|State of Maryland|
|Official language(s)||None (English, de facto)|
|Largest metro area||Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area|
|Area||Ranked 42nd in the US|
|- Total||12,407 sq mi|
|- Width||101 miles (145 km)|
|- Length||249 miles (400 km)|
|- % water||21|
|- Latitude||37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N|
|- Longitude||75° 03′ W to 79° 29′ W|
|Population||Ranked 19th in the US|
|- Density||541. The flag of Maryland consists of the heraldic banners of the family of George Calvert 1st Baron Baltimore. The Great Seal of Maryland is the official government emblem of the State of Maryland in the United States. This is a list of US state nicknames, including officially adopted Nicknames and other traditional nicknames for individual states of the United States. Here is a list of state Mottos for the states of the United States of America. Fatti maschii parole femine is the state motto of Maryland. Sometimes mistaken for Latin, the language of many state mottos it is actually The United States does not have an Official language; however the majority of the population speaks English as a native language (about 82% A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Washington DC has been the capital of the United States since 1800 Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. This is a list of the largest cities of US states by population Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas|Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasIn the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB has produced The Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area is a consolidated Metropolitan area consisting of the overlapping labor market region of the cities of Washington Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison as of July 1, 2007, according to the This article is a list of the 50 US States ordered by Population density. 9/sq mi |
209. 2/km² (5th in the US)
|- Median income||$65,144 (1st)|
|- Highest point||Hoye Crest|
3,360 ft (1,024 m)
|- Mean||344 ft (105 m)|
|- Lowest point||Atlantic Ocean|
0 ft (0 m)
|Admission to Union||April 28, 1788 (7th)|
|Governor||Martin O'Malley (D)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Anthony G. Brown (D)|
|U.S. Senators||Barbara Mikulski (D)|
Ben Cardin (D)
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Maryland (IPA: /ˈmɛrələnd/) is a state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States. Household income is a measure of current private income commonly used by the United States government and private institutions Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> Backbone Mountain is a Ridge of the Allegheny Mountains of the central Appalachian Range Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of U Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Martin Joseph O'Malley (born January 18 1963) is an American Democratic politician who is currently serving as the 61st This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. Anthony G Brown (born November 21, 1961, in Huntington New York) is an American politician in Maryland. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Barbara Ann Mikulski (born July 20, 1936) is an American Politician of the Democratic Party, and the senior Senator Benjamin Louis "Ben" Cardin (born October 5 1943) is a Democratic member of the United States Senate representing the state of The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses These are tables of congressional delegations from Maryland to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. This is a list of United States of America States by time zone The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America Daylight saving time ( DST The traditional abbreviations for US states and territories were widely used in mailing addresses prior to the introduction of two-letter U ISO 3166-2US is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to the United States of America. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The Mid-Atlantic States (also called Middle Atlantic States or simply Mid Atlantic) form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Historically it was part of the Chesapeake Bay Colony where planters cultivated tobacco as a cash crop dependent on slave labor.  It is comparable in size to the European country of Belgium. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those  According to the most recent information provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, as of August 2007, Maryland is now the wealthiest state in the United States, with a median household income of US$65,144, ahead of New Jersey which had previously held that title. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. 
It was the seventh state to ratify the United States Constitution and bears two nicknames, the Old Line State and the Free State. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. Its history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and Southern regions of the United States. The Northern United States is a large geographic region of the United States of America. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive Generally, the rural Southern and Eastern Shore regions of Maryland reflect a Southern culture, while densely-populated Central Maryland — radiating outward from Baltimore City and the Washington Beltway — exhibit characteristics of the Northeast. Southern Maryland in popular usage is composed of the state's southernmost counties on the "Western Shore" of the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore of Maryland is composed of the state's nine counties east of the Chesapeake Bay. The Culture of the Southern United States or Southern Culture is a Subculture of the United States that has resulted from the blending of a heavy amount Interstate 495 (abbreviated I-495) is a Freeway -class Interstate highway which circles Washington D The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U 
Maryland is a life sciences hub with over 350 biotechnology firms, making it the third-largest such cluster in the nation. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles  Institutions and agencies located throughout Maryland include University System of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Celera Genomics, Human Genome Sciences (HGS), The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The University System of Maryland ( USM) is a Public corporation and charter school system comprising 13 Maryland institutions The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI is a United States Non-profit medical Research institute based in Chevy Chase Maryland Celera Genomics ( was formerly a business unit of the Applera Corporation, but was spun off in July 2008 to become an independent publicly traded company Human Genome Sciences ( is a Biopharmaceutical Corporation founded in 1992. The Institute for Genomic Research ( TIGR) was a Non-profit Genomics research institute founded in 1992 by Craig Venter in "NIH" redirects here For other meanings of NIH see NIH (disambiguation.
Maryland possesses a great variety of topography, hence its nickname, "America in Miniature. This is a list of islands in Maryland. See also List of islands on the Potomac River List of islands of the United List of Rivers in Maryland ( US state) The list is arranged by drainage basin from east to west with respective tributaries indented under each larger Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets " It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with water snakes and large bald cypress near the bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forest in the Piedmont Region, and mountain pine groves in the west. In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes. Taxodium is a Genus of one to three Species (depending on taxonomic opinion of extremely flood-tolerant Conifers in the cypress The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation.
Maryland is bounded on the north by Pennsylvania, on the west by West Virginia, on the east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, and on the south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The mid-portion of this border is interrupted on the Maryland side by Washington, DC, which sits on land that was originally part of Maryland. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state, and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. The Eastern Shore of Maryland is composed of the state's nine counties east of the Chesapeake Bay. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a portion of Garrett County (drained by the Youghiogheny River as part of the watershed of the Mississippi River), the eastern half of Worcester County (which drains into Maryland's Atlantic coastal bays), and a small portion of the state's northeast corner (which drains into the Delaware River watershed). Garrett County is the westernmost County of the US state of Maryland and is part of the Pittsburgh DMA. The Youghiogheny River, or the Yough River for short is a Tributary of the Monongahela River, approximately 122 mi (195 km A former pioneer fort at The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State," a name currently used by Massachusetts. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The highest point in Maryland is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the border with West Virginia and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River. Backbone Mountain is a Ridge of the Allegheny Mountains of the central Appalachian Range Garrett County is the westernmost County of the US state of Maryland and is part of the Pittsburgh DMA. Maryland's only ski area, Wisp, is located close to Backbone Mountain. Near the small town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, the state is only about 1-mile (2 km) wide. Hancock is a town in Washington County, Maryland, United States. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason-Dixon Line to the north, and the north-arching Potomac River to the south. The Mason–Dixon Line (or "Mason and Dixon's Line" is a Demarcation line between four U
Portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula comprises the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire State of Delaware, and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia, while the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered part of Appalachia. The Delmarva Peninsula is a large Peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by portions of three U The Eastern Shore of Virginia consists of two Counties ( Accomack and Northampton) on the Atlantic coast of the Commonwealth of Appalachia is a term used to describe a region in the eastern United States that stretches from southern New York state to northern Alabama, Much of the Baltimore-Washington corridor lies just south of the piedmont in the Coastal Plain, though it straddles the border between the two regions.
