The term martyr (Greek μάρτυς martys "witness") initially signified a witness in the forensic sense, a person called to bear witness in legal proceedings. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them A witness is someone who has firsthand knowledge about a Crime or dramatic event through their Senses (e With this meaning it was used in the secular sphere as well as in both the Old Testament and the New Testament of the Bible. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin  The process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers (e. g. Josephus) that witnesses, especially of the lower classes, were tortured routinely before being interrogated as a means of forcing them to disclose the truth. Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus During the early Christian centuries the term acquired the extended meaning of a believer who is called to witness for his or her religious belief and on account of this witness endures suffering and death. The term in the English language is a loanword and used only with the extended meaning of someone who has been killed for their religious belief. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation The death of a martyr or the value attributed to it is called martyrdom.
In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, being a martyr indicates a person who is killed for maintaining his or her religious belief, knowing that this will almost certainly result in imminent death (though without intentionally seeking death). Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific Christian martyrs sometimes declined to defend themselves at all, in what they see as a reflection of Jesus' willing sacrifice. A Christian martyr is one who is killed for believing in Christianity However, the definition of martyrdom is not specifically restricted to the Christian faith.
Usage of "martyr" is also not uncommon among Arab Christians (i. e. anyone killed in relation to Christianity or a Christian community, e. g. Pierre Amine Gemayel), indicating that the English word "martyr" may not actually be a proper equivalent of its commonly ascribed Arabic translation. Pierre Amine Gemayel ( Arabic: ar '''بيار أمين الجميل''' commonly known as Pierre Gemayel Jr
Though often religious in nature, martyrdom can be applied to a secular context as well. Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs The term is sometimes applied to those who use violence, such as those who die for a nation's glory during wartime. It may also apply to nonviolent individuals who are killed or hurt in the struggle for independence, civil rights etc (eg. Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Mahatma Gandhi). Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January
The word "martyr" is also used satirically in casual conversation to refer to someone who seeks attention or sympathy by exaggerating the impact upon himself of some deprivation or work.
Martyrdom in Judaism is referred to by the Hebrew phrase Kiddush Hashem, meaning sanctification of God's name. A Christian martyr is one who is killed for believing in Christianity See also Antisemitism, History of antisemitism, New antisemitism The persecution of Jews has occurred many times in Jewish history. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Kiddush hashem (קידוש השם “sanctification of the name of God ” is a precept of Judaism as expressed in the Torah for any Jew
1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees recount numerous martyrdoms suffered by Jews resisting the Hellenizing of their Seleucid overlords, being executed for such crimes as observing the Sabbath, circumcising their children or refusing to eat pork or meat sacrificed to idols. 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book written by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom probably about 100 BC. 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i First and Second Maccabees arose from the Pharisaic tradition, from which Christianity later diverged. The accounts of martyrs in these books influenced early Christianity's understanding of from the laws of their fathers and of God:
A historical account by Rabbi Ephraim ben Yaakov (1132 - AD. 1200) describes Crusaders' massacres of Jews, including the massacre at Blois, where approximately forty Jews were killed following an accusation of ritual murder:
During the Spanish Inquisition, many of those executed were Jews who refused to convert to Christianity. Specifically, they were cryptic Jews, who had pretended to adopt Christianity in an attempt to avoid persecution.
