|Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Motto:||"Mens et Manus" (Latin for "Mind and Hand")|
|Established:||1861 (opened 1865)|
|Endowment:||US $9. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group The date of establishment or date of founding of an Institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point Unlike Public universities, private universities generally do not receive direct operational funding from national or subnational governments and thus rely on private A financial endowment is a Transfer of Money or Property donated to an Institution, usually with the stipulation that it be invested The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 98 billion|
|Provost:||L. Rafael Reif|
|Location:||Cambridge, Mass., U.S.|
|Campus:||Urban, 154 acres (0. A Chancellor is the head of a University. Other titles are sometimes used such as President or Rector. University president is the title of the highest ranking officer within a University, within university systems that prefer that appellation over other variations such as Susan Hockfield (b Chicago, 1951 is the sixteenth and current president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Provost is the title of a senior Academic administrator at many institutions of Higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent L Rafael Reif is a professor of Electrical Engineering and the current Provost of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A faculty is a division within a University. The concept of a university with different faculties for different subjects dates back to Al-Azhar University, which had In some Educational systems undergraduate education is Post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelor's degree. See also Postgraduate Training in Education Postgraduate education (synonymous in North America with graduate education, and sometimes described Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 6 km²)|
41 varsity teams
|Colors:||Cardinal Red and Gray|
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Division III (or DIII) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association of the United States. In the United States and Canada, varsity sports teams are the principal athletic teams representing a College, University, High School colors are the Colors chosen by a School to represent it on uniforms and other items of identification Cardinal is a vivid Red, which gets its name from the Cassocks worn by cardinals The family of birds takes its name from the color The term mascot – defined as a term for any person animal or object thought to bring Luck – colloquially includes anything used to represent a group with a common Beavers are two primarily nocturnal semi-aquatic species of Rodent, one native to North America and one to Europe A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages Unlike Public universities, private universities generally do not receive direct operational funding from national or subnational governments and thus rely on private A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. MIT has five schools and one college, containing 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological research. MIT is one of two private land-grant universities and is also a sea grant and space grant university. Land-grant universities (also called land-grant colleges or land grant institutions) are institutions of higher education in the United States that have The sea grant colleges are a group of 30 US universities that are involved in the National Sea Grant College Program. The space-grant colleges compose a network of 52 consortia, based at universities across the United States, for Space -related research
MIT was founded by William Barton Rogers in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States. William Barton Rogers (1804-1882 is best known for setting down the founding principles advocating for and finally incorporating the Massachusetts Institute of Technology The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States ' emergence as one of the largest nations in the world as well as the most technologically Although based upon German and French polytechnic models of an institute of technology, MIT's founding philosophy of "learning by doing" made it an early pioneer in the use of laboratory instruction, undergraduate research, and progressive architectural styles. Institute of technology, and polytechnic, are designations employed in a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable As a federally funded research and development center during World War II, MIT scientists developed defense-related technologies that would later become integral to computers, radar, and inertial guidance. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Whirlwind Computer was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships An Inertial Navigation System (INS is a Navigation aid that uses a Computer and motion sensors to continuously track the position orientation and Velocity After the war, MIT's reputation expanded beyond its core competencies in science and engineering into the social sciences including economics, linguistics, political science, and management. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise
MIT's endowment and annual research expenditures are among the largest of any American university.  MIT graduates and faculty are noted for their technical acumen (72 affiliated Nobel Laureates, 47 National Medal of Science recipients, and 29 MacArthur Fellows), and entrepreneurial importance. The following list provides information on nobel laureates and their affiliation to academic institutions. The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in Science and Engineering who have made important The MacArthur Fellows Program or MacArthur Fellowship (sometimes Nicknamed the "genius grant") is an award given by the John D 
|“||. . . a school of industrial science [aiding] the advancement, development and practical application of science in connection with arts, agriculture, manufactures, and commerce. ||”|
—Act to Incorporate the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Acts of 1861, Chapter 183
As early as 1859, the Massachusetts State Legislature was given a proposal for use of newly opened lands in Back Bay in Boston for a museum and Conservatory of Art and Science.  In 1861, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts approved a charter for the incorporation of the "Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston Society of Natural History" submitted by William Barton Rogers. The Museum of Science ( MoS) is a Boston Massachusetts landmark located in Science Park a plot of land spanning the Charles River. William Barton Rogers (1804-1882 is best known for setting down the founding principles advocating for and finally incorporating the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Rogers sought to establish a new form of higher education to address the challenges posed by rapid advances in science and technology during the mid-19th century with which classic institutions were ill-prepared to deal. Liberal arts colleges are primarily colleges with an emphasis upon Undergraduate study in the Liberal arts.   The Rogers Plan, as it came to be known, was rooted in three principles: the educational value of useful knowledge, the necessity of “learning by doing”, and integrating a professional and liberal arts education at the undergraduate level. 