A quirk of Maryland's geography is that the state contains no natural lakes.  During the last Ice Age, glaciers did not reach as far south as Maryland, and therefore did not carve out deep natural lakes as exist in northern states. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets There are numerous man-made lakes, the largest being Deep Creek Lake, a reservoir in Garrett County. Deep Creek Lake State Park is a popular vacation area in Garrett County, Maryland, USA. Garrett County is the westernmost County of the US state of Maryland and is part of the Pittsburgh DMA. The lack of glacial history also accounts for Maryland's soil, which is more sandy and muddy than the rocky soils of New England. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the
The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, DC and Maryland's most populous city, Baltimore. This is a list of the twenty-four counties and County-equivalents in the U The following is the list of incorporated places in Maryland. This page lists unincorporated Census-designated places in the state of Maryland in alphabetical order Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Historically, these and many other Maryland cities developed along the fall line, the point at which rivers are no longer navigable from sea level due to the presence of rapids or waterfalls. In Geomorphology, a fall line (at times referred to as a fall zone) marks the area where an upland region (continental Bedrock) and a Coastal plain Maryland's capital, Annapolis, is one exception to this rule, lying along the Severn River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. The Severn River runs through Anne Arundel County in the US state of Maryland. Other major population centers include suburban hubs Columbia in Howard County, Silver Spring, Rockville and Gaithersburg in Montgomery County, Frederick in Frederick County and Hagerstown in Washington County. Columbia is a Census-designated place and planned community in Howard County, Maryland, United States. Howard County is a County located in the central part of the U Silver Spring is an urbanized Unincorporated area in Montgomery County Maryland, USA Rockville is the County seat of Montgomery County Maryland, United States. Gaithersburg is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. As of 2005, the city had an estimated total population of 57698 making it the fourth largest in Montgomery County of the US state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington D Frederick is the County seat of Frederick County Maryland, United States. Frederick County is located in the western part of the US state of Maryland, bordering the southern border of Pennsylvania and the northeastern border Hagerstown (ˈheɪgɚztaʊn is the County seat of Washington County, Maryland, United States. Washington County is a County located in the western part of the U The eastern, southern, and western portions of the state tend to be more rural, although they are dotted with cities of regional importance such as Salisbury and Ocean City on the Eastern Shore, Lexington Park and Waldorf in Southern Maryland, and Cumberland in Western Maryland. Salisbury (ˈsælzbəri or /sɔːɫzbəɹi/ is the County seat of Wicomico County Maryland. Ocean City, sometimes known as OC, is an Atlantic Ocean Resort town in Worcester County, Maryland The Eastern Shore of Maryland is composed of the state's nine counties east of the Chesapeake Bay. Lexington Park is a Census-designated place and micropolitan statistical area in St Southern Maryland in popular usage is composed of the state's southernmost counties on the "Western Shore" of the Chesapeake Bay. The City of Cumberland is the county seat of Allegany County Maryland, United States, and a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland See Western Maryland Railway for the Railroad. Western Maryland is the portion of U
Maryland has wide array of climates for a state of its size. Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. Bethesda is an Unincorporated area in southern Montgomery County Maryland, just Northwest of Washington D College Park is a city in Prince George's County Maryland, USA. The City of Cumberland is the county seat of Allegany County Maryland, United States, and a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland Ellicott City is an Unincorporated community and Census-designated place in Howard County, Maryland, United States. Frederick is the County seat of Frederick County Maryland, United States. Gaithersburg is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. As of 2005, the city had an estimated total population of 57698 making it the fourth largest in Greenbelt is a city in Prince George's County Maryland, United States. Hagerstown (ˈheɪgɚztaʊn is the County seat of Washington County, Maryland, United States. Laurel is a Maryland, US Ocean City, sometimes known as OC, is an Atlantic Ocean Resort town in Worcester County, Maryland Rockville is the County seat of Montgomery County Maryland, United States. Silver Spring is an urbanized Unincorporated area in Montgomery County Maryland, USA It depends on numerous variables, such as proximity to water, elevation, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds.
The eastern half of Maryland lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with very flat topography and very sandy or muddy soil. The Atlantic Coastal Plain is the flat stretch of land that borders the Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) This region has a humid subtropical climate, with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter. Humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by hot humid summers and chilly to mild winters This region includes the cities of Salisbury, Annapolis, Ocean City, and southern and eastern greater Baltimore. Salisbury (ˈsælzbəri or /sɔːɫzbəɹi/ is the County seat of Wicomico County Maryland. Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. Ocean City, sometimes known as OC, is an Atlantic Ocean Resort town in Worcester County, Maryland
Beyond this region lies the Piedmont which lies in the transition between the humid subtropical climate zone and the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfa), with hot, humid summers and moderately cold winters where average annual snowfall exceeds 20 inches and temperatures below 10°F are annual occurrences. Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching Humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by hot humid summers and chilly to mild winters The humid continental climate is a Climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between This region includes Frederick, Hagerstown, Westminster, Gaithersburg and northern and western greater Baltimore. Frederick is the County seat of Frederick County Maryland, United States. Hagerstown (ˈheɪgɚztaʊn is the County seat of Washington County, Maryland, United States. Westminster is the County seat of Carroll County, Maryland, United States. Gaithersburg is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. As of 2005, the city had an estimated total population of 57698 making it the fourth largest in
Extreme western Maryland, in the higher elevations of Allegany County and Garrett County lie completely in the Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa) due to elevation (more typical of inland New England and the Midwestern U. Allegany County is a County located in the northwestern part of the U Garrett County is the westernmost County of the US state of Maryland and is part of the Pittsburgh DMA. The humid continental climate is a Climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the S. ) with milder summers and cold, snowy winters. Some parts of extreme western Maryland possess the cool summer Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), with summer average temperatures below 71 °F. 
Precipitation in the state is very generous, as it is on most of the East Coast. Annual rainfall ranges from 40-45 inches (1000-1150 mm) in virtually every part of the state, falling very evenly. Nearly every part of Maryland receives 3. 5-4. 5 inches (95-110 mm) per month of precipitation. Snowfall varies from 9 inches (23 cm) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches (250 cm) a winter in the western mountains of the state. 
Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast, Maryland is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones, although the Delmarva Peninsula, and the outer banks of North Carolina to the south provide a large buffer, such that a strike from a major hurricane (category 3 or above) is not very likely. The Atlantic Coast is any Coast fronting the Atlantic Ocean. The term differentiates the coasts of countries or continents with coastlines on more than one body of A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding The Delmarva Peninsula is a large Peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by portions of three U North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States More often, Maryland might get the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore and released most of its energy. Maryland averages around 30-40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around 6 tornado strikes annually. 
|Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Maryland cities|
As is typical of states on the East Coast, Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy. The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern A good dose of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and various reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak, a huge example of White oak, the state tree, which can grow in excess of 70 feet (20 m) tall. Seagrasses (or sea-grasses in British English) are Flowering plants from one of four plant families ( Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Phragmites australis, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in Wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the The Wye Oak was the honorary State tree of Maryland, and the largest White oak tree in the United States. The tree species Quercus alba, also called "white oak" is one of the pre-eminent hardwoods of eastern North America Maryland also possesses an abundance of pines and maples among its endemic tree life. Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species. Included among these are the Crape Myrtle, Italian Cypress, live oak in the warmer parts of the state, and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state. Lagerstroemia (properly Crape-myrtle, sometimes spelled Crepe-myrtle) is a Genus of around 50 species of Deciduous and Evergreen Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean Cypress,(Or Italian Tuscan or Graveyard Cypress or Pencil Pine is a species of cypress native to the eastern This article is about the treeThis is Georgia's state tree For places named Live Oak see Live Oak. Hardy palms are any of the species of palm (Arecaceae that are able to withstand colder temperatures and thrive in places not typically considered in the natural range for palms  USDA plant hardiness zones in the state range from Zone 5 in the extreme western part of the state to 6 and 7 in the central part, and Zone 8 around the southern part of the coast, the bay area, and most of metropolitan Baltimore. A hardiness zone is a geographically-defined zone in which a specific category of Plant life is capable of growing as defined by Temperature hardiness or ability The Baltimore-Towson Metropolitan Statistical Area is a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA in Maryland as defined by the United States Office Large areas of Maryland have problems with kudzu, an invasive plant species that chokes out growth of endemic plant life. Pueraria lobata (syn P montana P thunbergiana) (sometimes known as foot a night vine, mile a minute vine, Gat Gun, Ge Gan and  Maryland's state flower, the Black-eyed Susan, grows in abundance in wild flower groups throughout the state where it often becomes a favorite of the state insect, the Baltimore Checkerspot Butterfly. The Baltimore Checkerspot Butterfly, Euphydryas phaeton, is the official State insect of the U 
The state harbors a great number of deer, particularly in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem from year-to-year. A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. The Chesapeake Bay provides the state with its huge cash crop of blue crabs, rockfish, and numerous seabirds. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. The blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus, from the Greek calli ="beautiful" nectes ="swimmer" and Latin Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include bears, mountain lions, foxes, raccoons, and Otters.  Maryland is famous for its population of rare wild horses found on Assateague island. Assateague Island is a 37 mile long barrier island located off the eastern coast of Maryland and Virginia. Every year an event occurs during which members of the horse population are captured and waded across the Chesapeake to Chincoteague, Virginia. Chincoteague is a town on Chincoteague Island in Accomack County, Virginia, United States. This conservation technique ensures the tiny island is not overrun by the horses. Another purebred animal from Maryland is the Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog, which was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area.  The Chesapeake Bay Retriever was also the first breed recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1878. Year 1878 ( MDCCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  Maryland's reptile and amphibian population is led by the Diamondback Terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland. The Diamondback terrapin ( Malaclemys terrapin) is a Species of Turtle native to the brackish coastal Swamps of the eastern and The University of Maryland College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland UMD, UMCP or simply Maryland) is a public research The state also hosts the Baltimore Oriole, which is the official state bird and mascot of the MLB team the Baltimore Orioles. The Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula, is a small icterid blackbird which is on average 18 cm long and weighs 34 g 
Lawns in Maryland carry a variety of species, mostly due to its location in the Transition Zone for lawngrasses. A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes Clover and other plants which are maintained at a low even height The western part of the state is cold enough to support Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescues, which are widespread from the foothills west. Poa pratensis, known as Smooth Meadow-grass or Kentucky Bluegrass, is a species of grass native to Europe, Asia, northern The area around the Chesapeake Bay is usually turfed with transition species such as Zoysia, Tall fescue, and Bermudagrass. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. Zoysia is a Genus of eight species of Creeping Grasses native to southeastern and eastern Asia (north to China and Japan Not to be confused with the vertebrate clade " Cynodont " Cynodon ( Greek "Dog-tooth" is a genus of nine species of St. Augustine grass can be grown in the parts of the state that are in Zone 8. St Augustine grass ( Stenotaphrum secundatum) (also known as Charleston Grass in South Carolina is a warm season Lawn Grass that is popular for use in
In 1629, George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore in the Irish House of Lords, fresh from his failure further north with Newfoundland's Avalon colony, applied to Charles I for a new royal charter for what was to become the Province of Maryland. George Calvert 1st Baron Baltimore ( c 1580 &ndash 15 April 1632 was an English Politician and coloniser. The Irish House of Lords (Irish Teach na dTiarnai) was the Upper house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from mediæval times until 1800 Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. The Province of Maryland was an English colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776 when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen colonies Calvert's interest in creating a colony derived from his Catholicism and his desire for the creation of a haven for Catholics in the new world. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described In addition, he was familiar with the fortunes that had been made in tobacco in Virginia, and hoped to recoup some of the financial losses he had sustained in his earlier colonial venture in Newfoundland. George Calvert died in April 1632, but a charter for "Maryland Colony" (in Latin, "Terra Maria") was granted to his son, Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, on June 20, 1632. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Cecilius Calvert 2nd Baron Baltimore ( August 8, 1605 &ndash November 30, 1675) usually called Cecil was an English Coloniser Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. The new colony was named in honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort of Charles I. Henrietta Maria ( 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was Princess of France and Queen Consort of England, Scotland  The specific name given in the charter was phrased "Terra Mariae, anglice, Maryland". The English name was preferred over the Latin due in part to the undesired association of "Mariae" with the Spanish Jesuit Juan de Mariana. Juan de Mariana (1536 Talavera, Toledo Spain - February 17 1624, Madrid, Spain was a Spanish Jesuit priest  Leonard, Cecilius' younger brother was put in charge of the expedition because Cecilius did not want to go.
To try to gain settlers, Maryland used what is known as the headright system, which originated in Jamestown. A headright is a legal grant of land of settlers moving into an area uninhabited by settlers The government awarded land to people who transported colonists to Maryland.
