Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke née Mary Sidney (27 October 1561 – 25 September 1621), was one of the first English women to achieve a major reputation for her literary works, translations and literary patronage. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text likewise called a " translation
Born at Tickenhill, Bewdley, in 1561, she was one of the three daughters of Sir Henry Sidney and Lady Mary Sidney née Dudley. Bewdley ( pronunciation) is a small Town in Worcestershire, England, along the Severn Valley a few miles to the west of Sir Henry Sidney ( 1529 - 5 May 1586) lord deputy of Ireland, was the eldest son of Sir William Sidney of Penshurst a prominent politician Her mother came from the highest nobility, being the daughter of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland and High Protector of England under Edward VI and was the eldest sister of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, favourite of Queen Elizabeth I. Lord John Dudley (1501 &ndash 22 August, 1553) was a Tudor general admiral and politician who de facto ruled England in the latter half of King England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester ( 24 June 1532 /1533 &ndash 4 September 1588) was the long standing Favourite of Elizabeth Mary Dudley is known to have written poetry. A year after her daughter Mary's birth, Mary Sidney (née Dudley) nursed Queen Elizabeth I through smallpox and was herself severely disfigured. Though her husband, Sir Henry Sidney, never repudiated her, she often lived separately from her family.
After the death of her sister, Ambrosia, at Ludlow Castle in 1576, fifteen year old Mary Sidney, as the only surviving Sidney daughter, was summoned to London by the Queen to be one of her noble attendants. Ludlow Castle is a large now partly ruined non-inhabited Castle which dominates the town of Ludlow in Shropshire, England. In 1577, the Earl of Leicester, Robert Dudley arranged his niece's marriage to close ally, Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, then in his mid forties. Lord Leicester redirects here You may be looking for Lord Leycester, the name of several things in and around Warwick, United Kingdom Henry Herbert 2nd Earl of Pembroke KG (1534 &ndash 19 January 1601) was a statesman of the Elizabethan era. At seventeen, Mary became the mistress of Wilton House near Salisbury and Baynard's Castle in London. Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. Salisbury (ˈsɒlzbri ˈsɔːlzbri ('Solzbry' or ˈzɔːwzbri ('Zawzbry' — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in the Baynard's Castle in London was at various times a Castle, house and Palace. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Mary had four children, the first of whom, William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580–1630), is possibly the young man described in Shakespeare's Sonnets. William Herbert 3rd Earl of Pembroke, KG, PC ( 8 April 1580 – 10 April 1630) was the son of Henry Herbert William Shakespeare ( baptised The other surviving child, Philip, became the 4th Earl of Pembroke on his brother's death in 1630. Philip Herbert 4th Earl of Pembroke 1st Earl of Montgomery KG ( October 16, 1584 &ndash January 23, 1649) was an English Courtier Mary Sidney's sons are the "Incomparable Pair", to whom William Shakespeare's First Folio is dedicated. William Shakespeare ( baptised Mr William Shakespeares Comedies Histories & Tragedies is the first published collection of William Shakespeare 's plays At different times, both were patrons of the King's Men, Shakespeare's acting troupe. The King's Men was the company of actors to which William Shakespeare (1564&ndash1616 belonged through most of his career
Mary Sidney was highly educated by tutors, who included a female Italian teacher. Like her learned aunt Jane Grey, she was educated in the Reformed humanist tradition. Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant In the 16th century, noblewomen required a good understanding of theological issues and were taught to read original texts. Mary was also schooled in poetry, music, French, the Classics, possibly in Hebrew and rhetoric, in needlework and practical medicine. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice She later translated Petrarch's "Triumph of Death" and many other European works. Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar She had a keen interest in chemistry and set up a chemistry laboratory at Wilton House, run by Walter Raleigh's half-brother. Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. Sir Walter Raleigh or Ralegh (c 1552 – 29 October 1618 was a famed English writer Poet, Soldier, Courtier and Explorer She turned Wilton into a "paradise for poets", known as "The Wilton Circle" which included Edmund Spenser, Michael Drayton, Sir John Davies and Samuel Daniel, a salon-type literary group sustained by the Countess's hospitality. Edmund Spenser (c 1552 &ndash 13 January, 1599) was an important English Poet and Poet Laureate best known for The Michael Drayton (1563 &ndash December 23, 1631) was an English Poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. Sir John Davies ( April 16, 1569 &ndash December 8, 1626) was an English Poet and Lawyer, who became attorney Samuel Daniel (1562 &ndash October 14, 1619) was an English poet and historian. Her aim was to banish barbarism (an aim she shared with John Florio), by strengthening and classicising the English language and also by practising "true religion", which, in her view, combined Calvinism, devotion to Christ and acts of charity. John Florio (1553 - 1625 known in Italian as Giovanni Florio was an accomplished linguist and Lexicographer, a royal language tutor at the Court of James Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) She propagated Italian culture and literature. She was herself a Calvinist theologian. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Her public persona (at least) was pious, virtuous and learned. She was celebrated for her singing of the psalms, her warmth, charm and beauty. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included In private, she was witty and, some reported, flirtatious. She ran safehouses for French reformed refugees.
Mary Sidney was younger sister and disciple to the poet, courtier and soldier Sir Philip Sidney who was for some time, the heir of both Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, brothers to Guildford Dudley, husband of the Lady Jane Grey, who were regarded as Reformed martyrs, not just by the Dudley family, but by the reformed Protestant party. Sir Philip Sidney ( November 30, 1554 &ndash October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Age's most prominent figures Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl of Warwick (died February 21, 1589) was the son of John Dudley 1st Duke of Northumberland Robert Dudley may refer to Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester, favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England Robert Dudley styled Earl of Warwick Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant Philip Sidney was being prepared to be leader of the Protestant party at Court and supported the founding of a Protestant "empire" which would include the New World (North America) to counterbalance the threat of Catholic and Spanish domination. Sir Philip Sidney ( November 30, 1554 &ndash October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Age's most prominent figures Mary Sidney financially supported the explorations of Frobisher. Her son William Herbert was a funder and supporter of New World explorations: there is a river in the US named after Pembroke. William Herbert may refer to several people including Earls William Herbert 1st Earl of Pembroke (1468 creation William Herbert
After the death of her sister Ambrosia, the Countess appears to have been devoted to her brother Sir Philip Sidney. Sir Philip Sidney ( November 30, 1554 &ndash October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Age's most prominent figures Mary was a natural cultural catalyst. She had a gift of inspiring creativity in all those around her, including her circle, relatives and servants. Philip wrote much of his "Arcadia" in her presence. Philip Sidney was engaged in preparing a new English version of the Book of Psalms (because the translations under Edward VI were deficient). Sir Philip Sidney ( November 30, 1554 &ndash October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Age's most prominent figures Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine He had completed 43 of the 150 Psalms at the time of his death during a military campaign against the Spanish in the Netherlands in 1586. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
Mary Sidney took on the task of amplifying and editing his "Arcadia" which was published as The Countesse of Pembroke's Arcadia, one of the most widely read books for the next 300 years. The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, also known simply as The Arcadia is by far Sir Philip Sidney 's most ambitious work She also finished Philip's translation of the Psalms (which are sung unaccompanied in Calvinist worship), composing Psalms 44-150 on her own poetry, using the 1560 Geneva Bible and commentaries by John Calvin and Theodore Beza. The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Theodore Beza ( Théodore de Bèze or de Besze) ( June 24, 1519 &ndash October 13, 1605) was a French As a competent theologian, she was unafraid to disagree with Calvin on minor points. A copy of the completed book was presented to Elizabeth I of England in 1599. This work is usually referred to as "The Sidney Psalms" or "The Sidneian Psalms" and is regarded as an important influence on the development of English poetry in the late 16th and early 17th century. John Donne wrote a poem in celebration of them. John Donne (pronounced like done, dʌn 1572 – 31 March 1631 was a Jacobean poet preacher and a major representative of the Metaphysical poets The Psalms were drawn from previous English translations rather than original Hebrew texts and are therefore properly called "metaphrases" rather than translations. Like Philip's, Mary Sidney's versions use a wide variety of poetic forms and display a vivid imagination and vigorous phrasing.