In Arabic, a martyr is termed "shaheed" (literally, "witness"). Istishhad|Christian martyrs for disambiguation Shahid (شَهيد, plural ar شُهَداء) is an Arabic word meaning "witness" Persecution of Muslims refers to the Religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims Persecution may refer to beating torture confiscation or destruction Istishhad|Christian martyrs for disambiguation Shahid (شَهيد, plural ar شُهَداء) is an Arabic word meaning "witness" The concept of the shaheed is discussed in the Hadith, the sayings of Muhammad; the term does not appear in the Qur'an in the technical sense, but the later exegetical tradition has read it to mean martyr in the few passages that it does appear in. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The first martyr in Islam was the old woman Sumayyah bint Khabbab, the first Muslim to die at the hands of the polytheists of Mecca (specifically, Abu Jahl). For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sumayyah bint Khayyat ( سمية بنت خياطّ) was the mother of the well-known early Muslim Ammar ibn Yasir. Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Amr ibn Hishām (died March 17, 624) (عمرو بن هشام better known as Abu Jahl, was one of the Meccan leaders known for his hostility against A famous person widely regarded as a martyr - indeed, an archetypal martyr for the Shia - is Husayn bin Ali, who died at the hands of the forces of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I at Karbala. Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (third of Shaban 4 AH / 8th January 626 AD at Medina The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان ( July 23[[ 45]] - 683 was the second Caliph of the Umayyad Karbala ( BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad at The Shia commemorate this event each year at Aashurah. The Day of Ashura ( ar عاشوراء, Ashura Ashoura and other spellings is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax
Muslims who die in a legitimate jihad bis saif (struggle with the sword, or Islamic holy war) are considered shaheed. Jihad (جهاد ʤɪhæːd an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. This usage became controversial due to the Islamic strictures against suicide in the late 20th century when it was sometimes applied to suicide bombers by various groups. This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons There is much controversy about the meaning of jihad in Islam, since Muhammad never claimed that suicide is equal to jihad; Jihad is an act of fighting for the Dar al Islam, either to defend it against an aggressor or to bring about its expansion. The house of divisions in Islam such as "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Harb" does not appear in the Koran or the Hadith. Muhammad explained, in hadith (sayings or reports about or by Muhammad), that those who commit suicide are forbidden to even smell heaven. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Many contend that suicidal murders are contrary to the spirit of Islam, and are not justifiable because as the Qu'ran forbids such acts. One hadith narrated by Abu Bakr "To fight against the infidels is Jihad; but to fight against your evil self is greater Jihad" is explicit evidence, of the Western worlds misunderstanding of the concept of jihad.
In the Bahá'í Faith, a martyr is one who sacrifices his or her life in the service of humanity in the name of God. The persecution of Bahá'ís is the Religious persecution of Bahá'ís in various countries especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind  However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life, and instead explained that martyrdom is devoting oneself to service to humanity. Bahá'u'lláh ( ba-haa-ol-laa "Glory of God" ( November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892) born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri  `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's son and appointed interpreter, explained that the truest form of martyrdom is a life-long sacrifice to serve humanity in the name of God. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá ( ar عبد البهاء &lrm (23 May 1844 - 28 November 1921 born `Abbás Effendí, was the son of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the  While the Bahá'í Faith exalts the station of its martyrs, martyrdom is not something that Bahá'ís are encouraged to pursue; instead one is urged to protect one's life. 
During the history of the Bahá'í Faith there are many who are considered martyrs. Bahá'í history is often traced through a sequence of leaders beginning with the Báb 's May 23 1844 declaration in Shiraz and ultimately resting on an The Bahá'í Faith grew out of a separate religion, Bábism, which Bahá'ís see as part of their own history. Bábism () is a religious movement that flourished in Persia from 1844 to 1852 then lingered on in exile in the Ottoman Empire (especially Cyprus) as In Bábism, martyrdom had the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life and was seen as a public declaration of sincerity.  During the 1840s and 1850s the Báb claimed that he was the return of the Mahdi and gained a strong following. Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad ( ( October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the In Islamic eschatology the Mahdi ( ar مهدي, also Mehdi; "Guided One" is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on earth  The Persian clergy tried to stop the spread of the Bábí movement by denouncing the Bábís as apostates; these denouncements led to public executions of the Bábís, troop engagements against the Bábís, and an extensive pogrom where thousands of Bábís were killed.  In addition, the Báb himself was publicly executed in 1850.  The Bábís that were killed during these times are seen as martyrs by Bahá'ís, and the date of execution of the Báb, who Bahá'ís see as a Manifestation of God equal to that of Bahá'u'lláh, is considered a holy day in the Bahá'í calendar, as the Martyrdom of the Báb. The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called Prophets The Manifestations of God are a series of personages The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Bahá'í Faith, is a Solar calendar with regular years of 365 days and Leap  Also among the Bábí executions was the poetess Táhirih, who Bahá'ís consider the first woman suffrage martyr. Táhirih ( "The Pure One" or Qurratu'l-`Ayn ( "Solace of the Eyes" are both titles of Fátimih Baraghání (b 
After Bahá'u'lláh abstracted the meaning of martyrdom, gave it a new meaning, and abolished holy war, the Bábís who became Bahá'ís stopped seeking martyrdom as a public declaration of sincerity. A religious war is a War caused by religious differences It can involve one state with an established religion against another state with a different religion or a different  However, Bahá'ís continue to be persecuted in predominantly Muslim countries, especially in Iran where over 200 Bahá'ís were executed between 1978 and 1998. The persecution of Bahá'ís is the Religious persecution of Bahá'ís in various countries especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.  Among these executions include two sets of nine people who were part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran, the national governing body of the Bahá'ís, who were arrested and killed only for their religious beliefs. Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdu'l-Bahá to refer to elected councils that govern the Bahá'í Faith.  The people who are killed only because they are Bahá'ís are also considered martyrs. 
