|Ville de Marseille|
|City flag||Coat of arms|
Motto: Actibus immensis urbs fulget Massiliensis.
|The Old Port of Marseille|
|Time Zone||CET (GMT +1)|
(in 8 secteurs)
|Intercommunality||Urban Community of Marseille Provence Métropole|
|Mayor||Jean-Claude Gaudin (UMP)|
|Land area¹||240. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA ( Provençal Occitan: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur in classical norm or Prouvènço-Aup-Costo d'Azur in Mistralian In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division Bouches-du-Rhône ( Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, lit "Mouths of the Rhône River" is a department in the south of France named after the Examples of administrative divisions English terms In many of the following terms corresponding to British cultural influence areas of relatively low mean population The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. The Urban Community of Marseille Provence Métropole ( French: Communauté Urbaine Marseille Provence Métropole) is the intercommunal structure A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Jean-Claude Gaudin (born October 8, 1939) is a French politician 62 km²|
(Jan. As of January 1, 2008, 64473140 people live in the French Republic. 2005 estimate)
|- Ranking||2nd in France|
|- Density||3. This is a list of communes in France with a population over 20000 at the March 8 1999 census. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 412/km² (2005)|
|Urban Area||1,290 km² (1999)|
|- Population||1,349,772 (1999)|
|Metro Area||2,830. In France an unité urbaine (literally "urban unit" is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office for the measurement of contiguously The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous 2 km² (1999)|
|- Population||1,604,550 (2007)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0. Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. The French telephone numbering plan is not only used for metropolitan France, but also for the French Overseas departments and some overseas collectivities Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open|
|2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel) only counted once. C D E|
Marseille, (English alt. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Marseilles IPA: /mɑrˈseɪ/ — French: pronounced [maʁsɛj], locally [mɑχˈsɛjɐ] — Provençal Occitan: Marselha [maʀˈsejɔ, maʀˈsijɔ] in classical norm or Marsiho [maʀˈsijɔ] in Mistralian norm — Origin: Greek: Massalia / Μασσαλία) is the second-largest city of France and forms the third-largest metropolitan area, with 1,516,340 inhabitants at the 1999 census and 1,605,000 inhabitants in 2007 after Paris and Lyon. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Provençal ( Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people mostly in Provence (in southern France Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Located on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, it is France's largest commercial port. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Marseille is the administrative capital (préfecture de région) of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, as well as the administrative capital (préfecture départementale) of the Bouches-du-Rhône department. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA ( Provençal Occitan: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur in classical norm or Prouvènço-Aup-Costo d'Azur in Mistralian France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' Bouches-du-Rhône ( Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, lit "Mouths of the Rhône River" is a department in the south of France named after the In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division Its inhabitants are called Marseillais.
Marseille is the largest and most populous commune in France after Paris and is the centre of the third largest metropolitan area in France. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjords. Cassis (kasis is a commune situated east of Marseille in the administrative department of the Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte A calanque (from the Corsican word of Preindoeuropean origin calanca (plural calanche) with meaning "inlet" Occitan A fjord or fiord (fjɔːd|fiːɔːd or fiːɔːd is a long narrow Inlet with steep sides created in a valley carved by glacial activity. Further east still are the Sainte-Baume, a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees, the town of Toulon and the French Riviera. The Sainte-Baume (en Provençal: Massís de la Santa Bauma according to classical orthography and La Santo Baumo according to mistralian orthography is Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including Toulon ( Provençal Occitan: Tolon in classical norm or Touloun in Mistralian norm is a city in southern France and a large The French Riviera (Côte d'Azur Occitan: Còsta Azzura) is one of the most famous resort areas in the world extending along the Mediterranean Sea west To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire. Garlaban is a hill which looks out to Aubagne. The summit is 715 Metres high Montagne Sainte-Victoire (in Provençal Occitan: Venturi / Santa Venturi according to classical orthography, Ventùri / Santo Ventùri To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; further west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône delta. L'Estaque is a small French fishing village just west of Marseille. The Côte Bleue ( Provençal Occitan: Còsta Blava) is part of Provence 's southwestern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, reaching from The Gulf of Lion (French Golfe du Lion is a wide Embayment of the Mediterranean coastline of Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence in The Camargue ( Occitan: Camarga in classical norm or Camargo in Mistralian norm is located south of Arles, France, between the The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Etang de Berre. Marseille Provence Airport or Aéroport de Marseille Provence is an Airport located 27 km northwest of Marseille and 6963000 passengers Marignane is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern The Étang de Berre (in Provençal Occitan: estanh de Bèrra / mar de Bèrra according to classical orthography, estang de Berro / mar de
The city itself is spread across a wide geographical area divided into 16 arrondissements (see the map below). An arrondissement is an Administrative division in some French or Dutch -speaking countries Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ The central six contain most of the city's historic buildings and its services.