On March 25, 1634, Lord Baltimore sent the first settlers into this area. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Although most of the settlers were Protestants, Maryland soon became one of the few regions in the British Empire where Catholics held the highest positions of political authority. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Maryland was also one of the key destinations of tens of thousands of British convicts. The Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 was one of the first laws that explicitly dictated religious tolerance, though toleration was limited to Trinitarian Christians. Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the Act Concerning Religion, was passed in 1649 by assembly of the Province of Maryland mandating religious toleration Religious toleration is the condition of accepting or permitting others' religious beliefs and practices which disagree with one's own
The royal charter granted Maryland the Potomac River and territory northward to the fortieth parallel. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. This proved a problem when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania, because the grants (which were made using an inaccurate map) overlapped. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Maryland's northern boundary would put Philadelphia, the major city in Pennsylvania, partially within Maryland, while Pennsylvania's southern boundary would encompass much of Maryland, resulting in conflict between the Calvert family, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Baron Baltimore, of Baltimore in County Cork, is an extinct title in the Peerage of Ireland. William Penn ( October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) was founder and "Absolute Proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, This led to the Cresap's War (also known as the Conojocular War), a border conflict between Pennsylvania and Maryland, fought in the 1730s. For the 1774 conflict also known as "Cresap's War" see Dunmore's War. Hostilities erupted in 1730 with a series of violent incidents prompted by disputes over property rights and law enforcement, and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in 1736 and by Pennsylvania in 1737. The armed phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire. A final settlement was not achieved until 1767, when the Mason-Dixon Line was recognized as the permanent boundary between the two colonies. The Mason–Dixon Line (or "Mason and Dixon's Line" is a Demarcation line between four U
After Virginia made the practice of Anglicanism mandatory, a large number of Puritans migrated from Virginia to Maryland, and were given land for a settlement called Providence (now Annapolis). The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. In 1650, the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government and set up a new government that outlawed both Catholicism and Anglicanism. In March 1654, the 2nd Lord Baltimore sent an army under the command of Governor William Stone to put down the revolt. Cecilius Calvert 2nd Baron Baltimore ( August 8, 1605 &ndash November 30, 1675) usually called Cecil was an English Coloniser William Stone (1603-1695 was an English pioneer and an early settler in Maryland. His Roman Catholic army was decisively defeated by a Puritan army near Annapolis in what was to be known as the "Battle of the Severn". A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, 
The Puritan revolt lasted until 1658. In that year the Calvert family regained control of the colony and re-enacted the Toleration Act. However, after England's "Glorious Revolution" of 1688, when William of Orange and his wife Mary came to the throne and firmly established the Protestant faith in England, Catholicism was again outlawed in Maryland, until after the American Revolutionary War. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Many wealthy plantation owners built chapels on their land so they could practice their Catholicism in relative secrecy. During the persecution of Maryland Catholics by the Puritan revolutionary government, all of the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland were burned down. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine,
St. Mary's City was the largest site of the original Maryland colony, and was the seat of the colonial government until 1708. St Mary's City, in St Mary's County, Maryland, is a small unincorporated community near the southernmost end of the state on the western shore of the Chesapeake St Mary's is now an archaeological site, with a small tourist center. In 1708, the seat of government was moved to Providence, which had been renamed Annapolis. Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. The city was renamed in honor of Queen Anne in 1694. Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of
Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland as indentured servants, hiring themselves out as laborers for a fixed period to pay for their passage. In the early years the line between indentured servants and African slaves or laborers was fluid. Some Africans were allowed to earn their freedom before slavery became a lifelong status. Most of the free colored families formed in Maryland before the Revolution were descended from relationships or marriages between servant or free white women and enslaved, servant or free African or African-American men. Many such families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper.  As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, more slaves were imported. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco.
Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" On February 2, 1781, Maryland became the 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1781 ( MDCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, also the Articles of Confederation was the governing Constitution of the alliance of thirteen independent and A Gold Sovereign is a Gold coin first issued in 1489 for Henry VII of England and still in production as of 2008 For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy It also became the seventh state admitted to the US after ratifying the new Constitution. The following year, in December of 1790, Maryland ceded land selected by President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of Washington, D.C.. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The land was provided from Montgomery and Prince George's Counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria in Virginia (though the lands from Virginia were later returned through retrocession). Montgomery County of the US state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington D Prince George's County is located in the US state of Maryland located immediately north east and south of Washington D Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. Alexandria is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The District of Columbia, the National capital of the United States, was formed in 1790 from that were ceded to the federal government by the states The land provided to Washington, D.C. is actually "sitting" inside the state of Maryland (land that is now defunct in theory). Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
During the War of 1812, the British military attempted to capture the port of Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies Fort McHenry, in Baltimore Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known It was during this bombardment that the Star Spangled Banner was written by Francis Scott Key. " The Star-Spangled Banner " is the National anthem of the United States of America Francis Scott Key ( August 1, 1779 &ndash January 11, 1843) was an American Lawyer, author and amateur
Despite widespread support for the Confederate States of America among many wealthy landowners, who had a vested interest in slavery, Maryland did not secede from the Union during the American Civil War. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South This may be due in part to the temporary suspension of the Legislature by Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks and arrest of many of its fire eaters by President Abraham Lincoln prior to its reconvening. Thomas Holliday Hicks ( September 2, 1798 February 14, 1865) was an American politician from Maryland. In United States history, the term Fire-Eaters refers to a group of extremist pro- slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Many historians contend that the votes for secession would not have been there regardless of these actions. Of the 115,000 men who joined the militaries during the Civil War, 85,000, or 77%, joined the Union army. To help ensure Maryland's inclusion in the Union, President Lincoln suspended several civil liberties, including the writ of habeas corpus, an act deemed illegal by Maryland native Chief Justice Roger Taney. Roger Brooke Taney ( "tawny" March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the twelfth United States Attorney General Lincoln ordered US troops to place artillery on Federal Hill to directly threaten the city of Baltimore, and helped to ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature. Federal Hill is a neighborhood in Baltimore Maryland, United States that lies just to the south of the city's central business district. President Lincoln even went so far as to jail certain pro-South members of the state legislature at Fort McHenry including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown. Fort McHenry, in Baltimore Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known George William Brown was the mayor of Baltimore Maryland from 1860 to 1861. Ironically, the grandson of Francis Scott Key was included in those jailed. Francis Scott Key ( August 1, 1779 &ndash January 11, 1843) was an American Lawyer, author and amateur The Constitutionality of these actions is still a source of controversy and debate. Because Maryland remained in the Union, it was exempted from the anti-slavery provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation (The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to states in rebellion). The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. A constitutional convention was held during 1864 that culminated in the passage of a new state constitution on November 1 of that year. Alternative meaning Constitutional convention (political custom A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new Article 24 of that document outlawed the practice of slavery. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The right to vote was extended to non-white males in 1867.
|Est. 2007||5,618,344||6. 1%|
As of 2006, Maryland has an estimated population of 5,615,727, which is an increase of 26,128, or 0. 5%, from the prior year and an increase of 319,221, or 6. 0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 189,158 people (that is 464,251 births minus 275,093 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 116,713 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 129,730 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,017 people.
