The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor '98 Orbiter) was one of two spacecraft in the Mars Surveyor '98 program, the other being the Mars Polar Lander (formerly the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander). The Mars Surveyor '98 program comprised two spacecraft launched separately the Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor '98 Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander The Mars Polar Lander was part of the NASA Mars Surveyor '98 program, which consisted of two spacecraft launched separately the Mars Climate The two missions were to study the Martian weather, climate, and water and carbon dioxide budget, in order to understand the reservoirs, behavior, and atmospheric role of volatiles and to search for evidence of long-term and episodic climate changes. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single
The Mars Climate Orbiter was intended to enter orbit at an altitude of 140–150 km above Mars. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star However, a navigation error caused the spacecraft to reach as low as 57 km. The spacecraft was destroyed by atmospheric stresses and friction at this low altitude. The navigation error arose because a NASA subcontractor (Lockheed Martin) used Imperial units (pound-seconds) instead of the metric units (newton-seconds) as specified by NASA. Lockheed Martin ( is a large multinational Aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology Company formed in 1995 by the merger of Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824 This article deals with the unit of force For the unit of mass see Pound (mass. The metric system is a decimalised system of measurement. It exists in several variations with different choices of base units, though the choice of base units does Newton-second (symbol Ns, N s or N·s) is the derived SI unit of Impulse and Momentum. .
The Orbiter had as its primary science objectives to:
Specifically it was to observe and study dust storms, weather systems, clouds and dust hazes, ozone, distribution and transport of dust and water, the effects of topography on atmospheric circulation, atmospheric response to solar heating, and surface features, wind streaks, erosion, and color changes. A cloud is a visible mass of droplets or frozen crystals floating in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another Planetary body OZONE is an object oriented Operating system written in the C programming language. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind The orbiter was to use two instruments to carry out these investigations. The Mars Climate Orbiter Color Imager (MARCI) was to acquire daily atmospheric weather images and high resolution surface images and the Pressure Modulated Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) was to allow measurement of the atmospheric temperature, water vapor abundance, and dust concentration. The orbiter was also to serve as a data relay satellite for the Mars Polar Lander and other future NASA and international lander missions to Mars.
The Mars Climate Orbiter was a box-shaped spacecraft about 2. 1 m high, 1. 6 m wide, and 2 m deep, consisting of stacked propulsion and equipment modules. The total spacecraft launch mass of 629 kg includes 291 kg of propellant. An 11 square meter solar array wing, measuring 5. 5 m tip-to-tip, is attached by 2-axis gimbal to one side and a 1. 3 m diameter high-gain dish antenna is attached by 2-axis gimbal to a mast at the top of the propulsion module. The MARCI and PMIRR instruments, as well as a UHF antenna and battery enclosure, are mounted to the bottom of the equipment module.
Propulsion was achieved via a 640 N bipropellant (hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) main engine, mounted with the propellant tanks in the propulsion module, and hydrazine thrusters. A bipropellant rocket engine is a Rocket engine that uses two propellants (very often liquid propellants) which are kept separately prior to reacting to form a hot Hydrazine is a Chemical compound with the formula N2H4 It has an Ammonia -like odor and is derived from the same industrial chemistry Nitrogen tetroxide ( dinitrogen tetroxide or nitrogen peroxide) is the Chemical compound N2O4 The orbiter was 3-axis stabilized. Attitude control and maneuvering capability was provided by four 7 N thrusters (pitch/yaw) and four 0. 3 N thrusters (roll) in combination with reaction wheels. A reaction wheel is a type of Flywheel used primarily by Spacecraft to change their Angular momentum without using fuel for Rockets or other reaction Attitude was determined using an inertial measurement unit, a star tracker, and analog Sun sensors with knowledge of 25 mrad and stability of 1. 5 mrad/(1 s) and 3 mrad/(3 s).