The city's main thoroughfare, the wide boulevard called the Canebière, stretches eastward from the Old Port (Vieux Port) to the Réformés quarter. La Canebière is the historic high street in the old quarter of Marseille, France. The Old Port of Marseille (French: Vieux-Port) is located at the end of the Canebière. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port - Fort St Nicholas on the south side and Fort St Jean on the north. Further out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Chateau d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo. The Frioul archipelago is a group of 4 islands located off the Mediterranean coast of France, approximately at 4  km from Marseille. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ Fortress The Château was built in 1524–31 on the orders of King François I as a defense against attacks from the sea The Count of Monte Cristo ( Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an Adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas père. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferreol and the Centre Bourse (the main shopping mall). The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianized zones, most notably rue St Ferreol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hotel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th arrondissement, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman Notre-Dame de la Garde is a Basilica located in Marseille, France. The railway station - Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles - is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière. Saint Charles is the main railway station of Marseille. It is a terminus and opened on 8 January 1848, having been built for the
Humans have inhabited Marseille and its environs for almost 30,000 years: palaeolithic cave paintings in the underwater Cosquer cave near the calanque of Morgiou date back to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; and very recent excavations near the railway station have unearthed neolithic brick habitations from around 6,000 BC. The Old Port of Marseille (French: Vieux-Port) is located at the end of the Canebière. Notre-Dame de la Garde is a Basilica located in Marseille, France. The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times The Cosquer cave is located in the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille, France, not very far from Cap Morgiou A calanque (from the Corsican word of Preindoeuropean origin calanca (plural calanche) with meaning "inlet" Occitan The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos 
Marseille, the oldest city of France, was founded in 600 BC by Greeks from Phocaea (as mentioned by Thucydides Bk1,13) as a trading port under the name Μασσαλία (Massalia; see also List of traditional Greek place names). This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This article is about the ancient city For the modern city see Foça Phocaea, or Phokaia, (Φώκαια (modern-day Foça Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek This is a list of Greek place names. That is a list of the names of places as they exist in the Greek language. The precise circumstances and date of founding remain obscure, but nevertheless a legend survives. Protis, while exploring for a new trading outpost or emporion for Phocaea, discovered the Mediterranean cove of the Lacydon, fed by a freshwater stream and protected by two rocky promontories. A cove is a circular or Oval Coastal Inlet with a narrow entrance A promontory is a prominent mass of land which overlooks lower lying land or a body of water (when it may be called a Peninsula or headland) Protis was invited inland to a banquet held by the chief of the local Ligurian tribe for suitors seeking the hand of his daughter Gyptis in marriage. At the end of the banquet, Gyptis presented the ceremonial cup of wine to Protis, indicating her unequivocal choice. Following their marriage, they moved to the hill just to the north of the Lacydon; and from this settlement grew Massalia. 
Massalia was one of the first Greek ports in Western Europe, growing to a population of over 1000. It was the first settlement given city status in France. Facing an opposing alliance of the Etruscans, Carthage and the Celts, the Greek colony allied itself with the expanding Roman Republic for protection. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts This protectionist association brought aid in the event of future attacks, and perhaps equally important it also brought the people of Massalia into the complex Roman market. The city throve by acting as a link between inland Gaul, hungry for Roman goods and wine (which Massalia was steadily exporting by 500 B. C. ), and Rome's insatiable need for new products and slaves. Under this arrangement the city maintained its independence until the rise of Julius Caesar, when it joined the losing side (Pompey and the optimates) in civil war, and lost its independence in 49 BC. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Optimates (singular optimas, The Best of Men, Italian: ottimati; also known as the priests or boni, the The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic.
It was the site of a siege and naval battle after which the fleet was confiscated by the Roman authorities. The Siege and naval Battle of Massilia was an episode of Caesar's civil war, fought in 49 BC. During the Roman times the city was called Massilia. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC It was the home port of Pytheas. Dates Pliny says that Timaeus (born about 350 BC believed Pytheas' story of the discovery of Amber. Most of the archaeological remnants of the original Greek settlement were replaced by later Roman additions.
Marseille adapted well to its new status under Rome. Evidence of its growth and wealth is the fact that it was the first town of France to have an official public sewer system. During the Roman era, the city was controlled by a directory of 15 selected “first” among 600 senators. Three of them had the preeminence and the essence of the executive power. The city's laws amongst other things forbade the drinking of wine by women and allowed by vote of the 600, assistance to allow a person to commit suicide.
It was during this time that Christianity first appeared in Marseille, as evidenced by catacombs above the harbour and records of Roman martyrs. Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c The first Burial galleries to be referred to as catacombs lie beneath San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom According to provencal tradition, Mary Magdalen evangelised Marseille with her brother Lazarus. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Saint Mary Magdalen or Mary Magdalene is described both in the canonical New Testament and in the New Testament apocrypha, as a devoted Some people unfamiliar with the New Testament claim that the case for female disciples of Jesus is controversial Lazarus ( Hebrew: אלעזר Elʿāzār Eleazar "God (has helped" is the name of two separate men mentioned in the New Testament. The diocese of Marseille was set up in the first century (it became the Archdiocese of Marseille in 1948). In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop.