Martyrdom, in Sikhism, is a fundamental concept and represents an important institution of the faith. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century The first landmark in this field is the sacrifice by the Fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev. Guru Arjan Dev Ji or Guru Arjun Dev Ji (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ ਦੇਵ (born in Amritsar, Punjab, India on 15 April, Guru Arjan was the first prophet in the religious history of India to be a martyr of faith. Guru Tegh Bahadur and the Tenth Master, Guru Gobind Singh sacrificed their all for the cause of truth or religion. Guru Tegh Bahadur ( 1 April 1621 – 11 November 1675) became the 9th Guru of Sikhism on Guru Gobind Singh (ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ gʊɾu gobɪn̪d̪ sɪ́ŋg ( December 22, 1666 &ndash 7 October, 1708) was the Gurus kept an army and struggled with the oppressive Empire involving the loss of life of thousands of Sikhs who are considered, as in the case of Islam, another whole-life religion, martyrs. Secondly, the Sikh Gurus have demonstrated that not only is martyrdom a religious and essential institution, but it is also the most potent method of education and training a people for making sacrifices for the cause of righteousness, love and truth. This is amply proved by the capacity of the Sikhs to make maximum sacrifices for the cause of religion and man. In Sikhism, Guru Nanak in the very beginning of his famous hymn ‘Japu Ji’, while rejecting the paths of ascetic one point meditation or withdrawal, emphatically prescribes carrying out or living according to the Will of God as the goal of man. “How to become the abode of Truth and how to demolish the wall of illusion or falsehood?”, he asks, and then proceeds to answer. “Through following His will”. He then defines the Will to be the ‘Ocean of Virtues’ (gunigahira) or Altruistic. The Gurus’ basic perception of this Will is that it is Loving or Love. It is in this context that Guru Nanak proclaims that life is ‘a game of love’, and gives a call to humanity to follow this path. Guru Nanak Dev (ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ (गुरु नानक گرونانک Gurū Nānak ( 15 april 1469, Nankana Sahib He says: “Shouldst thou seek to engage in the game of Love, step into my street with thy head placed on thy palm: While stepping on to this street, ungrudgingly sacrifice your head” (GGS p 1412). Repeated emphasis is laid on this goal of following the Will of God, Who is directing the universe, in Guru Granth Sahib: “Through perception of His will is the Supreme State attained”. (p. 292) “With the perception of his Will alone is the Essence realized”. (p. 1289) “By perceiving the Lord’s Will is Truth attained”. (p. 1244)” “By His Will was the world created as a place for righteous living”. (p. 785) “Profoundly wondrous is the Divine Will. Whoever has its perception, has awareness of the true praxis of life”. (p. 940)
It should be clear that in Sikhism the goal is not to attain personal salvation or Moksha or ‘eternal bliss’. In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" It is instead the perception or recognition of His Will and working in line with its direction. This state is in fact synonymous with God-realization.
The concept of martyrdom was laid down by Guru Nanak. In fact, his was an open challenge and a call. His hymn calling life ‘a game of love’ is of profoundest significance in Sikh thought and theology. It has five clear facets. It expresses in clear words the Guru’s spiritual experience of God. While he repeatedly calls Him unknowable, his own experience, he states, is that He is All Love. Second, He is Benevolent and Gracious towards man and the world. Third, since He expresses His Love in the world, the same, by implication, becomes real and meaningful.
Further, the Guru by giving this call clearly proclaims both the goal and the methodology of religious life in Sikhism. The goal is to live a life of love which is in line with His expression of Love and Grace in the world. Simultaneously, the methodology of whole-life activity and commitment for the goal is emphasized. The significant fact is that in the entire Guru Granth Sahib it is these principles of the Sikh way of life that are repeatedly emphasized. The Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji (ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ gurū granth sāhib) or Guru Granth Sahib, is the eleventh and eternal Guru of the There are innumerable hymns endorsing one or the other of the above principles of Sikh theology. It is this couplet of Guru Nanak that forms the base of martyrdom in Sikhism. For, the commitment desired is total, and once on that Path the seeker has to have no wavering in laying down his life for the cause. In his hymn Guru Nanak has defined and stressed that the institution of martyrdom is an essential ingredient of the Path he was laying down for man.