Teaching and Learning Language education includes the Teaching and Learning of a Language. Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end either related to law Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor (i Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes skills and behaviors to live in harmony with oneself Education in the performing arts is a key part of many primary and Secondary education curricula and is also available as a specialisation at the tertiary Physics education refers both to the methods currently used to teach Physics and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods Reading education is the process by which individuals are taught to derive meaning from text In Secular usage religious education is the Teaching of a particular Religion (although in England the term religious instruction would refer Science education is the field concerned with sharing Science Content and Process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community Sex education is a broad term used to describe Education about human sexual anatomy, Sexual reproduction, Sexual intercourse, Reproductive Technology education is a study of technology which provides an opportunity for students to learn about the processes and knowledge related to technology Vocational education or Vocational Education and Training (VET also called Career and Technical Education (CTE prepares learners for jobs that are based
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