Spacecraft power was provided by 3 panels of GaAs/Ge solar cells on the 5. A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts Solar energy into Electricity by the photovoltaic effect. 5 meter long single-wing solar array which provide 1000 W of power at Earth and 500 W at Mars. Power was stored in nickel metal hydride (NiMH) common pressure vessel batteries. A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of Rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium ( Ni[[Cadmium Cd]] battery Thermal control was achieved through a combination of louvers, MLI, Kapton, paints, radiators and heater circuits. Kapton ® is a Polyimide film developed by DuPont which can remain stable in a wide range of temperatures from -269 °C to +400 °C (4 K - 673 K Communications with Earth were in X band using Cassini Deep Space Transponders and 15 W RF solid state power amplifiers through the 1. The X band is part of the Microwave region of the Electromagnetic spectrum. 3 m high gain antenna for both uplink and downlink, a medium gain transmitting antenna, and a low-gain receiving antenna. A 10 W UHF system was to be used for 2-way communications with the Mars Polar Lander. A RAD6000 processor was used for on-board command and data handling. The RAD6000 radiation-hardened Single board computer, based on the IBM RISC Single Chip
Mars Climate Orbiter was launched on a Delta 7425 (a Delta II Lite launch vehicle with four strap-on solid rocket boosters and a Star 48 (PAM-D) third stage). A solid rocket or a solid-fuel rocket is a Rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants ( Fuel / Oxidizer) The Star 48 is a type of solid rocket motor used by both the Space Shuttle and the New Horizons probe Launch was at 18:45:51 UT (1:45:51 p. m. EST) on December 11, 1998 from Pad A of Launch Complex 17 at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Cape Canaveral from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County Florida, United States, near the center of that After a brief cruise in Earth orbit, the Delta II 3rd stage put the spacecraft into trans-Mars trajectory and about 15 days after launch the largest trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) was executed using the hydrazine thrusters. During cruise to Mars, three additional TCM's using the hydrazine thrusters were performed on March 4, July 25, and September 15, 1999. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
The spacecraft reached Mars and executed a 16 minute 23 second orbit insertion main engine burn on September 23, 1999 at 09:01 UT (5:01 a. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) m. EDT) Earth received time (ERT, signal travel time from Mars was 10 minutes 55 seconds). The spacecraft passed behind Mars at 09:06 UT ERT and was to re-emerge and establish radio contact with Earth at 09:27 UT ERT, 10 minutes after the burn was completed. However, contact was never re-established and no further signal was ever received from the spacecraft. Findings of the failure review board indicate that a navigation error resulted from some spacecraft data being reported in Imperial units instead of metric. This caused the spacecraft to miss its intended 140–150 km altitude above Mars during orbit insertion, instead entering the martian atmosphere at about 57 km. The spacecraft would have been destroyed by atmospheric stresses and friction at this low altitude.
The burn would have slowed the spacecraft and put it into a 14 hour elliptical (~150 × 21 000 km) capture orbit. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star The orbiter was to begin aerobraking, using the solar panel to provide resistance and continue until a 90 × 405 km orbit was achieved, nominally on 22 November 1999, with periapsis at 89 N. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The hydrazine thrusters would then have been used to change the orbit to a 2-hour, 421 km near-circular polar science mapping orbit on 1 December 1999. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The orbit was to be nearly Sun-synchronous, crossing the daytime equator at about 4:30 p. m. local time. The first phase of the mission was to support the Mars Polar Lander from its landing on Mars on 3 December 1999 to the end of the lander primary mission on 29 February 2000. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Leap years Although the modern calendar counts a year as 365 days a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The orbiter would pass over the lander site 10 times per martian day for 5 to 6 minutes each time, communicating via the UHF 2-way relay link at 128 kbit/s. Mars science operations and mapping, involving operation of the MARCI and PMIRR, would initiate on 3 March 2000 and continue for one martian year (687 days). Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. At the end of the mapping mission on 15 January 2002, the orbiter was to be placed in a stable orbit and function as a UHF relay for the Mars 2001 mission. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
The metric mixup which destroyed the craft was caused by a software error back on Earth. The software was used to control thrusters on the spacecraft which were intended to control its rate of rotation, but by using the wrong units, the ground station underestimated the effect of the thrusters by a factor of 4. 45.
This is the difference between a pound force - the imperial unit - and a newton, the metric unit. This article deals with the unit of force For the unit of mass see Pound (mass. Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824 The newton (symbol N) is the SI derived unit of Force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on Classical The metric system is a decimalised system of measurement. It exists in several variations with different choices of base units, though the choice of base units does The software was working in pounds force, while the spacecraft expected figures in newtons - and 1 pound force equals approximately 4. 45 newtons.
The problem arose partly because the software had been adapted from use on the earlier Mars Climate Orbiter, without proper testing before launch, and partly because the navigation data provided by this software was not cross-checked while in flight.
The Mars Climate Orbiter thus drifted off course during its voyage and entered a much lower orbit than planned, and was destroyed by atmospheric friction.
Total project cost was $327. 6 million for both orbiter and lander (not including Deep Space 2). The Deep Space 2 mission which launched in January 1999 as part of NASA 's New Millennium Program, consisted of two highly advanced miniature Space probes Out of this, $193. 1 million were for spacecraft development, $91. 7 million for launch, and $42. 8 million for mission operations.