In 2006, 645,744 were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About 4. 0% are undocumented (illegal) immigrants.  Maryland also has a large Korean American population.  In fact, 1. 7% are Korean, while as a whole, almost 6. 0% are Asian. 
Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area and Washington Metropolitan Area, both of which are part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. The Baltimore-Towson Metropolitan Statistical Area is a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA in Maryland as defined by the United States Office The Washington DC Metropolitan Area, formally known as the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria DC-VA-MD-WV MSA is a U The Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area is a consolidated Metropolitan area consisting of the overlapping labor market region of the cities of Washington The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western and southern Maryland.
The two counties of Western Maryland, Allegany and Garrett, are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia more than they do the rest of Maryland. Allegany County is a County located in the northwestern part of the U Garrett County is the westernmost County of the US state of Maryland and is part of the Pittsburgh DMA. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by
The center of population of Maryland is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County, in the unincorporated town of Jessup . In Demographics, the center of population of a region is the geographical point nearest to all the inhabitants of that region on average Anne Arundel County (ˌænəˈrʌndəl with a stress on the run) is a County located in the U Howard County is a County located in the central part of the U In Law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not a part of any Municipality. Jessup (pronounced JESS-up is an Unincorporated town and Census-designated place in Howard County, Maryland and Anne Arundel County Maryland
The five largest reported ancestries in Maryland are German (15. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry 7%), Irish (11. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. 7%), English (9%), unspecified American (5. The ancestry of the people of the United States is widely varied and includes descendants of Populations from around the World, some presumably extinct 8%), and Italian (5. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship 1%).
African-Americans are concentrated in Baltimore City, Prince George's County, and the southern Eastern Shore. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Prince George's County is located in the US state of Maryland located immediately north east and south of Washington D Most of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are populated by Marylanders of British ancestry, with the Eastern Shore traditionally Methodist and the southern counties Catholic. The Eastern Shore of Maryland is composed of the state's nine counties east of the Chesapeake Bay. Southern Maryland in popular usage is composed of the state's southernmost counties on the "Western Shore" of the Chesapeake Bay. Western and northern Maryland have large German-American populations. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry Italians and Poles are centered mostly in the large city of Baltimore. The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Jews are numerous throughout Montgomery County and in Pikesville northwest of Baltimore. Montgomery County of the US state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington D Pikesville is an Unincorporated community and a Census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. Hispanics are numerous in Hyattsville/Langley Park, Wheaton and Gaithersburg. Hyattsville is a city in Prince George's County Maryland, United States. Langley Park is a Census-designated place (CDP in the Washington D Gaithersburg is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. As of 2005, the city had an estimated total population of 57698 making it the fourth largest in
Maryland has one of the largest proportions of racial minorities in the country, trailing only the four minority-majority states. For the use of the term minority-majority in the United Kingdom, see here Minority-majority state is a term used to describe a
|Demographics of Maryland (csv)|
|2000 (total population)||66. 99%||29. 02%||0. 76%||4. 53%||0. 12%|
|2000 (Hispanic only)||3. 73%||0. 51%||0. 10%||0. 06%||0. 02%|
|2005 (total population)||65. 29%||30. 16%||0. 76%||5. 30%||0. 13%|
|2005 (Hispanic only)||5. 01%||0. 61%||0. 12%||0. 09%||0. 03%|
|Growth 2000–05 (total population)||3. 06%||9. 89%||5. 73%||23. 72%||16. 27%|
|Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only)||0. 76%||9. 57%||2. 48%||23. 38%||13. 02%|
|Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only)||42. 16%||27. 78%||27. 26%||48. 06%||32. 49%|
|* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander|
Maryland was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Catholic minority. Nevertheless, Parliament later reversed that policy and discouraged the practice of Catholicism in Maryland. Despite the founding intent of the colony, Catholics have never been in a majority in Maryland since early Colonial times. Nonetheless, it is the largest single denomination in Maryland. The present religious composition of the state is shown below:
Religions in Maryland
|Baptist||18%||Other Christian||3%||Other Religions||1%|
Despite the Protestant majority, Maryland has been prominent in U. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther S. Catholic tradition, partially because it was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics. Baltimore was the location of the first Catholic bishop in the U. S. (1789), and Emmitsburg was the home and burial place of the first American-born citizen to be canonized, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Emmitsburg was founded in 1785 and is in Frederick County, Maryland, just south of the Mason-Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Saint Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton ( August 28, 1774 &ndash January 4, 1821) was the first native-born Citizen of the United States Georgetown University, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then part of Maryland. Georgetown University is a Jesuit Private university located in Georgetown Washington D  The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore was the first Roman Catholic cathedral built in the United States. The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, also called Baltimore Basilica or Baltimore Cathedral, was the first Roman Catholic
The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maryland's gross state product in 2006 was US$257 billion. Many federal agencies have installations in Maryland including Maryland Shopping Malls Allegany County: Country Club Mall Anne Arundel County: Arundel Mills The Bureau of Economic Analysis ( BEA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides important economic statistics including the According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2007 American Community Survey released August 28, 2007 Maryland is currently the richest state in the country, with a median household income of $65,144 which puts it ahead of New Jersey and Connecticut, which are second and third respectively. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the third and seventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Also, the state's poverty rate of 7. 8% is the lowest in the country.  Per capita personal income in 2006 was US$43,500, 5th in the nation. Average household income in 2002 was US$53,043, also 5th in the nation. 
Maryland's economic activity is strongly concentrated in the tertiary service sector, and this sector, in turn, is strongly influenced by location. One major service activity is transportation, centered around the Port of Baltimore and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 10th in the U. S. by tonnage in 2002 (Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, "Waterborn Commerce Statistics"). The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel Although the port handles a wide variety of products, the most typical imports are raw materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore, petroleum, sugar, and fertilizers, often distributed to the relatively close manufacturing centers of the inland Midwest via good overland transportation. Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number two auto port in the U. S. 
