|Born||March 1, 40 AD|
Augusta Bilbilis (now Calatayud, Spain)
|Died||ca. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 40 was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Augusta Bilbilis was a City founded by the Romans in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. Calatayud - Arabic: قلعة أيوب Qalʻaḧ ʼAyyūb (2005 pop Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. 102 AD|
Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human For persons with a Cognomen "Catulus" see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra An epigram is a short Poem, often with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC For the processor see Intel 8086. Year 86 was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 &ndash 18 September 96 commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 14 September 81 until his death Marcus Cocceius Nerva was also the name of a Roman emperor NERVA is an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human He wrote a total of 1,561, of which 1,235 are in elegiac couplets. Elegiac refers either to those compositions that are like elegies or to a specific poetic meter used in Classical elegies A couplet is a pair of lines of verse. It usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter He is considered the creator of the modern epigram.
Martial's keen curiosity and power of observation are manifested in his epigrams. The enduring literary interest of Martial's epigrams arises as much from their literary quality as from the colorful references to human life that they contain. Martial's epigrams bring to life the spectacle and brutality of daily life in imperial Rome, with which he was intimately connected.
From Martial, for example, we have a glimpse of living conditions in the city of Rome:
As Jo-Ann Shelton has written, "fire was a constant threat in ancient cities because wood was a common building material and people often used open fires and oil lamps. An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source However, some people may have deliberately set fire to their property in order to collect insurance money. " Martial makes this accusation in one of his epigrams:
Martial also pours scorn on the doctors of his day:
Martial's epigrams also refer to the extreme cruelty shown to slaves in Roman society. Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of Debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime and Below, he chides a man named Rufus for flogging his cook for a minor mistake:
Martial's epigrams are also characterized by their biting and often scathing sense of wit as well as for their lewdness; this has earned him a place in literary history as the original insult comic. In general use lascivious is synonymous with Lustful ' or lewd. Insult comedy is a Comedy genre in which the act consists mainly of offensive insults directed at the performer's audience and/or other performers Below is a sample of his more insulting work:
Knowledge of his life is derived almost entirely from his works, which can be more or less dated according to the well-known events to which they refer. In Book X of his Epigrams, composed between 95 and 98, he mentions celebrating his fifty-seventh birthday; hence he was born on March 1, 40 (x. Windows 95 is listed under numbers -->Year 95 was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar Year 98 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 40 was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. 24), under Caligula or Claudius. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31 AD 12 &ndash January 24 AD 41 more commonly known by his nickname Caligula (kəˈlɪɡjʊlə was a Roman Emperor Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to His place of birth was Augusta Bilbilis (now Calatayud) in Hispania Tarraconensis. Augusta Bilbilis was a City founded by the Romans in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. Calatayud - Arabic: قلعة أيوب Qalʻaḧ ʼAyyūb (2005 pop Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. His parents, Fronto and Flaccilla, appear to have died in his youth.
His name seems to imply that he was born a Roman citizen, but he speaks of himself as "sprung from the Celts and Iberians, and a countryman of the Tagus;" and, in contrasting his own masculine appearance with that of an effeminate Greek, he draws particular attention to "his stiff Hispanian hair" (x. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar The Tagus ( Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, pron. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar 65, 7).
His home was evidently one of rude comfort and plenty, sufficiently in the country to afford him the amusements of hunting and fishing, which he often recalls with keen pleasure, and sufficiently near the town to afford him the companionship of many comrades, the few survivors of whom he looks forward to meeting again after his thirty-four years' absence (x. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. 104). The memories of this old home, and of other spots, the rough names and local associations which he delights to introduce into his verse, attest the enjoyment that he had in his early life, and were among the influences which kept his spirit alive in the routine of social life in Rome.
He was educated in Hispania, a country which in the 1st century produced several notable Latin writers, including Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger, Lucan and Quintilian, and Martial's contemporaries Licinianus of Bilbilis, Decianus of Emerita and Canius of Gades. The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. Lucius or Marcus Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (ca Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger; Σένεκας in Ancient Greek literature (c Marcus Annaeus Lucanus ( November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (ca 35 – ca 100 was a Roman Rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and Tiberio Deciani or Decianus (1509–1582 was an Italian Jurist working in the tradition of Renaissance humanism. Martial professes to be of the school of Catullus, Pedo, and Marsus, and admits his inferiority only to the first. For persons with a Cognomen "Catulus" see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca The epigram bears to this day the form impressed upon it by his unrivalled skill.
The success of his countrymen may have been what motivated Martial to move to Rome once he had completed his education. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 This move occurred in 64 CE, in which Seneca the Younger and Lucan may have served as his first patrons. Year 64 was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.