With the decline of the Roman Empire, the town fell into the hands of the Visigoths, then was given to the Ostrogoths after the Battle of Vouillé in AD 507 to prevent the city from falling to the Franks. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern Marches of Visigothic territory at a small place near Poitiers ( Gaul The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Eventually Frankish kings succeeded in taking the town in the mid 6th century. Emperor Charlemagne and the Carolingian dynasty granted civic power to Marseille, which remained a major French trading port until the medieval period. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the The city regained much of its wealth and trading power when it was revived in the 10th century by the counts of Provence. In 1262, the city revolted under Hugues des Baux, brother of Barral des Baux, and Bonifaci VI de Castellana against the rule of the Angevins but was put down by Charles I. Barral of Baux (died 1268 vas Viscount of Marseilles and Lord of Baux. Bonifaci VI de Castellana or Castelhana (Boniface de Castellane fl The Capetian House of Anjou, or the Second Angevin dynasty, was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, established by Charles Count of Anjou Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest  In 1348, the city suffered terribly from the bubonic plague, which continued to strike intermittently until 1361. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia As a major port, it is believed Marseille was one of the first places in France to encounter the epidemic, and some 15,000 people died in a city that had a population of 25,000 during its period of economic prosperity in the previous century.  The city's fortunes declined still further when it was sacked and pillaged by the Aragonese in 1423.
Marseille's population and trading status soon recovered and in 1437, the Count of Provence René of Anjou, who succeeded his father Louis II of Anjou as King of Sicily and Duke of Anjou, arrived in Marseille and established it as France's most fortified settlement outside of Paris. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France René of Anjou ( January 16, 1409 &ndash July 10, 1480) also known as René I of Naples and Good King René ( French Louis II of Anjou (1377&ndash April 29 1417) was the rival of Ladislas as King of Naples. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Anjou is a former County (c 880) Duchy ( 1360) and province centred on the city of Angers in the lower  He helped raise the status of the town to a city and allowed certain privileges to be granted to it. Marseille was then used by Duke of Anjou as a strategic maritime base to reconquer his kingdom of Sicily. King René, who wished to equip the entrance of the port with a solid defense, decided to build on the ruins of the old Maubert tower and to establish a series of ramparts guarding the harbor. Jean Pardo, engineer, conceived the plans and Jehan Robert, mason of Tarascon, carried out the work. The construction of the new city defenses took place between 1447 and 1453.  The trading in Marseille also flourished in this term as the Guild began to establish a position of power within the merchants of the city. Notably, René also founded the Corporation of Fisherman.
Marseille was united with Provence in 1481 and then incorporated in France the following year, but soon acquired a reputation for rebelling against the central government. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France  Some 30 years after its incorporation, Francois I visited Marseille, drawn by his curiosity to see a rhinoceros that King Emmanuel I of Portugal was sending to Pope Leo X, but which had been shipwrecked on the Ile d'If. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 Rhinoceros (raɪˈnɒsərəs often colloquially abbreviated rhino, is a name used to group five extant species of Odd-toed ungulates in the family Manuel I (mɐnuˈɛɫ Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I) the Fortunate ( Port Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death A shipwreck can refer to a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink the stranding of the ship on rocks As a result of this visit, the fortress of Chateau d'If was constructed; this did little to prevent Marseille being placed under siege by the army of the Holy Roman Empire a few years later. Fortress The Château was built in 1524–31 on the orders of King François I as a defense against attacks from the sea The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in  Towards the end of the sixteenth century Marseille suffered yet another outbreak of the plague; the hospital of the Hotel-Dieu was founded soon afterwards. A century later more troubles were in store: King Louis XIV himself had to descend upon Marseille, at the head of his army, in order to quash a local uprising against the governor. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent  As a consequence, the two forts of St Jean and St Nicholas were erected above the harbour and a large fleet and arsenal were established in the harbour itself. An arsenal is an establishment for the construction repair storage and issue of Weapons and Ammunition.
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the port's defenses were improved and Marseille became more important as France's leading military port in the Mediterranean. In 1720, the last Great Plague of Marseille, a form of the Black Death, struck down 100,000 people in the city and the surrounding provinces. The Great Plague of Marseille was one of the most significant European outbreaks of Bubonic plague in the early 18th century The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia  Jean-Baptiste Grosson, royal notary, wrote from 1770 to 1791 the historical Almanac of Marseille, published as Recueil des antiquités et des monuments marseillais qui peuvent intéresser l’histoire et les arts, (“Collection of antiquities and Marseilles monuments which can interest history and the arts”), which for a long time was the primary resource on the history of the monuments of the city.