Because open conflict in the Civil War broke out only a few months later, MIT's first classes were held in rented space at the Mercantile Building in downtown Boston in 1865. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South  Construction of the first MIT buildings was completed in Boston's Back Bay in 1866 and MIT would be known as "Boston Tech. " During the next half-century, the focus of the science and engineering curriculum drifted towards vocational concerns instead of theoretical programs. Charles William Eliot, the president of Harvard University, repeatedly attempted to merge MIT with Harvard's Lawrence Scientific School over his 30-year tenure: overtures were made as early as 1869 with other proposals in 1900 and 1914 ultimately being defeated. Charles William Eliot ( March 20 1834 &ndash August 22 1926) was an American Academic who was selected as Harvard's 
The attempted mergers occurred in parallel with MIT's continued expansion beyond the classroom and laboratory space permitted by its Boston campus. President Richard Maclaurin sought to move the campus to a new location when he took office in 1909. Richard Cockburn Maclaurin (pronounced Co-burn (1870 - 1920 was a Scottish -born U  An anonymous donor, later revealed to be George Eastman, donated the funds to build a new campus along a mile-long tract of swamp and industrial land on the Cambridge side of the Charles River. George Eastman ( July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932) founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented Roll film, helping to In 1916, MIT moved into its handsome new neoclassical campus designed by the noted architect William W. Bosworth which it occupies to this date. Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo William Welles Bosworth (1868-1966 was an American Architect whose most famous designs include MIT 's Cambridge campus, the AT&T Building The new campus triggered some changes in the stagnating undergraduate curriculum, but in the 1930s President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush drastically reformed the curriculum by re-emphasizing the importance of "pure" sciences like physics and chemistry and reducing the work required in shops and drafting. Karl Taylor Compton ( September 14, 1887 &ndash June 22, 1954) was a prominent American Physicist and president of Provost is the title of a senior Academic administrator at many institutions of Higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent Vannevar Bush ( March 11, 1890 &ndash June 30, 1974; pronounced "VAN-ee-var" ˈvæˌniː Despite the difficulties of the Great Depression, the reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering. " The expansion and reforms thus cemented MIT's academic reputation on the eve of World War II by attracting scientists and researchers who would later make significant contributions in the Radiation Laboratory, Instrumentation Laboratory, and other defense-related research programs. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Ernest Lawrence's laboratory at UC Berkeley now known as Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, was also known as the Radiation Laboratory The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Inc, formerly the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, was founded by Charles Stark Draper in the late 1930s to teach students
MIT was drastically changed by its involvement in military research during World War II. Bush was appointed head of the enormous Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT. The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes  During the war and in the post-war years, this government-sponsored research contributed to a fantastic growth in the size of the Institute's research staff and physical plant as well as placing an increased emphasis on graduate education. Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific Research, in the areas of both "hard" Science and Technology and 
As the Cold War and Space Race intensified and concerns about the technology gap between the U. The Sputnik crisis was a turning point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 S. and the Soviet Union grew more pervasive throughout the 1950s and 1960s, MIT's involvement in the military-industrial complex was a source of pride on campus. A military-industrial complex (MIC is a concept commonly used to refer to Policy relationships between Governments national Armed forces, and industrial  However, by the late 1960s and early 1970s, intense protests by student and faculty activists (an era now known as "the troubles") against the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research required that the MIT administration to divest itself from what would become the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory and move all classified research off-campus to the Lincoln Laboratory facility. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The military funding of science has had a powerful transformative effect on the practice and products of scientific research since the early 20th century The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Inc, formerly the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, was founded by Charles Stark Draper in the late 1930s to teach students MIT Lincoln Laboratory, also known as Lincoln Lab, is a Federally funded research and development center managed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MIT has been nominally coeducational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Mixed-sex education, (or just Mixed education) also known as Coeducation, is the integrated education to males and females at the same school facilities Ellen Henrietta (Swallow Richards ( December 3, 1842 &ndash March 30, 1911) was the foremost female industrial and Environmental (Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in sanitary chemistry. Environmental health is the branch of Public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and Built environment that may affect human Health ) Female students, however, remained a very small minority (numbered in dozens) prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, McCormick Hall, in 1963. Katharine Dexter McCormick ( August 27, 1875 – December 28, 1967) was a U  By 1993, 32% of MIT's undergraduates were female and in 2006, the number had increased to near-parity (47. 5%). 
A 1998 MIT study concluded that a systemic bias against female faculty existed in its college of science, although the study's methods were controversial.  A 2003 MIT news release cites various statistics suggesting that the status of women improved during the latter years of President Vest's tenure.  Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiologist, became MIT's 16th president on December 6, 2004 and is the first woman to hold the post. Susan Hockfield (b Chicago, 1951 is the sixteenth and current president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Neuroscience is a field devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " While the student body has become more balanced in recent years, women are still a distinct minority among faculty.
The 1984 dismissal of David F. Noble, a historian of technology, became a cause celebre about the extent to which academics are granted "freedom of speech" after he published several books and papers critical of MIT's and other research universities' reliance upon financial support from corporations and the military. For other uses of the name David Noble please see David Noble (disambiguation David Franklin Noble (born July 22, 1945 A cause célèbre (plural causes célèbres, French famous case) is Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. 
In 1986, Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in an investigation of research misconduct that led to Congressional hearings in 1991. David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin is awarded once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute. Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in Professional scientific research. 
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, many American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a declining economy by transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international — especially Japanese — firms that were competing with struggling American businesses. scapegoat was a Goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement in Judaism during the times Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills knowledge technologies methods of manufacturing samples of manufacturing and facilities among industries universities governments The economy of Japan is the second largest economy in the world after the United States, at around US$4 The term business cycle or economic cycle refers to the fluctuations of economic activity during its long term growth trend 
In 1991, the Justice Department filed an antitrust suit against MIT and the eight Ivy League colleges for holding "Overlap Meetings" to prevent bidding wars over promising students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department The Sherman Antitrust Act ( Sherman Act, July 2, 1890, ch 647,) was the first United States Federal statute to limit Cartels and The Ivy League is an Athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. While the Ivy League institutions settled, MIT contested the charges on the grounds that the practice was not anticompetitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students. A consent decree (also referred to as a consent order) is a judicial Decree expressing a voluntary agreement between parties to a suit, especially MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994. 
In 2000, Professor Ted Postol accused the MIT administration of attempting to whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed. Theodore A Postol (1946 -) is a professor of Science Technology and International Security at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is a prominent critic of To Whitewash is to gloss over or cover up vices crimes or to exonerate by means of a perfunctory investigation or through biased presentation of data Missile defense is a system weapon or technology involved in the detection tracking interception and destruction of attacking Missiles Originally conceived as a defence against 
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a number of student deaths resulted in considerable media attention to MIT's culture and student life.  After the alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger in September 1997 as a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, MIT began requiring all freshmen to live in the dormitory system. Origins of Phi Gamma Delta Historical sketch of Jefferson College In 1803 only a small percentage of Americans attended college  The 2000 suicide of MIT undergraduate Elizabeth Shin drew attention to suicides at MIT and created a controversy over whether MIT had an unusually high suicide rate. Elizabeth Shin (1980 &ndash April 14, 2000) was a Massachusetts Institute of Technology student who died from burns inflicted by a fire in her dormitory  In late 2001 a task force's recommended improvements in student mental health services were implemented, including expanding staff and operating hours at the mental health center. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or Emotional wellbeing or an absence of a Mental disorder.  These and later cases were significant as well because they sought to prove the negligence and liability of university administrators in loco parentis. The term in loco parentis, Latin for "in the place of a parent" or "instead of a parent" refers to the legal responsibility of a person or 
In 2006-2007, MIT's denial of tenure to African-American biological engineering professor James Sherley prompted accusations of racism in MIT's tenure process, eventually leading to a protracted public dispute with the administration, a brief hunger strike, and the resignation of Professor Frank L. James Sherley, PhD, MD, is a biological engineer at Boston Biomedical Research Institute. A hunger strike is a method of Non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political Protest, or to provoke feelings of Douglas in protest. 