Mary's husband died in 1600. Thereafter she played a large part in managing Wilton and the other Pembroke estates, on behalf of her son, William, who entirely took over her role of literary patronage. After James I visited her at Wilton in 1603 and was entertained by Shakespeare's company "The King's Men", Mary moved out of Wilton and rented a house in London. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Though it is certain that the King's Men attended Wilton, whether William Shakespeare was with them is uncertain. William Shakespeare ( baptised However, it is reported that there was at Wilton at one time, a letter in which the Mary Sidney urges her son to attend Wilton, as "we have the man Shakespeare with us". From 1609 to 1615 she lived at Crosby Hall, now a private residence relocated to Chelsea, London, but then located in the City of London. Chelsea is an area of south-west London, England, bounded to the south by the River Thames, where its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along She may have secretly married her doctor, Sir Matthew Lister and she famously travelled to Spa on the Continent, where she relaxed by shooting pistols and played cards. She employed Italian architects to build a Bedfordshire country home with fine vistas, Houghton Hall, now in ruins, near Milton Keynes), which John Bunyan refers to in his works as the "House Beautiful". Milton Keynes ( ˌmɪltənˈkiːnz often abbreviated to MK, is a large town John Bunyan (28 November 1628 &ndash 31 August 1688 a Christian writer and Preacher, was born at Harrowden (one mile south-east of Bedford
She died of smallpox at her house in Aldersgate Street, London near the French Protestant Church and in the same street in which John Wesley was later converted in 1621, shortly after King James I visited her at Houghton Hall. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. The A1 in London is an A road in North London. It runs from the London Wall to Bignall's Corner, where it crosses the M25 and After a grand funeral which celebrated her widely recognised literary achievements in St Paul's Cathedral, her body was buried next to that of the Earl, under the steps leading to the choirstalls in Salisbury Cathedral. St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. Salisbury Cathedral is an Anglican Cathedral in Salisbury, England, considered one of the leading examples of Early English architecture
Mary Sidney's imaginative, lively and warm style is filled with "Sidneian fire", transparency and holy ardour. This ardour is apparent in 'matters of the heart', for example in the death scenes in her closet drama The Tragedy of Antonie (1592), which William Shakespeare may have used as source material for his Antony and Cleopatra (1607), as well as in her poetic masterpiece "The Psalms of David", which describes the pain of an earthly existence in the light of the divine comfort of 'grace'. A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage but read by a solitary reader or sometimes out loud in a small group perhaps in a small room called William Shakespeare ( baptised Antony and Cleopatra is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare. It was first printed in the First Folio of 1623 The Psalms, which she considered her memorial, lack the weighty dignity of the Psalms of the Authorised Version (which was the crown of thirty years effort to forge English into a vehicle fit for theology). Mary's versions, though, have delightful and felicitous poetic forms and expressions. Her influence--through literary patronage, through her brother's works, through her own her poetry, drama, translations and theology (e. g. she translated Philippe de Mornay's Discourse of Life and Death to strengthen the international reformed community--cannot be easily quantified; it is clear that she had a strong influence on some of the finest literary fruits of the English Renaissance. Philippe de Mornay ( November 5, 1549 &ndash November 11, 1623) seigneur du Plessis Marly usually known as Du-Plessis-Mornay or Mornay Du Plessis The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century
Her poetic epitaph, which is ascribed to Ben Jonson but which is more likely to have been written in an earlier form by poets William Browne and William Herbert (Mary's son), summarizes how she was regarded in her own day:
Underneath this sable hearse,
Lies the subject of all verse,
Sidney's sister, Pembroke's mother. An epitaph (in Greek, &mdash literally " on the gravestone " is a short text honoring a deceased person strictly speaking that inscribed on Benjamin Jonson ( c 11 June 1572 &ndash 6 August 1637) was an English Renaissance Dramatist William Browne (1590? &ndash 1645? was an English Poet, born at Tavistock Devon and educated at Oxford; subsequently he entered the Inner Temple William Herbert may refer to several people including Earls William Herbert 1st Earl of Pembroke (1468 creation William Herbert
Death, ere thou hast slain another
Fair and learned and good as she,
Time shall throw a dart at thee.