A second service activity takes advantage of the close location of the center of government in Washington, D.C. and emphasizes technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace industry and bio-research laboratories, as well as staffing of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D In addition, many educational and medical research institutions are located in the state. In fact, the various components of Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25% of Maryland's labor force, one of the highest state percentages in the country. White-collar worker refers to a salaried professional or an educated Worker who performs semi-professional office administrative and sales coordination tasks as opposed to In Economics the people in the labor force are the suppliers of labor
Maryland has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing, centered in Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast. The largest catches by species are the blue crab, oysters, striped bass, and menhaden. The blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus, from the Greek calli ="beautiful" nectes ="swimmer" and Latin The common name oyster is used for a number of different groups of Bivalve Mollusks most of which live in marine habitats or Brackish water. The striped bass ( Morone saxatilis, also called rock or rockfish is the state fish of Maryland, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and The Bay also has uncounted millions of overwintering waterfowl in its many wildlife refuges. While not, strictly speaking, a commercial food resource, the waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen.
Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, although this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching Agriculture is oriented to dairying (especially in foothill and piedmont areas) for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers, watermelons, sweet corn, tomatoes, muskmelons, squash, and peas (Source:USDA Crop Profiles). The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the Gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb) Matsum & Nakai family Cucurbitaceae) refers to both Fruit and Plant of a vine-like (climber Sweet corn ( Zea mays var rugosa) also called indian corn, sweetcorn, sugar corn, pole corn, or simply corn The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Muskmelon ( Cucumis melo) is a species of melon that has been developed into many cultivated varieties Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending A pea (inaccurately called a '''sweet pea''' by food distubutors is most commonly the small spherical Seed or the seed-pod of the Legume Pisum In addition, the southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the 1990s. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. In Agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for Money. There is also a large automated chicken-farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms. The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from Salisbury (ˈsælzbəri or /sɔːɫzbəɹi/ is the County seat of Wicomico County Maryland. Perdue Farms is a major chicken processing company based in Salisbury Maryland, United States. Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state.
Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20% of the total. Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point, still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies, and company mergers. Sparrows Point is an unincorporated area in Baltimore County Maryland, adjacent to Dundalk Maryland. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against During World War II the Glenn L. Martin Company (now part of Martin Marietta airplane factory near Essex, MD employed some 40,000 people. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Glenn L Martin Company was an early US Aircraft company founded by aviation pioneer Glenn Luther Martin. Martin Marietta Corporation was founded in 1961 through the Merger of The Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. Essex is an Unincorporated community and a Census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States.
Mining other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the mid-1800s, were once a predominant natural resource. Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some surprisingly near Washington, but these no longer exist.
Maryland imposes 5 income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6. 25% of personal income.  The city of Baltimore and Maryland's 23 counties levy local "piggyback" income taxes at rates between 1. 25% and 3. 2% of Maryland taxable income. Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. Maryland's state sales tax is 6%. A sales tax is a Consumption tax charged at the Point of purchase for certain goods and services  All real property in Maryland is subject to the property tax. Property tax, or millage tax, is an Ad valorem tax that an owner pays on the value of the property being taxed Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or property owned by the federal, state or local governments are exempt. Property tax rates vary widely. No restrictions or limitations on property taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the level they deem necessary to fund governmental services. These rates can increase, decrease or remain the same from year to year. If the proposed tax rate increases the total property tax revenues, the governing body must advertise that fact and hold a public hearing on the new tax rate. This is called the Constant Yield Tax Rate process.
Baltimore City is the eighth largest port in the nation, and was at the center of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World deal because it was considered to be of such strategic importance. The DP World controversy began in February 2006 and rose to prominence as a National security debate in the United States. DP World is a subsidiary of Dubai World, a holding company owned by the government of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a booming economy and influential technology centers. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs.
Maryland's Interstate highways include I-95, which enters the northeast portion of the state, goes through Baltimore, and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) Interstate 95 in Maryland is a major highway that runs diagonally from northeast to southwest from Maryland's border with Delaware, to the Woodrow Interstate 495 (abbreviated I-495) is a Freeway -class Interstate highway which circles Washington D I-68 connects the western portions of the state to I-70 at the small town of Hancock. Interstate 68 (I-68 is an Interstate Highway in the United States. Interstate 70 (I-70 is an Interstate highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 near Cove Fort Utah, to a Park and Ride I-70 continues east to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way. Hagerstown (ˈheɪgɚztaʊn is the County seat of Washington County, Maryland, United States. Frederick is the County seat of Frederick County Maryland, United States. I-83 connects Baltimore to southern central Pennsylvania (Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania). Interstate 83 (abbreviated I-83) is an Interstate highway in the eastern United States. Harrisburg is the Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in the United States of America York, known as the White Rose City (after the Wars of the Roses) is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania. Maryland also has a portion of I-81 that runs through the state near Hagerstown. Interstate 81 (abbreviated I-81) is an Interstate highway in the eastern part of the United States. I-97, fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the shortest one- or two-digit Interstate highway outside of Hawaii, connects the Baltimore area to the Annapolis area. Interstate 97 (abbreviated I-97) is an intrastate Interstate highway located entirely within Anne Arundel County Maryland, United
There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. The auxiliary Interstate Highways (also called 3-digit Interstate Highways) is an additional network of freeways of the Interstate Highway System. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I-695, the McKeldin (Baltimore) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; a portion of I-495, and the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D. Interstate 695 (abbreviated I-695) is a -long full beltway Interstate highway extending around Baltimore Maryland, USA. Interstate 495 (abbreviated I-495) is a Freeway -class Interstate highway which circles Washington D C. I-270, which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points. Interstate 270 (abbreviated I-270) is a 344-mile spur Interstate highway that travels between Interstate 70 in Frederick Maryland Both I-270 and the Capital Beltway are currently extremely congested; however, the ICC or Intercounty Connector, which began construction in November 2007, is hoped to alleviate some of the congestion over time. Maryland Route 200, also known as the Intercounty Connector or ICC, is a controversial toll Freeway under construction in Maryland Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich, who was in office from 2003 until 2007, and of Governor Martin O'Malley, who succeeded him. For the Entrepreneur and Businessman, see Robert Ehrlich. Robert Leroy "Bob" Ehrlich Jr Martin Joseph O'Malley (born January 18 1963) is an American Democratic politician who is currently serving as the 61st
Maryland also has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either not signed or are relatively short. State highway, state road or state route can refer to one of three related concepts two of them related to a State government in a country that is divided Major state highways include Routes 2 (Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road), 4, 5, 32, 45 (York Road), 97 (Georgia Avenue), 100, 210 (Indian Head Highway), 295 (Baltimore-Washington Parkway), 355, and 404. Maryland Route 2 is the longest State highway in Maryland Much of the northern section consists of Governor Ritchie Highway, the first high-speed roadway connecting Maryland Route 4 is a long road that runs northwest to southeast in Maryland. Maryland Route 5 is a long highway that runs north to south in Maryland. Maryland Route 32 is a highway in central Maryland that connects Westminster, in Carroll County, to Anne Arundel County (near Annapolis Maryland Route 97 ( MD 97) is a State highway in the US state of Maryland, and includes the majority of the portion of Georgia Maryland Route 100 is a major east-west highway connecting US Maryland Route 210, or Indian Head Highway is a state highway in Prince George's and Charles counties in Maryland. The Baltimore-Washington Parkway is a Freeway in the US state of Maryland, running southwest from Baltimore to Washington D Maryland Route 355 is a north-south road in western central Maryland. Maryland Route 404 is a major highway in the Eastern Shore region of Maryland.