In April 2007, Dean of Admissions Marilee Jones resigned after she "misrepresented her academic degrees" when she applied to an administrative assistant position in 1979 and never corrected the record despite her subsequent promotions. Marilee Jones (born June 12, 1951) is a former dean of admissions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT and the co-author of 
MIT is "a university polarized around science, engineering, and the arts. " MIT has five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology), but no schools of law or medicine. The MIT School of Science is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. The MIT School of Engineering is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA The MIT School of Architecture and Planning is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT School of Humanities Arts and Social Sciences is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts Founded in 1970 the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, or HST, is one of the oldest and largest Biomedical engineering and physician-scientist 
MIT is governed by a 78-member board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation which approve the budget, degrees, and faculty appointments as well as electing the President. Trustee is a Legal term that refers to a holder of property on behalf of a beneficiary.  MIT's endowment and other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo). A financial endowment is a Transfer of Money or Property donated to an Institution, usually with the stipulation that it be invested A pension is a steady income given to a person upon Retirement, typically in the form of a guaranteed annuity.  The chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President. However, faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs. 
MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers alone. Majors are numbered in the approximate order of when the department was founded; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is Course I, while Nuclear Science & Engineering is Course XXII.  Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course VI. " MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; the course which many American universities would designate as "Physics 101" is, at MIT, simply "8. 01. "
MIT's 168-acre (68. The campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology includes dozens of buildings representing diverse architectural styles and shifting campus priorities. 0 ha) Cambridge campus spans approximately a mile of the north side of the Charles River basin. The Charles River is a small relatively short River in Massachusetts, USA, that separates Boston from Cambridge and The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and all academic buildings to the east. Massachusetts Avenue, known to locals as Mass Ave, is a major thoroughfare in Boston Massachusetts and several cities and towns northwest of Boston The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is marked off in the fanciful unit – the Smoot. The Harvard Bridge (also known locally as the "MIT bridge" or the "Mass The smoot is a nonstandard Unit of length created as part of an MIT fraternity prank. The Kendall MBTA Red Line station is located on the far northeastern edge of the campus in Kendall Square. Kendall/MIT is a station on the Rapid transit Red Line in Kendall Square at the intersection of Broadway and Main Street, in The Red Line is a Rapid transit line operated by the MBTA running roughly north-south through Boston Massachusetts into neighboring communities Kendall Square is a neighborhood in Cambridge Massachusetts, with the "square" itself at the intersection of Main Street Broadway Wadsworth Street and Third Street The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods.
MIT buildings all have a number (or a number and a letter) designation and most have a name as well.  Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to only by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original, center cluster of Maclaurin buildings. Many are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of underground tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather. MIT also owns commercial real estate and research facilities throughout Cambridge and the greater Boston area.
MIT's on-campus nuclear reactor is the second largest university-based nuclear reactor in the United States. The MIT Nuclear Research Reactor (MITR serves the research purposes of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled The high visibility of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has occasionally caused controversy, but MIT maintains that it is well-secured.  Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel, a towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs, and a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity and heating requirements. A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects A ship model basin may be defined as one of two separate yet related entities namely a physical basin or tank used to carry out hydrodynamic Energy recycling Cogeneration (also combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a Heat engine or a Power station to simultaneously generate both MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering 9,400,000 square feet (873,289. The square foot is an Imperial unit / US customary unit (non- SI non- metric) of Area, used mainly in the United States 0 m²) of campus. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here 
As MIT's school of architecture was the first in the United States, it has a history of commissioning progressive, if stylistically inconsistent, buildings. MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (also CSAIL) is a research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 The MIT Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems is an interdisciplinary research laboratory of MIT, working on research in the areas of communications, Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements  The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are known officially as the Maclaurin buildings after Institute president Richard Maclaurin who oversaw their construction. Richard Cockburn Maclaurin (pronounced Co-burn (1870 - 1920 was a Scottish -born U Designed by William Welles Bosworth, these imposing buildings were built of concrete, a first for a non-industrial — much less university — building in the U. William Welles Bosworth (1868-1966 was an American Architect whose most famous designs include MIT 's Cambridge campus, the AT&T Building S.  The utopian City Beautiful movement greatly influenced Bosworth's design which features the Pantheon-esque Great Dome, housing the Barker Engineering Library, which overlooks Killian Court, where annual Commencement exercises are held. The City Beautiful movement was a Progressive reform movement in North American Architecture and Urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and The Pantheon ( Latin Pantheon, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the gods" is a building in Rome The friezes of the limestone-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers. The imposing Building 7 atrium along Massachusetts Avenue is regarded as the entrance to the Infinite Corridor and the rest of the campus. Massachusetts Avenue, known to locals as Mass Ave, is a major thoroughfare in Boston Massachusetts and several cities and towns northwest of Boston The Infinite Corridor is the hallway 251 meters (825 feet 016 miles long that runs through the main buildings of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specifically
Alvar Aalto's Baker House (1947), Eero Saarinen's Chapel and Auditorium (1955), and I.M. Pei's Green, Dreyfus, Landau, and Wiesner buildings represent high forms of post-war modern architecture. Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto ( February 3, 1898 — May 11, 1976) was a Finnish Architect and Designer, sometimes Eero Saarinen (eːro saːrinen (August 20 1910 Kirkkonummi, Finland – September 1 1961 Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States) was Ieoh Ming Pei ( (b April 26, 1917) commonly known by his initials I This article is concerned with architectural aspects of Modernism; for the most recent developments in architecture see Contemporary architecture. More recent buildings like Frank Gehry's Stata Center (2004), Steven Holl's Simmons Hall (2002), and Charles Correa's Building 46 (2005) are distinctive amongst the Boston area's staid architecture and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture. Frank Owen Gehry CC (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize -winning Architect The Ray and Maria Stata Center is a 720000-ft² academic complex designed by Pritzker Prize -winning architect Frank Gehry for the Massachusetts Institute of Steven Holl (born December 9, 1947, Bremerton Washington) is an American academic Architect and watercolorist best known for the 1998 Charles Correa (born in Hyderabad, India on September 1 1930) is an Indian Architect, planner activist theoretician and a fundamental " These buildings have not always been popularly accepted; the Princeton Review includes MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both. "
|Undergraduate||Graduate||U. S. Census|
|African American||6. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa 3%||1. 8%||12. 1%|
|Asian American||26. Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. They include sub-ethnic groups such as Chinese Americans Filipino Americans Indian 4%||11. 7%||4. 3%|
|Hispanic American||11. Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Hispanic or Latino descent, which comprises ancestry or origins in Hispanic America 6%||2. 9%||14. 5%|
|Native American||1. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States 3%||0. 3%||0. 9%|
|International student||9. International students are Students usually in early adulthood who study in foreign Educational institutions While most universities have official 2%||39. 3%||(N/A)|
MIT enrolls more graduate students (approximately 6,000 in total) than undergraduates (approximately 4,000). In 2006, women constituted 44 percent of all undergraduates and 30 percent of graduate students. The same year, MIT students represented all 50 states, the District of Columbia, three U.S. Territories, and 113 foreign countries. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Territories of the United States are one type of political division of the United States, administered by the U
The admissions rate for freshmen in 2007 was 11. 9% with over 69% of admitted freshmen choosing to enroll. Although graduate admissions are less centralized, they are similarly selective: 19. 7% of 16,153 applications were admitted with 61. 2% of admitted candidates enrolling. 