Mary, Countess of Pembroke was the most gifted woman writer of the English Renaissance, much praised, on her death by many, including poet Aemilia Lanier. Emilia Lanier, also spelled Aemilia Lanyer, (1569-1645 was the first Englishwoman to assert herself as a professional poet through her single volume of poems Salve She was the aunt of poetLady Mary Wroth (the daughter of her brother, Henry Sidney, Earl of Leicester). Lady Mary Wroth ( 1587 &ndash1651/3 was an English Poet of the Renaissance She also influenced the religious writing of the divine and poet George Herbert (her sons' first cousin). George Herbert ( April 3, 1593 &ndash March 1, 1633) was a Welsh Poet, Orator and a Priest.
A theory that Mary Sidney wrote the sonnets and some of the poetry and plays attributed to William Shakespeare has been revived by independent American scholar Robin P. Williams. William Shakespeare ( baptised Robin Patricia Williams (born 1953 is an American educator and writer of computer-related books  According to Williams, Mary Sidney had the motive, means and opportunity to write the plays. This is one among many alternative authorship theories which Samuel Shoenbaum's work has shown were originally fueled in the 19th century, by a lack of knowledge about the curriculum in Elizabethan grammar schools. The Shakespeare authorship question is the debate dating back to the early 18th century about whether the works attributed to William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon Mary's erudite brother, Sir Philip Sidney, attended Shrewsbury Grammar School and recently, scholars have demonstrated that Elizabethan grammar schools, like Stratford-upon-Avon's, provided a high level of classical education. The Sidney children were offered an extensive education at home. Computer analysis of Shakepearean language has Warwickshire words and imagery from kitchen gardens. An in-depth analysis of imagery (which in Shakespeare is concrete and homespun) will be part of interesting research. In the Sonnets, the author may be heard lamenting the use of the same poetic form. Mary Sidney's natural taste is for a very extensive variety of verse forms. Aemilia Lanier writes about Mary Sidney making others famous. Emilia Lanier, also spelled Aemilia Lanyer, (1569-1645 was the first Englishwoman to assert herself as a professional poet through her single volume of poems Salve
Mary Sidney has been called a predominantly lyric poet, translator and religious writer, interested in morality and divine learning, filled with "Sidneian fire" as mentioned above. Shakespeare's focus can be said to be on dramatic, psychoanalytical and poetic representations of the twists of human personality, with a focus on evil, violence, love, murder, bonding, sexual passion and on "the concrete surface of the earth". Some have said Shakespeare's main inspiration was Ovid and there is extensive knowledge of the Bible, Italian literature, and the Classics. William Shakespeare ( baptised Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. William Shakespeare and Mary Sidney may have met and known one another. William Shakespeare ( baptised He had clearly read her plays and translations. Mary Sidney's secretary, Sir John Davies penned a poem on William Shakespeare. It is one of the most complimentary pictures of the playwright, calling him a companion "fit for a king" and a "king among the lower sort" thanks to his "reigning wit".
In 2006, Canadian librarian Fred Faulkes published the first volume in The Tiger Heart Chronicles – a "narrative reconstruction of everything touching on Shakespearean history" in which he also put forward the Sidney claim.