We do not know much of the details of his life for the first twenty years or so after he came to Rome. He published some juvenile poems of which he thought very little in his later years, and he laughs at a foolish bookseller who would not allow them to die a natural death (I. 113). Martial had neither youthful passion nor youthful enthusiasm to precociously make him a poet. His faculty ripened with experience and with the knowledge of that social life which was both his theme and his inspiration; many of his best epigrams are among those written in his last years. From many answers which he makes to the remonstrances of friends—among others to those of Quintilian—it may be inferred that he was urged to practice at the bar, but that he preferred his own lazy Bohemian kind of life. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists He made many influential friends and patrons, and secured the favor of both Titus and Domitian. Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Titus ( December 30 39 &ndash September 13 81) was a Roman Emperor who Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 &ndash 18 September 96 commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 14 September 81 until his death From them he obtained various privileges, among others the semestris tribunatus, which conferred on him equestrian rank. Martial failed, however, in his application to Domitian for more substantial advantages, although he commemorates the glory of having been invited to dinner by him, and also the fact that he procured the privilege of citizenship for many persons in whose behalf he appealed to him.
The earliest of his extant works, known as Liber spectaculorum, was first published at the opening of the Colosseum in the reign of Titus, and relates to the theatrical performances given by him; but the book as it now stands was given to the world in or about the first year of Domitian, i. The inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre were held in AD  80 on the orders of the Roman Emperor Titus, to celebrate the completion of the The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre ( Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio e. about the year 81. Year 81 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The favour of the emperor procured him the countenance of some of the worst creatures at the imperial court—among them of the notorious Crispinus, and probably of Paris, the supposed author of Juvenal's exile, for whose monument Martial afterwards wrote a eulogistic epitaph. Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman Poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century AD author of the The two books, numbered by editors xiii. and xiv. , and known by the names of Xenia and Apophoreta—inscriptions in two lines each for presents,—were published at the Saturnalia of 84. Saturnalia is the feast with which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of the god Saturn Year 84 was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. In 86 he gave to the world the first two of the twelve books on which his reputation rests. For the processor see Intel 8086. Year 86 was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian
From that time till his return to Hispania in 98 he published a volume almost every year. Year 98 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The first nine books and the first edition of Book X. appeared in the reign of Domitian; Book XI. appeared at the end of 96, shortly after the accession of Nerva. Year 96 was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Marcus Cocceius Nerva was also the name of a Roman emperor NERVA is an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket A revised edition of book X. , that which we now possess, appeared in 98, about the time of the entrance of Trajan into Rome. Year 98 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who The last book was written after three years' absence in Hispania, shortly before his death, which happened about the year 102 or 103.
These twelve books bring Martial's ordinary mode of life between the age of forty-five and sixty very fully before us. His regular home for thirty-five years was Rome. He lived at first up three pairs of stairs, and his "garret" overlooked the laurels in front of the portico of Agrippa. Agrippa redirects here For other uses of the name see Agrippa (disambiguation. He had a small villa and unproductive farm near Nomentum, in the Sabine territory, to which he occasionally retired from the bores and noises of the city (ii. Mentana is a town in the Province of Rome, Lazio, Italy. History Mentana's name in ancient times was Nomentum The Sabines ( Latin Sabini, Singular Sabinus) were an Italic tribe that lived in ancient Italy, inhabiting 38, xii. 57). In his later years he had also a small house on the Quirinal, near the temple of Quirinus. The Quirinal Hill (Latin Collis Quirinalis) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state
At the time when his third book was brought out he had retired for a short time to Cisalpine Gaul, in weariness, as he tells us, of his unprofitable attendance to the bigwigs of Rome. Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later For a time he seems to have felt the charm of the new scenes which he visited, and in a later book (iv. 25) he contemplates the prospect of retiring to the neighbourhood of Aquileia and the Timavus. Aquileia (also called Aquilegia, Friulian Acuilee/Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in what is But the spell exercised over him by Rome and Roman society was too great; even the epigrams sent from Forum Corneli and the Aemilian Way ring much more of the Roman forum, and of the streets, baths, porticos and clubs of Rome, than of the places from which they are dated. Via Aemilia (It Via Emilia) was a trunk Roman road in the north Italian plain running from Ariminum ( Rimini) on the Adriatic coast to
His final departure from Rome was motivated by a weariness of the burdens imposed on him by his social position, and apparently the difficulties of meeting the ordinary expenses of living in the metropolis (x. 96); and he looks forward to a return to the scenes familiar to his youth. The well-known epigram addressed to Juvenal (xii. I 8) shows that for a time his ideal was realized; but the more trustworthy evidence of the prose epistle prefixed to Book XII. proves and that he could not live happily away from the literary and social pleasures of Rome for long. The one consolation of his exile was a lady, Marcella, of whom he writes rather as if she were his patroness—and it seems to have been a necessity of his being to have always a patron or patroness—than his wife or mistress.