Undergraduate tuition is $33,400 and graduate tuition is $33,600 per year although 64% of undergraduates receive need-based financial aid and 87% of graduate students are supported by MIT fellowships, research assistantships, or teaching assistantships. 
MIT has an extensive core curriculum required of all undergraduates called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs). The science requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics classes covering Classical Mechanics and E&M, two semesters of math covering single variable calculus and multivariable calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives Multivariable calculus is the extension of Calculus in one Variable to calculus in several variables the functions which are differentiated and integrated involve Undergraduates are required to take a laboratory class in their major, eight Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) classes (at least three in a concentration and another four unrelated subjects), and non-varsity athletes must also take four physical education classes. The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies In May 2006, a faculty task force recommended that the current GIR system be simplified with changes to the science, HASS, and Institute Lab requirements. 
Although the difficulty of MIT coursework has been characterized as "drinking from a fire hose," the failure rate and freshmen retention rate at MIT are similar to other large research universities.  Some of the pressure for first-year undergraduates is lessened by the existence of the "pass/no-record" grading system. In the first (fall) term, freshmen transcripts only report if a class was passed while no external record exists if a class was not passed. In the second (spring) term, passing grades (ABC) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again rendered "no-record. "
Most classes rely upon a combination of faculty led lectures, graduate student led recitations, weekly problem sets (p-sets), and tests to teach material, though alternative curricula exist, e. g. Experimental Study Group, Concourse, and Terrascope. The Experimental Study Group (ESG describes itself as an "alternative academic program" at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Over time, students compile "bibles," collections of problem set and examination questions and answers used as references for later students. In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published The Hidden Curriculum, arguing that unwritten regulations, like the implicit curricula of the bibles, are often counterproductive; they fool professors into believing that their teaching is effective and students into believing they have learned the material. The Hidden Curriculum ( 1970) is a book by Benson R Snyder the then-Dean of Institute Relations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
MIT historically pioneered research collaborations between industry and government.  Fruitful collaborations with industrialists like Alfred P. Sloan and Thomas Alva Edison led President Compton to establish an Office of Corporate Relations and an Industrial Liaison Program in the 1930s and 1940s that now allows over 600 companies to license research and consult with MIT faculty and researchers. Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr ( May 23, 1875 – February 17, 1966) was a long-time President and Chairman of General Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills knowledge technologies methods of manufacturing samples of manufacturing and facilities among industries universities governments  As several MIT leaders served as Presidential scientific advisers since 1940, MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue to lobby for research funding and national science policy. Vannevar Bush ( March 11, 1890 &ndash June 30, 1974; pronounced "VAN-ee-var" ˈvæˌniː Dr James Rhyne Killian Jr (1904-1988 was the 10th president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from 1948 until 1959 Jerome Wiesner (Jerome Bert Wiesner ( May 30, 1915 – October 21, 1994) was an educator a Science Advisor to U In 1951 President of the United States Harry S Truman established the Science Advisory Committee as part of the Office of Defence Mobilization (ODM Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups Science policy is usually considered the art of justifying managing or prioritizing support of scientific research and development. 
MIT's proximity to Harvard University has created both a quasi-friendly rivalry ("the other school up the river") as well as a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Broad Institute, Center for Ultracold Atoms, and Harvard-MIT Data Center. The Charles River is a small relatively short River in Massachusetts, USA, that separates Boston from Cambridge and Founded in 1970 the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, or HST, is one of the oldest and largest Biomedical engineering and physician-scientist The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard is an American research institute dedicated to the study of Genomics for the biomedical sciences The Center for Ultracold Atoms ( CUA) is a collaborative research laboratory between MIT and Harvard University.  In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register without any additional fees, for credits toward their own school's degrees. Cross-registration in United States Higher education is a system allowing students at one University, college, or faculty within a university
MIT has a long-standing cross-registration program with Wellesley College as well as an undergraduate exchange program with the University of Cambridge known as the Cambridge-MIT Institute. Wellesley College is a women's liberal arts college, in Wellesley Massachusetts, that opened in 1875 founded by Henry Fowle Durant The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The Cambridge&ndashMIT Institute, or CMI, is a partnership between the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England, and the Massachusetts  MIT has limited cross-registration programs with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art, and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. Brandeis University is a private research University with a Liberal arts focus located in Waltham Massachusetts, United States. Massachusetts College of Art and Design (also known as MassArt) is a publicly funded college of visual and Applied art, founded in 1873 The School of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston (also known as the Museum School or SMFA) is an undergraduate and graduate College located in 
MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston-area like the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as well as international research and educational collaborations through the Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, MIT Portugal Program, and MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Inc, formerly the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, was founded by Charles Stark Draper in the late 1930s to teach students Founded in 1982, the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research is a non-profit research and teaching institution located in Cambridge Massachusetts. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI is a private nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and Singapore-MIT Alliance ( SMA) was founded in 1998 as an initiative to develop research talents who can contribute locally to the Economy. The University of Zaragoza or sometimes Saragossa University (in Spanish: Universidad de Zaragoza) is the only Public university in the  The planned European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is modelled on MIT. The European Institute of Innovation and Technology ( EIT)- regulation came into force on 29 April 2008
MIT students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center. MIT Museum, founded in 1971, is the museum of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge Massachusetts.  Summer programs like MITES and the Research Science Institute encourage minority and high school students to pursue science and engineering in college. MITES, or Minority Introduction to Engineering and Science, is a six-week summer program for rising high school seniors held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Project Interphase accelerates incoming freshman whose educational backgrounds did not fully prepare them for MIT coursework. 
