Mounted Mammut americanum skeleton.
Mastodons or Mastodonts (from Greek μαστός and οδούς, meaning "nipple tooth") are members of the extinct genus Mammut of the order Proboscidea and form the family Mammutidae; they resembled, but were distinct from, the woolly mammoth, which belongs to the family Elephantidae. The conservation status of a Species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals Elephantidae the Elephants with three living Species ( African Bush William Perry Hay (born in Eureka Illinois on December 8, 1872; died in 1947 was an American carcinologist known for work on crayfish Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals Elephantidae the Elephants with three living Species ( African Bush The woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) also called the tundra mammoth, is an extinct species of Mammoth. Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. Mastodons were browsers, while mammoths were grazers. Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell Grazing generally describes a type of Predation in which an Herbivore feeds on Plants (such as Grasses, or more broadly on a multicellular
Mastodons are thought to have first appeared almost four million years ago. They were native to both Eurasia and North America but the Eurasian species Mammut borsoni died out approximately three million years ago - fossils having been found in England, Germany, the Netherlands and northern Greece. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Mammut americanum disappeared from North America about 10,000 years ago, at the same time as most other Pleistocene megafauna. Pleistocene megafauna is the set of Species of large animals &mdash Mammals Birds and Reptiles &mdash that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene
Though their habitat spanned a large territory, mastodons were most common in the ice age spruce forests of the eastern United States, as well as in warmer lowland environments. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Spruce refers to Trees of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of Coniferous Evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae  Their remains have been found as far as 300 kilometers offshore of the northeastern United States, in areas that were dry land during the low sea level stand of the last ice age. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface  Mastodon fossils have been found in South America; on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, USA (Manis Mastodon Site); in Kentucky (particularly noteworthy are early finds in what is now Big Bone Lick State Park); the Kimmswick Bone Bed in Missouri; in Stewiacke, Nova Scotia, Canada; in Richland County, Wisconsin; La Grange, Texas; Southern Louisiana; and north of Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Manis Mastondon site is the site of an archaeological dig on the Olympic Peninsula near Sequim Washington, USA. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Big Bone Lick State Park is located at Big Bone in Boone County Kentucky. Mastodon State Historic Site is an archaeological and paleontological site in Imperial Missouri, containing the Kimmswick Bone Bed. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Fort Wayne is a City in northeastern Indiana, United States and the County seat of Allen The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union
While mastodons were furry like woolly mammoths and similar in height at roughly three meters at the shoulder, the resemblance was superficial. The woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) also called the tundra mammoth, is an extinct species of Mammoth. They differed from mammoths primarily in the blunt, conical, nipple-like projections on the crowns of their molars, which were more suited to chewing leaves than the high-crowned teeth mammoths used for grazing; the name mastodon (or mastodont) means "nipple teeth" and is also an obsolete name for their genus. Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of Tooth in most Mammals In many mammals they grind food hence the Latin name mola, " Millstone In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic  Their skulls were larger and flatter than those of mammoths, while their skeleton was stockier and more robust.  Mastodons also seem to have lacked the undercoat characteristic of mammoths. 
The tusks of the mastodon sometimes exceeded five meters in length and were nearly horizontal, in contrast with the more curved mammoth tusks. A tusk is an extremely long Incisor Tooth of certain Mammals that protrudes when the Mouth is closed  Young males had vestigial lower tusks that were lost in adulthood. Vestigiality describes homologous characters of Organisms which have lost all or most of their original function in a species through  However, it has been proven that female mastodons had lower pairs of tusks. The tusks were probably used to break branches and twigs, although some evidence suggests males may have used them in mating challenges; one tusk is often shorter than the other, suggesting that, like humans and modern elephants, mastodons may have had laterality. Laterality is the preference that most Humans show for one side of their Body over the other  Examination of fossilized tusks revealed a series of regularly spaced shallow pits on the underside of the tusks. Microscopic examination showed damage to the dentin under the pits. Dentin ( BE: dentine) is a calcified tissue of the body and along with enamel, Cementum, and pulp is one of the four It is theorized that the damage was caused when the males were fighting over mating rights. The curved shape of the tusks would have forced them downward with each blow, causing damage to the newly forming ivory at the base of the tusk. The regularity of the damage in the growth patterns of the tusks indicates that this was an annual occurrence, probably occurring during the spring and early summer. 
Recent studies indicate that tuberculosis may have been partly responsible for the extinction of the mastodon 10,000 years ago. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common 
Another influencing factor to their eventual extinction in America during the late Pleistocene may have been the presence of Paleo-indians, which entered the American contient in relatively large numbers 13,000 years ago. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period Paleo-Indians or Paleo-Americans were the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. Their hunting caused a gradual attrition to the Mastodon and Mammoth populations, siginificant enough that over time the Mastodons were hunted to extinction. 
In September 2007, Mark Holley, an underwater archeologist with the Grand Traverse Bay Underwater Preserve Council who teaches at Northwestern Michigan College in Traverse City, Michigan, said that they might have discovered a boulder (3. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Established in 1951 Northwestern Michigan College, known as NMC to local residents is a Community college in Traverse City, Grand Traverse County Traverse City is a City in the US state of Michigan. It is the largest city in the 21-county Northern Michigan region 5 to 4 feet high x 5 feet long) with a prehistoric carving in the Grand Traverse Bay of Lake Michigan. Grand Traverse Bay is located off Lake Michigan in Northern Michigan. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. The granite rock has markings that resemble a mastodon with a spear in its side. Confirmation that the markings are an ancient petroglyph will require more evidence. Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading 
Current excavations are going on annually at the Hiscock site in Byron, New York, for mastodon and related paleo-Indian artifacts. Charles Willson Peale ( April 15, 1741 – February 22, 1827) was an American painter, soldier and naturalist The site was discovered in 1959 by the Hiscock family while digging a pond with a backhoe; they found a large tusk and stopped digging. The Buffalo Museum of Science has organized the dig since 1983. It has been called one of the richest sites available for mastodon-related artifacts. The site sits on swampland that was covered by Lake Tonowanda, which was a glacier runoff lake formed over 10,000 years ago. It has been confirmed that mastodons would flock there to eat the sodium-rich clay during one of the last great droughts of the paleolithic.