Maryland's largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (formerly known as Friendship Airport and recently renamed for Baltimore-born former and first African-American Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall). tags they are used to transclude this state's "Commercial Service - Primary" airports in the List of airports Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport serves the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area ( U Thurgood Marshall ( July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American Jurist and the first African American The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. Hagerstown Regional Airport, also known as Richard A Henson Field, is a public Airport located four miles (6 km) north of the Central business Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Regional Airport, or more succinctly Wicomico Regional Airport, is located in unincorporated Wicomico County Maryland, 5 miles The Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. C. , are also serviced by the other two airports in the region, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport, both in Northern Virginia. Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km) south of the Central business district of Washington Washington Dulles International Airport is a public Airport located 25 miles (40 km) west of the Central business district of Washington D Northern Virginia (colloquially referred to as "NOVA" or "NoVA" consists of several
Amtrak trains serve Baltimore's Penn Station, BWI Airport, New Carrollton, and Aberdeen along the Northeast Corridor. The following Railroads operate in the US state of Maryland. Common freight carriers Bay Coast Railroad (BCR The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 Pennsylvania Station (generally referred to as Penn Station) is the main train station in Baltimore Maryland. The Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport Rail Station is an Amtrak and MARC commuter rail Train station in Linthicum, New Carrollton is a joint Washington Metro and Amtrak station in Prince George's County, Maryland at the eastern end of the Orange The Northeast Corridor ( NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency In addition, train service is provided to Rockville and Cumberland on the Amtrak Capitol Limited. Rockville is the County seat of Montgomery County Maryland, United States. The City of Cumberland is the county seat of Allegany County Maryland, United States, and a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 Amtrak 's Capitol Limited is one of the two routes connecting Washington D MARC commuter trains, operated by the State's Transit Authority, connect nearby Washington, D.C., Frederick, Baltimore, and many towns between. MARC, prior to 1984 known as Maryland Rail Commuter Service, is a Regional rail system comprising three lines in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Washington Metro subway and bus system serve Montgomery County and Prince George's County. The Maryland Transit Administration's light rail and short subway system serve Baltimore City and adjacent suburbs. The Maryland Transit Administration (MTA is a state-operated transit service in Maryland.
The Government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. The Government of Maryland is conducted according to the Maryland Constitution. The Government of Maryland is conducted according to the Maryland Constitution. The current Constitution of the State of Maryland, which was ratified by the people of the state on September 18, 1867, forms the Basic law for the The Government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments, has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States. Politics of the United States takes place in the framework of a presidential, Federal republic where the President of the United States (the Head of The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. Maryland is a republic; the United States guarantees her "republican form of government" although there is considerable disagreement about the meaning of that phrase. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Power in Maryland is divided among three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Maryland General Assembly is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland Senate. The Maryland General Assembly is the state legislature of the U The Maryland House of Delegates is the lower house of the General Assembly, the state legislature of the U Maryland State Senate is the Upper house of the General Assembly, the state legislature of the U Maryland's governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting. The Governor of Maryland heads the Executive branch of the government of the U The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures. Unlike most other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties. A county of the United States is a local level of government created as a subdivision of a state by the state government or by the federal or territorial government as a subdivision
Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis, the state capital. Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. Virtually all state and county elections are held in even-numbered years not divisible by four, in which the President of the United States is not elected - this, as in other states, is intended to divide state and federal politics. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution.
The judicial branch of state government consists of one united District Court of Maryland that sits in every county and Baltimore City, as well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $25,000. 00, all equitable jurisdiction and major criminal proceedings. The intermediate appellate court is known as the "Court of Special Appeals" and the state supreme court is the "Court of Appeals". The Maryland Court of Special Appeals is the intermediate Appellate court for the U This article discusses the state supreme courts in the United States The Maryland Court of Appeals is the supreme court of the US state of Maryland. The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique in that Maryland is the only state whose judges wear red robes. 
Since pre-Civil War times, Maryland politics has been largely controlled by the Democrats. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Even as the politics of the Democratic party have shifted, over the last century, the views of the state have shifted with them. Blue-collar "Reagan Democrats" frequently vote Republican, but Maryland is nonetheless well-known for its loyalty to the Democratic Party, especially inside metropolitan areas. Reagan Democrat is an American political term used by political analysts to denote traditionally Democratic voters especially white working-class The state is dominated by the two urban/inner suburban regions of Baltimore and Washington, D. C. . In addition, many jobs are directly or indirectly dependent upon the federal government. As a result, Baltimore, Montgomery County and Prince George's County often decide statewide elections. This is balanced by lesser populated areas on the Eastern Shore, Western Maryland, and outer suburbs that tend to support Republicans, even though seven of nine Shore counties have Democratic-majority voter rolls.
Maryland has supported the Democratic nominee in the last four presidential elections, and by an average of 15. 4%. In 1980, it was one of just six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Maryland is often among the Democratic nominees' best states. In 1992, Bill Clinton fared better in Maryland than any other state except his home state of Arkansas. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. In 1996, Maryland was Clinton's 6th best, in 2000 Maryland ranked 4th for Gore and in 2004 John Kerry showed his 5th best performance in Maryland. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator
Both Maryland Senators and six of its eight Representatives in Congress are Democrats, and Democrats hold super-majorities in the state Senate and House of Delegates. The previous Governor, Robert Ehrlich, was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore Mayor Martin J. O'Malley, a Democrat. For the Entrepreneur and Businessman, see Robert Ehrlich. Robert Leroy "Bob" Ehrlich Jr A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Martin Joseph O'Malley (born January 18 1963) is an American Democratic politician who is currently serving as the 61st The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party.
U. S. Congressman Steny Hoyer (MD-5), a Democrat, is the Majority Leader for the 110th Congress of the House of Representatives. Steny Hamilton Hoyer (born June 14, 1939) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Maryland's The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. In US politics, the majority leader is a partisan position in a legislative body The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, in addition to all of Charles, Calvert and St. Mary's counties in southern Maryland. Anne Arundel County (ˌænəˈrʌndəl with a stress on the run) is a County located in the U Prince George's County is located in the US state of Maryland located immediately north east and south of Washington D Charles County is a County in the south central portion of the U Calvert County is a County located in the US state of Maryland. Saint Mary's County (often abbreviated as St Mary's County) is a County located in the U Southern Maryland in popular usage is composed of the state's southernmost counties on the "Western Shore" of the Chesapeake Bay. 