The local population enthusiastically embraced the French Revolution and sent 500 volunteers to Paris in 1792 to defend the revolutionary government; their rallying call to revolution, sung on their march from Marseille to Paris, became known as La Marseillaise, now the national anthem of France. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an " La Marseillaise " (la maʁsɛˡjɛz in English The Song of Marseille) is the National anthem of France. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's
During the nineteenth century the city was the site of industrial innovations and a growth in manufacturing. The rise of the French Empire and the conquests of France from 1830 onward (notably Algeria) stimulated the maritime trade and raised the prosperity of the city. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. Maritime opportunities also increased with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation  This period in Marseille's history is reflected in many of its monuments, such as the Napoleonic obelisk at Mazargues and the royal triumphal arch in the place d'Aix. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. An obelisk (from Greek ὀβελίσκος - obeliskos, diminutive of ὀβελός - obelos, "spit nail pointed pillar" A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental Archway, in theory built to celebrate a victory in war actually used to celebrate a ruler
During the first half of the twentieth century, Marseille celebrated its trading status and 'port of the empire' status through the colonial exhibitions of 1906 and 1922; the monumental staircase at the railway station, glorifying French colonial conquests, dates from then. Saint Charles is the main railway station of Marseille. It is a terminus and opened on 8 January 1848, having been built for the France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world In 1934 Alexander I of Yugoslavia arrived at the port to meet with the French foreign minister Louis Barthou. The title Aleksandar of Yugoslavia also has other uses. Alexander I also called Alexander the Unificator ( Serbo-Croatian Jean Louis Barthou (25 August 1862 – 9 October 1934 was a French politician of the Third Republic. He was assassinated there by Vlada Georgieff. Vlado Chernozemski (the Driver ( October 19, 1897 - October 9, 1934) born Velichko Dimitrov Kerin (Величко Димитров
During World War II, Marseille was bombed by the German and the Italian forces in 1940. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom The city was occupied by Germans from November 1942 to August 1944. A large part of the city's old quarter was dynamited in a massive clearance project, aimed to reduce opportunities for resistance members to hide and operate in the densely populated old buildings.    After the war much of the city was rebuilt during the 1950s. The governments of East Germany, West Germany, and Italy paid massive reparations, plus compound interest, to compensate civilians killed, injured, or left homeless or destitute as a result of the war. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Compound interest is the concept of adding accumulated Interest back to the principal so that interest is earned on interest from that moment on
From the 1950s onward, the city served as an entrance port for over a million immigrants to France. In 1962 there was a large influx from the newly independent Algeria, including around 150,000 pieds-noirs. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot" plural Pieds-Noirs, pronounced /pje  Many immigrants have stayed and given the city a vibrant French-African quarter with a large market.
After the oil crisis of 1973 and an economic downturn, Marseille became a haven for criminal activity, and began to experience high levels of poverty. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and The city has worked to combat these problems, and through plans from the AT in Paris and funds from the European Union, the city has developed a modern and advanced economy based on high technology manufacturing, oil refining and service sector employment. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
In terms of recent social history, Marseille has served as the home of the new right and the National Front. The National Front ( FN, Front national is a French Far right, Nationalist Political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Because of high levels of unemployment and a large immigrant population, Marseille is home to a large population of National Front supporters. 
Politically, from 1950 to the mid 1980s, Marseille was dominated by its mayor Gaston Defferre, who was re-elected six times. Gaston Defferre ( September 14, 1910 - May 7, 1986, Marseille) was a French socialist politician The three most recent mayors are listed below:
Historically, the economy of Marseille was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia with metropolitan France. Gaston Defferre ( September 14, 1910 - May 7, 1986, Marseille) was a French socialist politician The Socialist Party ( Parti Socialiste, PS is the largest left-wing political party in France. Jean-Claude Gaudin (born October 8, 1939) is a French politician Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. The majority of the old port and docks, which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis, have been recently redeveloped with funds from the European Union. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The old port now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina. Fishing, however, remains important in Marseille and the food economy of Marseille is still dominated by the local catch and a daily fish market is still held at the Belgian Quay at the Old Port. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish.
Today, the economy of Marseille is dominated by the New Port, which runs perpendicular to the Old Port, a commercial container port and a transport port for the Mediterranean sea. Containerization (or containerisation) is a system of Intermodal freight transport Cargo Transport using standard ISO containers 100 million tons of freight pass annually through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in France and the Mediterranean and number three in Europe. Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, However, its recent growth in container traffic is being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval.  Major imports include petroleum, wine, fruits, olive oil, hides and skins, and tropical agricultural products. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Major exports are dominated by wines, liqueurs, processed foods, cement, and metal products. In the most general sense of the word a cement is a binder a substance which sets and hardens independently and can bind other materials together Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the principal industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar, building materials, plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Marseille is connected with the Rhône via a canal and thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refinement.
Marseille is a major French centre for trade and industry,with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, sea port and airport). Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Marseille Provence Airport, is the fourth largest in France. Marseille Provence Airport or Aéroport de Marseille Provence is an Airport located 27 km northwest of Marseille and 6963000 passengers It is the main arrival base for millions of tourists each year as well as serving a growing business community. All three branches of the University of Aix-Marseille - the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University - are represented to varying degrees in both Marseille and Aix-en-Provence. The three Universities of Aix-Marseille, situated in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille for over five centuries are the successors to the original establishments created The University of Provence Aix-Marseille I is a university located in both Aix-en-Provence and Marseille. The University of the Mediterranean Aix-Marseille II a French university in the Academy of Aix and Marseille. Paul Cézanne University (Aix-Marseille III is a French university in the Academy of Aix and Marseille. Aix (ɛks or Aix-en-Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm to distinguish The economy is closely associated with the Marseille Provence Metropolis, France's second largest research centre with 3000 research scientists.