The mass-market magazine Technology Review is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as the Institute's official alumni magazine. Technology Review is a magazine published by Technology Review Inc a media company owned by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The MIT Press is a major university press, publishing over 200 books and 40 journals annually emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events, and social issues. 
In the 2008 US News and World Report (USNWR) rankings of national universities, MIT's undergraduate program was #7. USNews & World Report is an influential weekly American Newsmagazine published in Washington D  The MIT Sloan School of Management is ranked #2 in the nation at the undergraduate level and #4 among MBA programs by USNWR's 2008 rankings.  MIT has more top-ranked graduate programs than any other university in the 2008 USNWR survey and the School of Engineering has been ranked first among graduate and undergraduate programs since the magazine first released the results of its survey in 1988. 
Among other outlets in the world university rankings, MIT is ranked #1 in the Globe by Webometrics, #1 in technology, #2 in citation, #4 overall, #5 in natural science, and #11 in social science among world universities by the THES - QS World University Rankings, in the top tier of national research universities by TheCenter for Measuring University Performance, #5 among world universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University's 2006 Annual Rankings of World Universities, and #1 by The Washington Monthly's rankings of social mobility and national service in 2005 and 2006. The science of webometrics (also cybermetrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of Hyperlinks structure of The THES - QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings around the world published by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES Shanghai Jiao Tong University ( abbreviated Jiao Da (交大 or SJTU) located in Shanghai, is one of the oldest and most influential universities The Washington Monthly is a monthly Magazine of United States Politics and Government that is based in Washington D  The National Research Council, in a 1995 study ranking research universities in the US, ranked MIT #1 in "reputation" and #4 in "citations and faculty awards. The National Research Council (NRC of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of "
MIT also participates in the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU)'s University and College Accountability Network (U-CAN). Founded in 1976 the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU is an organization of private US colleges and universities
MIT has 998 faculty members, of whom 188 are women and 165 are minorities.  Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, advising both graduate and undergraduate students, and sitting on academic committees, as well as conducting original research. Many faculty members also have founded companies, serve as scientific advisers, or sit on the Board of Directors for corporations. 25 MIT faculty members have won the Nobel Prize. The following list provides information on nobel laureates and their affiliation to academic institutions. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature  Among current and former faculty members, there are 51 National Medal of Science and Technology recipients, 80 Guggenheim Fellows, 6 Fulbright Scholars, 29 MacArthur Fellows, and 4 Kyoto Prize winners. The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in Science and Engineering who have made important The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly known as the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American Guggenheim Fellowships are American grants that have been awarded annually since 1925 by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those "who The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright-Hays Program, is a program of grants for international educational exchange for scholars educators graduate The MacArthur Fellows Program or MacArthur Fellowship (sometimes Nicknamed the "genius grant") is an award given by the John D The Kyoto Prize (京都賞 has been awarded annually since 1984 by the Inamori Foundation, founded by Kazuo Inamori.  Faculty members who have made extraordinary contributions to their research field as well as the MIT community are granted appointments as Institute Professors for the remainder of their tenures. Institute Professor is the highest title that can be awarded to a faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
For fiscal year 2006, MIT spent $587. 5 million on on-campus research.  The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $180. The United States Department of Health and Human Services ( HHS) is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting 6 million, Department of Defense $86 million, Department of Energy $69. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government The United States Department of Energy ( DOE) is a Cabinet -level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy 9 million, National Science Foundation $66. The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical 7 million, and NASA $32. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program 1 million.  MIT employs approximately 3,500 researchers in addition to faculty. In the 2006 academic year, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 523 inventions, filed 321 patent applications, received 121 patents, and earned $42. 3 million in royalties. 
In electronics, magnetic core memory, radar, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers. Magnetic core memory, or ferrite-core memory, is an early form of Random access Computer memory. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships In physics a Coulomb blockade, named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is the increased resistance at small bias voltages of an electronic device comprising An Inertial Navigation System (INS is a Navigation aid that uses a Computer and motion sensors to continuously track the position orientation and Velocity Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography. For the police officer see Harry Edgerton Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton ( April 6, 1903 &ndash January High Speed Photography is the science of taking pictures of very fast phenomena Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory. Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30 1916 – February 24 2001 an American Electronic engineer and Mathematician, is "the father of Information Information theory is a branch of Applied mathematics and Electrical engineering involving the quantification of Information. Digital electronics are Electronics systems that use Digital signals Digital electronics are representations of Boolean algebra also see
In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, machine learning, robotics, and public-key cryptography. The GNU Project is a Free software, Mass collaboration project announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. The free software movement (also known as open source movement, free and open source software movement and abbreviated FSM OSM or FOSSM) is a relatively Norbert Wiener ( November 26, 1894, Columbia Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm, Sweden) was an American Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927) is an American cognitive scientist in the field of Artificial intelligence (AI co-founder Joseph Weizenbaum ( Berlin, January 8, 1923 – March 5, 2008) was a German-American author and professor emeritus of Patrick Henry Winston is an American Computer scientist. Winston was director of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory for most of its existence from Rodney Allen Brooks (b December 30, 1954, in Adelaide, Australia) is Panasonic Professor of Robotics at the Massachusetts Institute Ronald Linn Rivest (born 1947, Schenectady, New York) is a cryptographer. Richard Stallman founded the GNU Project while at the AI lab (now CSAIL). Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16 1953 often abbreviated " rms " is an American software freedom activist The GNU Project is a Free software, Mass collaboration project announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (also CSAIL) is a research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 Professors Hal Abelson and Gerald Jay Sussman wrote the popular Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs textbook and co-founded the Free Software Foundation with Stallman. Harold (Hal Abelson is the Class of 1922 Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, a fellow of the IEEE, and serves on the Gerald Jay Sussman is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs ( SICP) is a textbook published in 1985 about general The Free Software Foundation ( FSF) is a Non-profit corporation founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the Free software movement Tim Berners-Lee established the W3C at MIT in 1994. Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FREng FRSA (born 8 June 1955 is an English computer scientist who is credited David D. Clark made fundamental contributions in developing the Internet. David Dana Clark (born April 7, 1944) is an American Computer scientist. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Popular technologies like X Window System, Kerberos, Zephyr, and Hesiod were created for Project Athena in the 1980s. Kerberos is a Computer network Authentication protocol, which allows individuals communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one Created at MIT, as part of Project Athena, Zephyr was designed as an Instant messaging protocol and application-suite with a heavy Unix background In Computing, the Hesiod Name service originated in Project Athena (1983 - 1991 Project Athena was a joint project of MIT, Digital Equipment Corporation, and IBM. MIT was one of the original collaborators in the development of the Multics operating system, a highly secure predecessor of UNIX. Multics ( Mult iplexed I nformation and C omputing S ervice was an extremely influential early Time-sharing Operating system Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer
MIT physicists have been instrumental in describing subatomic and quantum phenomena like elementary particles, electroweak force, Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, fractional quantum Hall effect, and asymptotic freedom as well as cosmological phenomena like cosmic inflation. Samuel Chao Chung Ting (丁肇中 Pinyin: Dīng Zhàozhōng Wade-Giles: Ting¹ Chao⁴-chung¹ (born January 27, 1936) is an American Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American Physicist, and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE is a physical phenomenon in which a certain system behaves as if it were composed of particles with charge smaller than the Elementary charge Frank Anthony Wilczek (born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate. Cosmology (from Greek grc κοσμολογία - grc κόσμος kosmos, "universe" and grc -λογία -logia) is study Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is a Theoretical physicist and Cosmologist.
MIT chemists have discovered number syntheses like metathesis, stereoselective oxidation reactions, synthetic self-replicating molecules, and CFC-ozone reactions. Richard Royce Schrock (born January 4, 1945) is an American chemist and Nobel laureate recognized for his contributions to the Metathesis reaction used Karl Barry Sharpless (born April 28, 1941) is an American Chemist known for his work on Stereoselective reactions. Julius Rebek Jr (born April 11, 1944) is a Hungarian -born American Chemist and expert on Molecular self-assembly. José Mario Molina-Pasquel Henríquez (born March 19, 1943 in Mexico City) is a Mexican -born U Penicillin and Vitamin A were also first synthesized at MIT. Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of Bacterial Infections Vitamin A refers to a family of similarly shaped molecules the Retinoids.
MIT biologists have been recognized for their discoveries and advances in RNA, protein synthesis, apoptosis, gene splicing and introns, antibody diversity, reverse transcriptase, oncogenes, phage resistance, and neurophysiology. Ribonucleic acid ( RNA) is a Nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of Nucleotide units Har Gobind Khorana, or Hargobind Khorana (born January 9, 1922) is an Indian-American molecular biologist H Robert Horvitz (born May 8, 1947) is an American Biologist best known for his research on the Nematode worm Caenorhabditis Phillip Allen Sharp (born June 6, 1944) is an American Geneticist and molecular biologist who co-discovered gene splicing Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 6, 1939) is a Japanese Scientist who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist Robert Allan Weinberg is a Daniel K Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research at MIT and American Cancer Society Research Professor his research is in the area of Oncogenes Salvador Edward Luria ( August 13, 1912 &ndash February 6, 1991) was an Italian -born American microbiologist Jerome Ysroael Lettvin (born Chicago February 23[[ 920]] is a cognitive scientist and professor Emeritus of Electrical and Bioengineering and Communications Physiology MIT researchers discovered the genetic bases for Lou Gehrig's disease and Huntington's disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS, sometimes called Maladie de Charcot, or in the United States Lou Gehrig's Disease) is a progressive Huntington's disease, also called Huntington's chorea, chorea major, or HD, is a genetic neurological disorder characterized after Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project. Eric Steven Lander (born February 3, 1957) is a Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Human Genome Project (HGP was an international Scientific research project with a primary goal to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA
MIT economists have contributed to the fields of system dynamics, financial engineering, neo-classical growth models, and welfare economics and developed fundamental financial models like the Modigliani-Miller theorem and Black-Scholes equation. Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918, Climax Nebraska) is a pioneer American Computer engineer, Systems scientist Robert Cox Merton (born 31 July 1944) is an American economist and Nobel laureate in economics Robert Merton Solow (born August 23 1924 is an American Economist particularly known for his work on the theory of Economic growth. Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915) is an American neoclassical Economist known for his contributions to many fields of Franco Modigliani ( Rome, June 18, 1918 – September 25, 2003) was an Italian-American Economist at the Myron Samuel Scholes (born July 1, 1941) is one of the authors of the Black-Scholes equation
Professors Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle are both noted linguists, Professor Henry Jenkins is prominent in the field of media studies, Professor John Harbison has won a Pulitzer Prize and MacArthur Fellowship for his operatic scores, and former professor Marcia McNutt is one of the world's most influential ocean scientists. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Morris Halle, né Pinkowitz is a Latvian-American Jewish linguist and an Institute Professor and professor Emeritus of linguistics Henry Jenkins III (born June 4 1958 in Atlanta Georgia) is an American scholar currently Peter de Florez Professor of Humanities and Co-Director Media studies is a collection of academic programs regarding the content history meaning and effects of various media. John Harris Harbison (born December 20, 1938 in Orange New Jersey) is a Composer, best known for his Operas The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, The MacArthur Fellows Program or MacArthur Fellowship (sometimes Nicknamed the "genius grant") is an award given by the John D Marcia Kemper McNutt is an American geophysicist She is currently president and C 
In 1969, MIT began the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. The program, founded by Margaret MacVicar, builds upon the MIT philosophy of "learning by doing. Margaret LA (Scotty MacVicar (1944–1991 was an American Physicist and educator. " Students obtain research projects, colloquially called "UROPs," through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly.  Over 2,800 undergraduates, 70% of the student body, participate every year for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis.  Students often become published, file patent applications, and/or launch start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs. For a broader class of publications which include scientific journals see Academic journal. A patent application is a request pending at a Patent office for the grant of a Patent for the Invention described and claimed by that application A startup company or start-up is a Company with a limited operating history
In 2001, MIT announced that it planned to put all of its course materials online as part of its OpenCourseWare project by 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW is an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT to put all of the educational materials from its undergraduate - and Building upon MIT's leadership in the free software movement, Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab started the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide. The free software movement (also known as open source movement, free and open source software movement and abbreviated FSM OSM or FOSSM) is a relatively Nicholas Negroponte (born December 1, 1943) is a Greek-American Architect and Computer scientist best known as the founder and Chairman The MIT Media Lab (also known as the Media Lab) is a department within the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Upon taking office in 2004, President Hockfield launched an Energy Research Council to investigate how MIT can respond to the interdisciplinary challenges of increasing global energy consumption. 