John Kerry easily won the state's 10 electoral votes in 2004 by a margin of 13 percentage points with 55. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator 9% of the vote. However, presidential election years are not deeply contested as national party resources are spent mostly in swing states. A swing state (also battleground state or purple state) in United States
The 2006 election cycle witnessed no significant change in this pattern of Democratic dominance, even though there were two major highly-contested races. After Democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes announced that he was retiring, Democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele, with 55% of the vote, against Steele's 44%. Paul Spyros Sarbanes (Παύλος Σπύρος Σαρμπάνης (born February 3, 1933) a Democrat, is a former United States Senator Benjamin Louis "Ben" Cardin (born October 5 1943) is a Democratic member of the United States Senate representing the state of Michael S Steele (born October 19, 1958) is the chairman of GOPAC and a former Lieutenant Governor of Maryland, having been elected The governorship was also a point of interest, as Republican incumbent Robert Ehrlich was defeated by Democratic challenger Martin O'Malley, the Mayor of Baltimore, 53% to 46%. For the Entrepreneur and Businessman, see Robert Ehrlich. Robert Leroy "Bob" Ehrlich Jr Martin Joseph O'Malley (born January 18 1963) is an American Democratic politician who is currently serving as the 61st Montgomery County Executive Doug Duncan, another leading candidate for the Democratic slot, pulled out of the highly anticipated primary, announcing his withdrawal on June 22, 2006, citing clinical depression. Douglas M Duncan (born October 25, 1955) is a Democratic politician from Maryland who served as County Executive of Montgomery County Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression
While Maryland is a Democratic party stronghold, perhaps its best known political figure is a Republican - former Governor Spiro Agnew, who served as United States Vice President under Richard Nixon. Spiro Theodore Agnew ( November 9, 1918 September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States (and the first He was Vice President from 1969 to 1973, when he resigned in the aftermath of revelations that he had taken bribes while he was Governor of Maryland. Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person In late 1973, a court found Agnew guilty of violating tax laws.
The late Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was raised in Baltimore, and during his time on the bench represented the liberal wing of the court that allowed abortion on a federal level, and uphold laws eliminating racial discrimination in the public and private spheres. Thurgood Marshall ( July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American Jurist and the first African American
Public primary and secondary education in Maryland is overseen by the Maryland State Department of Education. List of school districts in Maryland Allegany County Public Schools Anne Arundel County Public This is a list of high schools in the state of Maryland. Allegany County Allegany County Public Schools A state education agency (SEA or state department of education, is a formal governmental label for the state-level government agencies within each U The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools, currently Dr. Nancy Grasmick, who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of office. In Education, a superintendent (also known as a chief school administrator in many states is an individual that has executive oversight and administration rights Dr Nancy S Grasmick is the Maryland State Superintendent of schools A board of education or a school Board or school committee is the title of the Board of directors of a school local School district The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally-related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day to day functions of public education. Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction. List of school districts in Maryland Allegany County Public Schools Anne Arundel County Public
Maryland has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church, Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools. Parochial school is one term used (particularly in the United States) to describe a school that engages in Religious education in addition to conventional Education The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut In 2003, Maryland law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws.
On January 21, 2008, Philippine Consul Rico Fos announced that Baltimore, Maryland will employ an additional 178 new Filipino public school teachers this school year, bringing to a total of 1,000, the number of Filipino teachers in the metropolitan Washington (which includes parts of Maryland and Virginia). Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Filipinos or the Filipino people are the citizens of the Philippines. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Maryland has a yearly shortage of 6,000 teachers. 
The oldest college in Maryland, and the third oldest college in the United States, is St. John's College, founded in 1696 as King William's School. The following is a list of Colleges and universities in the U Maryland has 18 other private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins. Johns Hopkins ( May 19, 1795, Anne Arundel County, Maryland &ndash December 24, 1873
The first and largest public university in the state is the University of Maryland, College Park, which was founded as the Maryland Agricultural College in 1856 and became a public land grant college in 1864. The University of Maryland College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland UMD, UMCP or simply Maryland) is a public research Land-grant universities (also called land-grant colleges or land grant institutions) are institutions of higher education in the United States that have The majority of public universities in the state are affiliated with the University System of Maryland. The University System of Maryland ( USM) is a Public corporation and charter school system comprising 13 Maryland institutions Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St. Mary's College, as well as two federally funded institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States Naval Academy are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Morgan State University, formerly Centenary Biblical Institute (1867-1890 Morgan College (1890-1938 Morgan State College The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS, was established in 1972 by F The United States Naval Academy is an undergraduate college in Annapolis, Maryland, United States that educates and commissions officers of the United States
With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland has a number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a ballpark located in Baltimore Maryland, which was completed in 1992 to replace the aging Memorial Stadium. Two National Football League teams play in Maryland, the Baltimore Ravens in Baltimore and the Washington Redskins in Prince George's County. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. The Baltimore Ravens are a professional American football team based in Baltimore Maryland. The Washington Redskins are a professional American football team based in the Washington D Prince George's County is located in the US state of Maryland located immediately north east and south of Washington D The Baltimore Orioles are the state's Major League Baseball franchise. The Baltimore Orioles are a professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The National Hockey League's Washington Capitals and the National Basketball Association's Washington Wizards formerly played in Maryland, until the construction of a Washington arena in 1997 (originally known as MCI Center, renamed Verizon Center in 2006). The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America For the BAA team see Washington Capitols. For the ABA team see Washington Caps. The Verizon Center (formerly MCI Center until March 5, 2006) is a sports and entertainment arena in Washington D Maryland enjoys considerable historical repute for the talented sports players of its past, including: Cal Ripken Jr. and Babe Ruth. George Herman Ruth Jr (February 6 1895 &ndash August 16 1948 also popularly known as " Babe " " The Bambino " and " The Sultan of
Other professional sports franchises in the state include five affiliated minor league baseball teams, one independent league baseball team, an indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, and three low-level outdoor soccer teams. Part of the History of baseball series Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of Professional baseball leagues in North Independent baseball leagues are professional baseball organizations located in the United States and Canada.
The official state sport of Maryland, since 1962, is jousting; the official team sport since 2004 is lacrosse. Lacrosse is a full contact Team sport played using a solid rubber ball and long handled racket called a crosse or Lacrosse stick.  In 2008, intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, a bill was introduced in the state legislature to add walking as the official state exercise. 
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Ratified Constitution on April 28, 1788 (7th)
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