During his life at Rome, although he never rose to a position of real independence, and had always a hard struggle with poverty, he seems to have known everybody, especially every one of any eminence at the bar or in literature. In addition to Lucan and Quintilian, he numbered among his friends or more intimate acquaintances Silius Italicus, Juvenal, the younger Pliny; and there were many others of high position whose society and patronage he enjoyed. Silius Italicus, in full Tiberius Catius Silius Italicus (25 or 26 - 101 was a Latin epic Poet. Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman Poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century AD author of the Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61/63 - ca The silence which he and Statius, although authors writing at the same time, having common friends and treating often of the same subjects, maintain in regard to one another may be explained by mutual dislike or want of sympathy. Publius Papinius Statius (ca 45-96 was a Roman Poet of the Silver Age of Latin literature, born in Naples, Italy. Martial in many places shows an undisguised contempt for the artificial kind of epic on which Statius's reputation chiefly rests; and it seems quite natural that the respectable author of the Thebaid and the Silvae should feel little admiration for either the life or the works of the bohemian epigrammatist.
Martial was dependent on his wealthy friends and patrons for gifts of money, for his dinner, and even for his dress, but the relation of client to patron had been recognized as an honourable one by the best Roman traditions. No blame had attached to Virgil or Horace on account of the favours which they received from Augustus and Maecenas, or of the return which they made for these favours in their verse. Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Quintus Horatius Flaccus, ( Venosa, December 8, 65 BC - Rome, November 27, 8 BC known in the English-speaking world as Horace That old honourable relationship, however, greatly changed between Augustus and Domitian. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Men of good birth and education, and sometimes even of high official position (Juv. i. 117), accepted the dole (sportula). Martial was merely following a general fashion in paying his court to "a lord," and he made the best of the custom. In his earlier career he used to accompany his patrons to their villas at Baiae or Tibur, and to attend their morning levees. Baiae (in modern Italian only Baia) is a Frazione of the Comune of Bacoli, in the Campania region of Italy Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town in Lazio, about 30 km from Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it Later on, he went to his own small country house, near Nomentum, and sent a poem, or a small volume of his poems, as his representative at the early visit.
Pliny the Younger, in the short tribute which he pays to him on hearing of his death, wrote, "He had as much good-nature as wit and pungency in his writings" (Ep. Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61/63 - ca iii. 21). Martial professes to avoid personalities in his satire, and honour and sincerity (fides and simplicitas) seem to have been the qualities which he most admires in his friends. Some have found distasteful his apparent servile flattery to the worst of the many bad emperors of Rome in the 1st century. The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. These were emperors Martial would later censure immediately after their death (xii. 6). However, he seems to have disliked hypocrisy in its many forms, and seems to be free from cant, pedantry, or affectation of any kind. Hypocrisy (or the state of being a hypocrite) is the act of preaching a certain belief religion or way of life but not in fact holding these same virtues oneself A pedant, or pædant, is a person who is overly concerned with Formalism and Precision, or who 'makes a show of learning'
Though many of his epigrams indicate a cynical disbelief in the character of women, yet others prove that he could respect and almost revere a refined and courteous lady. His own life in Rome afforded him no experience of domestic virtue; but his epigrams show that, even in the age which is known to modern readers chiefly from the Satires of Juvenal, virtue was recognized as the purest source of happiness. Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman Poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century AD author of the The tenderest element in Martial's nature seems, however, to have been his affection for children and for his dependents.
His sexual outlook is consistent with that of his place and time. Thus, same-sex love is a recurrent topic. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Many of his epigrams are of a pederastic nature, which, coupled with his often misogynistic tone, has given more than one reader the impression that he looked with favor upon sexual relations with boys. Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family Misogyny (mɪˈsɒdʒɪni is hatred (or contemptof women Misogyny is parallel to Misandry — the hatred of men  Though Romans often took a more materialistic approach to sex with males than did the Greeks, Martial, in Epigram XI. 43, praises the ancient pederastic gods and heroes.
The works of Martial became highly valued on their discovery by the Renaissance, whose writers often saw them as sharing an eye for the urban vices of their own times. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The poet's influence is seen in Juvenal, late classical literature, the Carolingian revival, the Renaissance in France and Italy, the Siglo de Oro, and early modern English and German poetry, until with the growth of the Romantic Movement he became unfashionable. Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman Poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century AD author of the This article is about the Spanish Golden Age of the 15th-17th centuries Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the
J P Sullivan. Martial: the unexpected classic (1991)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Marcus Valerius Martialis|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Roman poet and epigrammatist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 1, 40 AD|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Augusta Bilbilis (now Calatayud, Spain)|
|DATE OF DEATH||circa 102 AD|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Rome|