MIT faculty and students highly value meritocracy and technical proficiency. Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability  MIT has never awarded an honorary degree nor does it award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding For other degrees see Academic degree An ad eundem degree is a courtesy degree awarded by one University Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an Academic degree was earned  It does, on rare occasions, award honorary professorships; Winston Churchill was so honored in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist 
MIT students' passion for their subjects is balanced by the perception that their classes are more rigorous than their "grade inflated" peer institutions— a love-hate relationship embodied by the school's informal motto/initialism IHTFP ("I hate this fucking place," jocularly euphemized as "I have truly found paradise," "Institute has the finest professors," etc. Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name ). 
Many MIT students and graduates wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat. Massachusetts Institute of Technology's class ring, often called the Brass Rat, is crafted each year by a student committee " Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring. " The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists, as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a beaver. The American Beaver ( Castor canadensis) is a large semi-aquatic Rodent native to Canada, much of the United States, and parts of northern
MIT has over 380 recognized student activity groups, including a campus radio station, The Tech student newspaper, the "world's largest open-shelf collection of science fiction" in English, model railroad club, a vibrant folk dance scene, weekly screenings of popular films by the Lecture Series Committee, and an annual entrepreneurship competition. WMBR is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT–run student broadcasting station licensed in Cambridge Massachusetts and broadcasting on 88 The Tech, first published on November 16 1881 is the oldest and largest campus newspaper at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge Massachusetts The MIT Science Fiction Society (or MITSFS) is a literary society and library of Science fiction and Fantasy books and magazines located at the Massachusetts The Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC is a student organization at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT and one of the most famous model railroad clubs in the Tech Squares is a square and round dance club at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The traditions and student activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology encompasses hundreds of student activities organizations and athletics that contribute to MIT's distinct The MIT $100K Entrepreneurship Competition is one of the largest and most famous Business plan competitions in the world
MIT's Independent Activities Period is a four-week long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. The traditions and student activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology encompasses hundreds of student activities organizations and athletics that contribute to MIT's distinct Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are the 6. 270, 6.370, and MasLab competitions, the annual "mystery hunt", and Charm School. The traditions and student activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology encompasses hundreds of student activities organizations and athletics that contribute to MIT's distinct The traditions and student activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology encompasses hundreds of student activities organizations and athletics that contribute to MIT's distinct The MIT Mystery Hunt is an annual Puzzlehunt competition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The traditions and student activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology encompasses hundreds of student activities organizations and athletics that contribute to MIT's distinct
Many MIT students also engage in "hacking," which encompasses both the physical exploration of areas that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as elaborate practical jokes. Roof and tunnel hacking is the unauthorized (generally prohibited and often illegal exploration of roof and Utility tunnel spaces Hack has several meanings in the technology and computer science fields Recent hacks have included the theft of Caltech's cannon, reconstructing a Wright Flyer atop the Great Dome, and adorning the John Harvard statue with the Master Chief's Spartan Helmet. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout John Harvard ( November 26, 1607 &ndash September 14, 1638) was an English Clergyman after whom Harvard University Master Chief Petty Officer John-117, commonly called the Master Chief, is a Fictional character and the main Protagonist of the Halo 
MIT's student athletics program offers 41 varsity-level sports, the largest program in the nation.  They participate in the NCAA's Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, and NCAA's Division I and Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC) for crew. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations Division III (or DIII) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association of the United States. Current members The league currently has 10 full members Sports The NEWMAC sponsors intercollegiate athletic competition in Men's New England Football Conference is an athletic conference which competes in football in the NCAA 's Division III. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. They fielded several dominant intercollegiate Tiddlywinks teams through 1980, winning national and world championships. Tiddlywinks is an indoor Game played with sets of small discs called "winks" lying on a surface usually a flat mat  MIT teams have won or placed highly in national championships in pistol, track and field, swimming and diving, cross country, crew, fencing, and water polo. MIT has produced 128 Academic All-Americans, the third largest membership in the country for any division and the highest number of members for Division III. An All-American "team" is an honorary Sports team composed of outstanding Amateur players those considered the best players of a specific season for 
The Institute's sports teams are called the Engineers, their mascot since 1914 being a beaver, "nature's engineer. The term mascot – defined as a term for any person animal or object thought to bring Luck – colloquially includes anything used to represent a group with a common The American Beaver ( Castor canadensis) is a large semi-aquatic Rodent native to Canada, much of the United States, and parts of northern " Lester Gardner, a member of the Class of 1898, provided the following justification:
|“||The beaver not only typifies the Tech, but his habits are particularly our own. The beaver is noted for his engineering and mechanical skills and habits of industry. His habits are nocturnal. He does his best work in the dark. ||”|
The Zesiger sports and fitness center (Z-Center) which opened in 2002, significantly expanded the capacity and quality of MIT's athletics, physical education, and recreation offerings to 10 buildings and 26 acres of playing fields. The Al and Barrie Zesiger Sports and Fitness Center (informally known as the "Z Center" is the central athletics facility at MIT. The 124,000-square-foot (11,500 m²) facility features an Olympic-class swimming pool, international-scale squash courts, and a two-story fitness center. 
MIT guarantees four-year, dormitory housing for all undergraduates and provides live-in graduate student tutors and faculty housemasters who have the dual role of both helping students and monitoring them for medical or mental health problems. The dormitories at MIT are famous in their own right Many of the buildings described below have been designed by notable architects and many are examples of unique buildings Students are permitted to select their dorm and floor upon arrival on campus, and as a result diverse communities arise in living groups; the dorms on and east of Massachusetts Avenue are stereotypically more involved in countercultural activities. Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or MIT also has six graduate student dormitories, which house about one-third of the graduate student population. 