Marseille Metropole Provence is home to thousands of companies, 90% of which are small businesses.  Among the most famous ones are CMA CGM, container-shipping giant; Comex, world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems; Eurocopter Group, an EADS company; Azur Promotel, an active real estate development company; La Provence, the local daily newspaper; L'Olympique de Marseille, the famous soccer club; RTM, Marseille's public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean. CMA CGM SA is a French container transportation and shipping company headed by Mr The Eurocopter Group is a European Helicopter manufacturing and support company formed in 1992 from the merger of German Daimler-Benz Aerospace The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS NV ( EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation formed by the merger on July 10, Olympique de Marseille (also known as l'OM or Marseille) is a football team that plays in Ligue 1, the top level of the French Football Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered
In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy. High tech is Technology that is at the cutting edge —the most advanced technology currently available Marseille acts as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France and has a high concentration of museums, cinemas, theaters, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries, all geared towards a tourist economy.
Whilst much of the Marseille economy has been revitalised since its decay in the 1970s it still remains significantly stagnant in regards to growth compared with Paris and the old industrial regions of northeastern France.
In May 2005, the French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000. 
Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004.  However, Marseille remains a city with high unemployment against the national average and suffers a lack of jobs for its large immigrant population. For example, in some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported as high as 40%. 
Marseille is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements, which are themselves divided into quartiers (111 in total). The municipal arrondissement (arrondissement municipal pronounced /aʀɔ̃dismɑ̃ mynisipal/ is a subdivision of the commune, used in the three largest cities Paris The arrondissements are regrouped, in pairs, into 8 sectors, each sector having its own council and town hall (like the arrondissements in Paris and in Lyon). The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, more simply referred to as arrondissements (əˈɹɒndɨsmənt in The nine arrondissements of Lyon are the administrative divisions of the city 
The municipal elections of councillors are carried out by sector. There are 303 councillors in total, two thirds sitting on the sector councils and one third on the city council.
Number of councilors elected by sector:
|Total number of elected officials||33||24||34||43||45||39||48||36||302|
The Sector Mayors :
The cantons of Marseille :
Marseille holds 25 of the 58 seats at the general council of the Bouches-du-Rhône. Roland Blum ( Les Pennes-Mirabeau, 12 July 1945- is a French conservative politician member of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP Frédéric Dutoit (born May 26, 1956 in Marseille) is a French Politician from the French Communist Party. The French Communist Party ( French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of Bouches-du-Rhône ( Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, lit "Mouths of the Rhône River" is a department in the south of France named after the Since the last election, these 25 cantons are held by the following councilors:
Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille has always been one of the main points of entry into France. Henri Jibrayel, born on 18 September 1951 in Marseille, is a French politician with Lebanese and Assyrian roots This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille into a unique cosmopolitan melting pot. By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere. The main group of immigrants came from Italy (mainly from Genoa and Piedmont) as well as from Spain, Greece and the Levant. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the
Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several further waves of immigrants in the 20th century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, up to 40% of the population was of Italian origin ; Russians in 1917; Armenians in 1915 and 1923; the Spanish after 1936; north Africans in the inter-war period; sub-saharan Africans after 1945; and the pieds-noirs from the former French colonies in Algeria in 1962 and then from the Comoros. Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot" plural Pieds-Noirs, pronounced /pje The Comoros (ˈkɒməroʊz; جزر القمر Juzur al-Qumur) officially the Union of the Comoros (Union des Comores الإتّحاد القمريّ In 2006, it was reported 70,000 citizens were considered to be of Maghrebian origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people. 
Currently over one third of the population of Marseille can trace their roots back to Italy, the most represented country in the city, even beyond France. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Marseille also has the largest Corsican and second largest Armenian population in France. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Other significant communities include North African Arabs and Berbers (25% of the total population), Turks, Comorians, Chinese, and Vietnamese. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language The Comoros (ˈkɒməroʊz; جزر القمر Juzur al-Qumur) officially the Union of the Comoros (Union des Comores الإتّحاد القمريّ The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong The Vietnamese people (người Việt or vi ''người Kinh'' are an Ethnic group originating from what is now northern Vietnam and southern China. 
