A marquess (pronounced /ˈmɑrkwɪs/) or marquis (/mɑrˈkiː/) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime The term is also used to render equivalent oriental styles as in imperial China and Japan. In the British peerage it ranks below a duke and above an earl. The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most Peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801 when A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom Earl was the Anglo-Saxon form and jarl the Scandinavian form of a title meaning " Chieftain " and referring especially to chieftains On the continent it is usually equivalent where a cognate title exists. A woman with the rank of marquess, or the wife of a marquess, is a marchioness, (pronounced /ˌmɑrʃəˈnɛs/) or marquise (pronounced /mɑrˈkiːz/).
Unlike the continent, in England (later Britain, ultimately the UK) the monarchy is the only authority capable of awarding hereditary titles. It managed to keep a tight grip on aristocratic titles, so the ranks of the peerage still correspond fairly neatly to the wealth of those who bear titles. The Peerage is a system of Titles of Nobility in the United Kingdom, part of the British honours system. Thus, there are currently only 34 marquessates (see list).
The first marquess in England was Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, who was created Marquess of Dublin by Richard II on 1 December 1385. Robert de Vere Duke of Ireland ( 16 January 1362 - 1392 was a Favourite, court companion and close advisor of King Richard II of England The title of Duke of Ireland was created in 1386 for Robert de Vere 9th Earl of Oxford, the favourite of King Richard II of England, who had Richard II (6 January 1367 &ndash ca 14 February 1400 was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399 Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican On 13 October 1386, the patent of this marquessate was recalled, and Robert de Vere was raised to Duke of Ireland. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees The title of Duke of Ireland was created in 1386 for Robert de Vere 9th Earl of Oxford, the favourite of King Richard II of England, who had John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, the second legitimate son of John of Gaunt, was raised to the second marquessate as Marquess of Dorset in September 1397. John Beaufort 1st Earl of Somerset (1373 &ndash March 16, 1410) was the first of the four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster John of Gaunt 1st Duke of Lancaster (second creation 1st Duke of Aquitaine (6 March 1340 &ndash 3 February 1399 was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third The title Marquess of Dorset has been created three times in the Peerage of England. In 1399, he was disgraced, and the king revoked his marquessate. The Commons petitioned Richard for his restoration but he himself objected stating "the name of marquess is a strange name in this realm". The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords From that period the title appears to have been dormant till the reign of Henry VI, when it was revived in 1442. The only woman to be created a marquess in her own right was Anne Boleyn, who was created Marquess of Pembroke in preparation for her marriage to Henry VIII. Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The investiture ceremony was held at Windsor Castle on September 1, 1532. Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle.
A British marquess is formally styled "The Most Honourable The Marquess of [X]"^ and informally styled "Lord [X]', and his wife "Lady [X]". A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the The prefix The Most Honourable is a title of quality attached to the names of Marquesses in the United Kingdom. A Lady is a Woman who is the counterpart of a Lord, as opposed to lady, the counterpart of a Gentleman. As with dukes, all sons bear the courtesy style "Lord Forename [Surname]" and all daughters bear the courtesy style "Lady Forename [Surname]". A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of Nobility used by children former wives and other close relatives of a peer. This courtesy style for the eldest son, however, is often trumped by a subsidiary title of his father, such as earl or viscount, which is used instead (especially for signing documents, the signature being only the name of the title, [X]). A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of Nobility used by children former wives and other close relatives of a peer. Earl was the Anglo-Saxon form and jarl the Scandinavian form of a title meaning " Chieftain " and referring especially to chieftains A viscount ( VAI-count is a member of the European Nobility whose comital title ranks usually as in the British peerage, above a This form of signature is true for all peers, including peers by courtesy. For example, the Marquess of Salisbury would sign his name merely "Salisbury". Marquess of Salisbury is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain.
A marquess by courtesy, however, (who would always be the heir to a dukedom, since the courtesy title of an heir must always be at least one rank below that of the peer) does not enjoy the style of "Most Honourable", but is merely known as the Marquess of [X]. The genuine marquess as a peer, however, is always the "Most Honourable the Marquess of [X]", to differentiate a marquess by courtesy (i. e. , the heir to a dukedom) from a marquess in his own right.
The spelling of the title in Scotland is very often the "marquis" variation, particularly when the title was created prior to the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707.
A British marquis is entitled to a coronet bearing eight strawberry leaves (three visible) and four silver balls (or pearls) around the rim (two visible). The actual coronet is worn mostly on certain ceremonial occasions, but a marquis can bear his coronet of rank on his coat of arms above the shield.
In Italy the equivalent modern rank (as opposed to margravio) is that of marchese, the wife of whom is a marchesa, a good example of how several languages adopted a new word derived from marquis for the modern style, thus distinguishing it from the old "military" margraves. Even where neither title was ever used domestically, such duplication to describe foreign titles can exist.
Various European monarchies created titles of various ranks, including marquess, in chief of "titles" (estates, or simply the names of places or regions) in their colonial territories overseas, e. g. , in Spanish and South America, regardless whether the ennobled families resided there.
Like other major Western noble titles, marquess or marquis is sometimes used to render certain titles in non-Western languages with their own traditions, even though they are, as a rule, historically unrelated and thus hard to compare. However, they are considered "equivalent" in relative rank.
This is the case with:
^ Although the vast majority of marquessates are named after places, and hence their holders are known as the "Marquess of X", a very few of them are named after surnames (even if not the bearer's own), and hence their holders are known as the "Marquess X". Marquess of Winchester is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1551 for the prominent statesman William Paulet. The County of Mark (Grafschaft Mark colloquially known as Die Mark) was a County of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle Operetta is a genre of light Opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter Die Fledermaus ( The Bat; in French La chauve-souris) is an Operetta composed by Johann Strauss II to a German Libretto Johann Strauss II (also known as Johann Strauss the Younger, Johann Strauss Jr In either case, he is still informally known as "Lord X", regardless whether there is an of in his title, and it is always safe to style him so.