MIT has a very active Greek and co-op system. Approximately one-half of MIT male undergraduates and one-third of female undergraduates are affiliated with one of MIT's 36 fraternities, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs).  Most FSILGs are located across the river in the Back Bay owing to MIT's historic location there, but there are also a few fraternities in MIT's West Campus and in Cambridge. Since 2002, all freshmen are required to live in the dormitory system for the first year before moving into an FSILG.
Many of MIT's over 110,000 alumni and alumnae have had considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business. This list of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni includes students who studied as undergraduates or graduate students at MIT's School of Engineering, 27 MIT alumni have won the Nobel Prize and 37 have been selected as Rhodes Scholars. This list of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni includes students who studied as undergraduates or graduate students at MIT's School of Engineering, Rhodes Scholarship Rhodes scholar redirects here Rhodes Scholar redirects here Rhodes scholars 
Alumni currently in American politics and public service include Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, New Hampshire Senator John E. Sununu, U. The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the central banking system of the United States and one of the most Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is the incumbent Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve. New Hampshire ratified the Constitution on June 21, 1788. New Hampshire Class 2 Senators Class 2 U John Edward Sununu (born September 10, 1964) is a Republican United States Senator from New Hampshire. S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman, MA-1 Representative John Olver, CA-13 Representative Pete Stark. The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the President's Cabinet, and fifteenth in the Samuel Wright Bodman III (born November 26 1938 is the United States Secretary of Energy and was previously Deputy Secretary of the U Massachusetts's first congressional district is in western and central Massachusetts. John Walter Olver (born September 3 1936) American politician has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives Fortney Hillman "Pete" Stark Jr (born November 11, 1931) is an American politician from the state of California. MIT alumni in international politics include British Foreign Minister David Miliband, former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, former Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi, and former Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu. A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the Foreign policy of a sovereign nation David Wright Miliband The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of the Israeli government and is the most powerful political officer in Israel (the President of Israel being a titular figurehead (בִּנְיָמִין "ביבי" נְתַנְיָהוּ Binyamin "Bibi" Netanyahu, born October 21 1949, Tel Aviv) was
MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Intel, McDonnell Douglas, Texas Instruments, 3Com, Qualcomm, Bose, Raytheon, Koch Industries, Rockwell International, Genentech, and Campbell Soup. Robert Norton Noyce ( December 12, 1927 &ndash June 3, 1990) nicknamed " the Mayor of Silicon Valley " co-founded James Smith McDonnell ( April 9, 1899 - August 22, 1980) was an Aviation pioneer and founder of McDonnell Aircraft Corporation Donald Wills Douglas Sr (6 April 1892 &ndash 1 February 1981 was a United States Aircraft industrialist and founder of the Douglas Aircraft Company Cecil Howard Green ( August 6, 1900 &ndash April 11, 2003) was a British -born American Geophysicist who trained Robert Melancton Metcalfe (born April 7, 1946 in Brooklyn, New York) is an electrical engineer from the United States who co-invented Ethernet Andrew James Viterbi PhD (Bergamo (Italy March 9, 1935) is an Italian-American Electrical engineer and businessman Amar Gopal Bose ( Bengali: অমর গোপাল বসু Amar Gopal Boshu) (born November 2, 1929) is the chairman and founder of Bose Vannevar Bush ( March 11, 1890 &ndash June 30, 1974; pronounced "VAN-ee-var" ˈvæˌniː Frederick "Fred" Chase Koch (born Quanah Texas, September 23, 1900 - died Kansas City, November 1967 was an American Willard Frederick Rockwell Sr (born 1888 - died 1978 was a Businessman who helped shape and name what eventually became the Rockwell International company Robert A Swanson (1947–1999 was a venture capitalist who cofounded the biotechnology giant Genentech in 1976 with Herbert Boyer. John Thompson Dorrance BS PhD ( November 11, 1873 - September 21, 1930) was a American Chemist
MIT alumni have also led other prominent institutions of higher education, including the University of California system, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Carnegie Mellon University, Tufts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, Northeastern University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tecnológico de Monterrey, and Purdue University. David S Saxon (1920 &ndash December 8 2005) was an American Physicist and Educator who served as the President of the University Lawrence Henry "Larry" Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American Economist and academic William R Brody is the current President of the Johns Hopkins University, a position which he has held since 1996 Jared Leigh Cohon is the eighth President of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. Lawrence S "Larry" Bacow has been President of Tufts University since September 1 2001 Dr Albert Joseph Simone (born 1935 is a former president of the Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester New York, USA Joseph E Aoun is the seventh president of Northeastern University in Boston Massachusetts, where he took office on August 15, 2006. Shirley Ann Jackson (born August 5, 1946) is an American Physicist, and the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Eugenio Garza Sada ( January 11, 1892 &ndash September 17, 1973) was a Mexican businessman and philanthropist of Jewish descent who Martin C Jischke (JIS-key (b 1941 Chicago, Illinois) is a prominent American higher-education administrator and advocate Although not alumni, former Provost Robert A. Brown is President of Boston University, former Provost Mark Wrighton is Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis, and former Professor David Baltimore was President of Caltech. This page is about the university president For the mining industry person see Robert A For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. Mark Stephen Wrighton (born 1949) is an American Academic, a Chemist, and the current Chancellor of Washington University in David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, Coeducational research university located in Pasadena
More than one third of the United States' manned spaceflights have included MIT-educated astronauts, among them Buzz Aldrin (Sc. This is a list of NASA missions, both manned and unmanned, since its establishment in 1958 This list of Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni includes students who studied as undergraduates or graduate students at MIT's School of Engineering, Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr, January 20, 1930 in Glen Ridge, New Jersey) is an American Aviator D XVI '63), more than any university excluding the United States service academies. The United States Service academies, also known as the United States Military Academies, are federal academies for the undergraduate education and training of 
Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, ScD '63 (Course XVI)
Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, SM '72 (Course XV)
Federal Reserve Bank Chairman Ben Bernanke, PhD '79 (Course XIV)
Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, SB '76 (Course IV), SM '78 (Course XV)
Wellesley College is a women's liberal arts college, in Wellesley Massachusetts, that opened in 1875 founded by Henry Fowle Durant A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system.