The main religions practised in Marseille are Catholicism (600,000), Islam (between 150,000 and 200,000), Armenian Apostolic Church (80,000), Judaism (80,000, making Marseille the third largest urban Jewish community in Europe), Protestantism (20,000), Eastern Orthodoxy (10,000) and Buddhism (3,000). As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices 
Marseille has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers. A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide January and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 8 to 9 °C. July and August are the hottest months. The mean summer temperature is around 23 to 24 °C (75 °F). In July the average maximum temperature is around 30°C.  Marseille is known for the Mistral, a harsh cold wind originating in the alps that occurs mostly in winter and spring. The Mistral in France is a fresh or cold often violent and usually dry Wind, blowing throughout the year but is most frequent in winter and spring Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara desert. Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or rarely siroc is a Mediterranean Wind that comes from The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest
|Avg high °C (°F)||11. 2 (52. 2)||12. 6 (54. 7)||15. 3 (59. 5)||17. 7 (63. 9)||22. 2 (72. 0)||26. 1 (79. 0)||29. 5 (85. 1)||29. 2 (84. 6)||25. 3 (77. 5)||20. 3 (68. 5)||14. 7 (58. 5)||12. 0 (53. 6)||19. 7 (67. 5)|
|Avg low °C (°F)||3. 0 (37. 4)||3. 9 (39. 0)||6. 0 (42. 8)||8. 5 (47. 3)||12. 6 (54. 7)||16. 0 (60. 8)||18. 7 (65. 7)||18. 7 (65. 7)||15. 5 (59. 9)||11. 6 (52. 9)||6. 8 (44. 2)||4. 1 (39. 4)||10. 5 (51. 0)|
Marseille is a city that is proud of its differences from the rest of France. Today it is a regional centre for culture and entertainment with its important opera house, its historical and maritime museums, its five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants. The most commonly used tarot deck comes from Marseille; it is called the Tarot de Marseille, and was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy. Origins of the Tarot Michael Dummett 's research led him to conclude that - based on the lack of earlier documentary evidence - the Tarot deck was probably invented in northern Cartomancy is Fortune-telling or Divination using a deck of cards Another local tradition is the making of santons, small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provencal Christmas creche. A santon is a small hand-painted figurine cast in Terracotta or a similar material that is used for building Nativity scenes Santons are a traditional product Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France A nativity scene may be used to describe any depiction of the Nativity of Jesus in art, but in the sense covered here also called a crib or manger in the Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; it is currently held in the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves, a large square off the Vieux-Port.
Marseille has a large number of theatres, including la Criée, le Gymnase and the theatre Tourski. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one There is also an extensive arts centre in la Friche, a former match factory behind Gare St-Charles. The Alcazar, until the 1960s a well known music-hall and variety theatre, has recently been completely remodelled behind its original facade and now houses the central municipal library. Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 A variety show or variety entertainment is an entertainment made up of a variety of acts especially Musical performances and Comedy Skits and
Marseille has also been important in literature and the arts. It has been the birth place and home of many French writers and poets, including from modern times Victor Gélu, Valère Bernard, Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand and André Roussin. Edmond Eugène Alexis Rostand ( April 1, 1868 &ndash December 2, 1918) was a French Poet and Dramatist. André Roussin, ( January 22, 1911 - November 3 1987) was a French playwright The small port of l'Estaque on the far end of the Bay of Marseille became a favourite haunt for artists, including Auguste Renoir, Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home in Aix), George Braque and Raoul Dufy. L'Estaque is a small French fishing village just west of Marseille. Pierre-Auguste Renoir ( February 25, 1841 &ndash December 3, 1919) was a French Artist who was a leading painter in Aix (ɛks or Aix-en-Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm to distinguish Georges Braque ( May 13, 1882 &ndash August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor Raoul Dufy ( 3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter
Marseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opéra. L’Opéra de Marseille, known today as the Opéra Municipal, is an Opera company located in Marseille, France. Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyon and Bordeaux. ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate In 1919, a fire almost completely destroyed the building, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original facade. In Classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of Columns joined by their Entablature, often free-standing as in the famous elliptically In Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle is a Columned Porch or open Colonnade in a Building that surrounds a court  The classical facade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Deco style, as the result of a major competition: for example, Antoine Bourdelle worked on the frescos on the proscenium arch. Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Antoine Bourdelle, originally Émile Antoine Bourdelle, ( October 30, 1861 - October 1, 1929) was a French sculptor Proscenium theatre is a Theatre space whose primary feature is a large Archway (the proscenium arch) at or near the front of the stage, through Currently the Marseille Opera stages 6 or 7 operas each year, covering the whole range of opera from baroque to newly commissioned works. The season, by subscription, lasts from September to June.
Marseille is also well known in France for its Hip hop music. Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Groups like IAM originated from Marseille initiated the rap music phenomena in France. IAM is a French hip hop band from Marseille, created in 1989 and composed of Akhenaton (Philippe Fragione Shurik'n (Geoffroy Mussard Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Other known groups include Fonky Family, 3ème Oeil, and Psy4 de la rime. La Fonky Family (often shortened to La Fonky, or La FF) are a French hip hop group from Marseille.
Marseille is listed as a major centre of art and history. Marius ( 1931) is a French theatre script written by Marcel Pagnol that was later converted into a film of the same name For other uses see The French Connection. The French Connection is a 1971 Hollywood Crime film directed French Connection II is a 1975 crime Drama film starring Gene Hackman and directed by John Frankenheimer. Known as Moon in the Gutter in the US and UK the film's original title was La Lune dans le caniveau in France Betty Blue is a 1986 French film Its original French title is 37°2 le matin, which means "37°C, Roselyne et les lions ( Roselyne and the Lions) is a 1989 French film directed by Jean-Jacques Beineix. My Father's Glory (La Gloire de mon père is a 1957 Autobiographical novel by Marcel Pagnol. Marius et Jeannette is a 1997 French film directed by Robert Guédiguian. Taxi is a 1998 French Film starring Samy Naceri, written by Luc Besson, and directed by Gérard Pirès. Comme un aimant is a 2000 French Film by Kamel Saleh and Akhenaton. Baise-moi is a novel by French author Virginie Despentes, first published in 1999. Taxi 2 (also called Taxi Taxi) is a French film directed by Gérard Krawczyk and released in 2000. The Bourne Identity is a 2002 Spy film loosely based on Robert Ludlum 's novel of the same name. The Count of Monte Cristo is a 2002 Film and 10th film based loosely upon the book of the same name, by Alexandre Dumas père Love Actually is a 2003 British Romantic comedy Film written and directed by Richard Curtis. Taxi 3 is a 2003 French Film directed by Gérard Krawczyk. It is a sequel to Taxi written by Luc Besson Taxi 4 (also spelled T4xi) is the sequel to the 2003 French Action / Comedy film Taxi 3. Rouille ( French, ' Rust ' is a Sauce that consists of Olive oil with Breadcrumbs Garlic, Saffron and Chili Swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) are large highly migratory Predatory Fish characterized by a long flat bill. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Ratatouille (ˌrætəˈtuːiː/ /-ˈtwiː French pronunciation ʁatatuj is a traditional French Provençal Stewed Vegetable dish Saffron ( Kurdish/Persian زَعْفَرَان is a Spice derived from the dried Stigma of the Flower of the saffron crocus ( Crocus sativus Pastis ( or /pæsˈtɪs/ is an Anise -flavored Liqueur and Apéritif from France, typically containing 40–45% Alcohol by volume, Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption '''Anise''' or Aniseed, less commonly anís (stressed on the second syllable ( Pimpinella anisum) is a Flowering plant in the family Apiaceae Aioli ( Provençal Occitan alhòli, Catalan allioli) is a sauce made of Garlic and Olive oil. Allium sativum L, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the Onion family Alliaceae. The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish Boiled eggs are eggs (typically Chicken 's eggs cooked by immersion in boiling water with their shells unbroken Tapenade is a Provençal dish consisting of puréed or finely chopped olives Capers anchovies and Olive oil. The caper ( Capparis spinosa L is a perennial spiny shrub that bears rounded fleshy leaves and big white to pinkish-white flowers Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees The anchovies are a family ( Engraulidae) of small common salt-water fish Bouillabaisse ( Occitan: bolhabaissa) is a traditional Provençal fish Stew originating from the port city of Marseille. Rouille ( French, ' Rust ' is a Sauce that consists of Olive oil with Breadcrumbs Garlic, Saffron and Chili The chickpea ( Cicer arietinum) (also garbanzo bean, Indian pea, ceci bean, bengal gram, chana, kadale kaalu, Monkfish is the English name of a number of types of fish in the northwest Atlantic most notably the species of the anglerfish genus Lophius and the angelshark Mayonnaise (sometime abbreviated to mayo in American English and other languages is a thick Condiment made primarily from Vegetable oil and Egg Brunoise is a method of food preparation in which the food item is first julienned and then turned 90° and diced again producing cubes of a side length of about Tripe is a type of edible Offal from the Stomachs of various Domestic animals. Lard is pig Fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a Cooking fat or Shortening The city boasts many museums and galleries. There are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest. Most of the attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements.
The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport, located in Marignane. Marseille Provence Airport or Aéroport de Marseille Provence is an Airport located 27 km northwest of Marseille and 6963000 passengers Marignane is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern The airport has two terminals. Terminal one, the main terminal of the airport contains halls 1,2,3 and 4 and serves as a base for international arrivals and departures. The new terminal, referred to as Marseille Mp2 is used for flights arriving and departing from Europe. A shuttle coach system operates between the airport and the railway station, Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles. Saint Charles is the main railway station of Marseille. It is a terminus and opened on 8 January 1848, having been built for the
An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51) , Toulon (A50) and the French Riviera (A8) to the east. The A7 Autoroute, also known as l'autoroute du Soleil (English the Motorway of the Sun is a French motorway The A51 autoroute is a projected motorway in south east France. The A50 autoroute is a French motorway connecting Marseille to Toulon. The French Riviera (Côte d'Azur Occitan: Còsta Azzura) is one of the most famous resort areas in the world extending along the Mediterranean Sea west The A8 autoroute, La Provençale is a highway in France between Aix-en-Provence and the A7 to the Côte d'Azur.
Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. Saint Charles is the main railway station of Marseille. It is a terminus and opened on 8 January 1848, having been built for the |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains It operates direct regional services to cities such as Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux, as well as a service to Barcelona. Nice (nis Niçard Occitan: Niça norm or Nissa, Italian: Nizza or Nizza Marittima, Greek Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia (The northerly single track line to Briancon via Aix-en-Provence is currently partially closed during modernisation. Briançon ( Latin: Brigantium) is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region Aix (ɛks or Aix-en-Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm to distinguish ) Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV in the south of France making Marseille reachable in three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km). The TGV ( t rain à g rande v itesse, French for "high-speed train" is France 's High-speed rail service and just over one and a half hours from Lyon. There is also a direct TGV line to Strasbourg. Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région
There is a long distance bus station, still under construction, adjacent to Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly in the Bouches-du-Rhône. bus station is a structure where city or intercity Buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers Bouches-du-Rhône ( Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, lit "Mouths of the Rhône River" is a department in the south of France named after the Temporarily buses to Aix-en-Provence depart from the nearby Porte d'Aix. Aix (ɛks or Aix-en-Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm to distinguish Porte d'Aix (also known as the Porte Royale) is a Triumphal arch in Marseille, in the south of France, marking the old entry point to the city Other buses to Cassis, La Ciotat and Aubagne depart from Castellane. Cassis (kasis is a commune situated east of Marseille in the administrative department of the Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte La Ciotat is a city in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France Aubagne is a small commune located 17 km east of Marseille in the Bouches-du-Rhône department of southern France.
Marseille has a large ferry terminal, the Gare Maritime, with services to Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria and Tunisia. ferry slip is a specialized docking facility that receives a ferryboat. Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. A ferry service on a quite different scale operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port.
Marseille itself is connected by the metro train system operated by the Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM). The Marseilles Metro serves the City of Marseilles. It is a rubber-tyred metro derived from the technology developed by the RATP for Paris Metro It consists of 2 lines represented by orange and blue. Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and La Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (orange) between Sainte-Marguerite/Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension to Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992. The Metro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths. Both lines of the Metro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane.
An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille. The first phase of a new tramway , going eastwards from the port towards St Barnabé, was opened in July 2007. Le Tramway de Marseille is a Tramway system in the French city of Marseille.
As in many other French cities, a short-term bicycle hire scheme nicknamed "le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, has recently been put in place by the town council. 
The city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football club, Olympique de Marseille, which was the UEFA Champions League winner in 1993 and finalist of the UEFA Cup in 1999 and 2004. A football team or a football club, in football (soccer is the collective name given to a number of players who play together in a Football game be it Association Olympique de Marseille (also known as l'OM or Marseille) is a football team that plays in Ligue 1, the top level of the French Football See also List of European Cup and UEFA Champions League winners The UEFA Champions League, which evolved from the European Champion Clubs' Cup is a seasonal club The club has a history of success but was tainted in the 1990s by a match-fixing scandal by then-owner Bernard Tapie. In organized Sports, match fixing or game fixing occurs when a match is played to a completely or partially pre-determined result Bernard Tapie (born January 26 1943 in Paris) is a French Businessman, Politician and occasional actor singer and TV host The club's home, the Stade Vélodrome, also functions for other local sports, as well as national rugby team Tests. The Stade Vélodrome is a 60031 capacity Stadium in Marseille, France. The France national rugby union team represents France in Rugby union. Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 2007 Rugby World Cup. The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international Rugby union world championship inaugurated in 1987. The local rugby team is Marseille Provence XV. Marseille Provence XV is a defunct French Rugby union club founded in 2000
Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. Sailing is the art of controlling a Sailing vessel. By changing the Rigging, Rudder and dagger or centre board a Sailor manages the force The winds can blow from different directions and allow interesting regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. Most of the time it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. It was considered as a possible site for 2007 Americas Cup. The America’s Cup is the most prestigious Regatta and Match race in the sport of Sailing, and the oldest active Trophy in international  Marseille is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating. Windsurfing is a surface water sport using a windsurf board also commonly called a sailboard usually two to five meters long and powered by a single sail Power boating describes activities performed in a motorized boat. Marseille has three golf courses to its north and north east. A golf course consists of a series of holes each consisting of a Teeing ground, Fairway, rough and other hazards and a green with a pin and cup all designed for The city has dozens of gyms and several council owned swimming pools. A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or simply a pool, is an artificially enclosed Body of water intended for Swimming or Running is also popular in many of Marseille's parks such as Le Pharo and Le Jardin Pierre Puget.
Marseille was the finish of Stage 10 and the departure of Stage 11 in the 2007 Tour de France. The 2007 Tour de France, the 94th running of the race, took place from July 7 to July 29 2007
Marseille was the birthplace of:
The following personalities died in Marseille:
In addition Marseille has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 28 cities all over the world: 
The Frioul Archipelago
War Memorial on the Corniche
A view onto the Old Port
Cours Estienne d'Orves next to the Old Port
The Fort Saint Nicolas, overlooking the harbour on the left bank
The Vallon des Auffes off the Corniche
Notre Dame de la Garde at night
The statue of Mary with child on top of the Notre Dame de la Garde
The Église des Réformés church
Joan of Arc statue in Marseille.
Musée des Beaux Arts, Marseille.
The Palais Longchamp at night
Le Jardin des Vestiges next to the Centre Bourse
Gare Saint-Charles, the main railway station
Street in the Panier
The Hotel de Ville
The Panier seen from the Vieux-Port
Street in the Panier
The Cathedral de la Major
The Fort St Jean
The Church of St Laurent
Staircase in the Hotel-Dieu
Theatre du Gymnase
The Alcazar, before and after
The bohemian Cours Julien and la Plaine