|83 BC – 30 BC|
Bust of Mark Antony (Vatican Museums)
|Place of birth||Rome|
|Place of death||Alexandria|
|Years of service||54 BC – 30 BC|
|Commands held||Roman army|
Caesar's civil war
Battle of Mutina
Battle of Philippi
Battle of Actium
Marcus Antonius (latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N) (c. Year 83 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Sulla returns to Italy from his campaigns Year 30 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani in Viale Vaticano in Rome, inside the Vatican City, are one of the greatest museums in the world since they display works Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Year 54 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Appius Claudius Pulcher and Year 30 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military The Gallic Wars were a series of Military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes, lasting from The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. The Battle of Mutina was fought on April 21, 43 BC between the forces of Marc Antony and the forces of Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (the Second Triumvirate The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. Year 83 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Sulla returns to Italy from his campaigns Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 30 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person He was an important supporter of Gaius Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator. After Caesar's assassination, Antony formed an official political alliance with Octavian (Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, known to historians today as the Second Triumvirate. The assassination of Julius Caesar occurred in Ancient Rome on the Ides of March ( March 15) in 44 BC when a group of senators, led by Gaius Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Marcus Aemilius Lepidus ( Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVSborn ca 90 BC died 13 BC, was a Patrician Roman politician See also the Second Triumvirate (Argentina which held power in 1812
The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. The term triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men" is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC. The final war of the Roman Republic, also know as Antony's civil war or the' war between Antony and Octavian', was last of the Roman civil wars of the Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria. The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια He committed suicide, and his lover, Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, killed herself shortly thereafter. Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt
Antony was born in Rome, around 83 BC. Year 83 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Sulla returns to Italy from his campaigns His father was his namesake. Through his mother, Julia Antonia, he was a distant cousin of Caesar. His father died at a young age, leaving him and his brothers. Their mother later married Publius Cornelius Lentulus (Sura), a politician involved in and executed during the Catiline conspiracy of 63 BC. Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria
Antony's early life was characterized by a lack of parental guidance. According to historians like Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering the streets of Rome with his brothers and friends, Publius Clodius Pulcher among them. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC died January 18, 52 BC was a Roman Politician of the Populares cause chiefly remembered for his The connection was eventually severed by a disagreement arising from his relations with Clodius's wife, Fulvia. Fulvia (77 BC-40 BC was a Roman woman who lived in the 1st century BC While they were friends, they embarked on a rather wild life, frequenting gambling houses, drinking too much, and involving themselves in scandalous love affairs. Plutarch mentions the rumor that before Antony reached 20 years of age, he was already indebted to the sum of 250 talents. The talent ( Latin: talentum, from Ancient Greek: "scale balance" is an ancient unit of Mass.
After this period of recklessness, Antony fled to Greece to escape his creditors and to study rhetoric. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice After a short time spent in attendance on the philosophers at Athens, he was summoned by Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, to take part in the campaigns against Aristobulus in Judea, and in support of Ptolemy XII Auletes in Egypt. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Aulus Gabinius, Roman statesman and general and supporter of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, was a prominent figure in the later days of the Roman Ancient Rome In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was a Promagistrate (like a Propraetor) who after serving as Consul, spent a year Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For other people with this name see Aristobulus (disambiguation Aristobulus (reigned 104-103 BC was a king of the Hebrew Judea or Judæa ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Yəhuda Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, "praised Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos ( Ptolemaĩos Néos Diónusos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos) New Dionysus, God Beloved In the ensuing campaign, he demonstrated his talents as a cavalry commander and distinguished himself with bravery and courage.
In 54 BC, Antony became a member of the staff of Caesar's armies in Gaul and early Germany. Year 54 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Appius Claudius Pulcher and For Gaul before the Roman conquest see Gaul. Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in the Roman Empire, in modern day Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. He again proved to be a competent military leader in the Gallic Wars, but his personality caused instability wherever he went. The Gallic Wars were a series of Military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes, lasting from Antony and Caesar were said to be best of friends. Antony constantly helped Caesar with his wars. Nevertheless, raised by Caesar's influence to the offices of quaestor, augur, and tribune of the plebians (50 BC), he supported the cause of his patron with great energy. Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action The Augur was a priest and official in the classical world especially Ancient Rome and Etruria. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the Caesar's two proconsular commands, during a period of ten years, were expiring in 50 BC, and he wanted to return to Rome for the consular elections. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire But resistance from the conservative faction of the Roman Senate, led by Pompey, demanded that Caesar resign his proconsulship and the command of his armies before being allowed to seek re-election to the consulship. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation
This Caesar would not do, as such an act would leave him a private citizen—and therefore open to prosecution for his acts while proconsul—in the interim between his proconsulship and his second consulship; it would also leave him at the mercy of Pompey's armies. The idea was rejected, and Antony resorted to violence, ending up being expelled from the Senate. He left Rome, joining Caesar, who had led his armies to the banks of the Rubicon, the river that marked the southern limit of his proconsular authority. Rubicon ( Rubicō, Italian: Rubicone) is a 29 km long River in northern Italy. Ancient Rome In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was a Promagistrate (like a Propraetor) who after serving as Consul, spent a year With all hopes of a peaceful solution for the conflict with Pompey gone, Caesar led his armies across the river into Italy and marched on Rome, starting the last Republican civil war. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest List of Civil wars involving Rome. There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. During the civil war, Antony was Caesar's second in command. In all battles against the Pompeians, Antony led the left wing of the army, a proof of Caesar's confidence in him.
When Caesar became dictator, Antony was made Master of the Horse, the dictator's right hand man, and in this capacity remained in Italy as the peninsula's administrator in 47 BC, while Caesar was fighting the last Pompeians, who had taken refuge in the province of Africa. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations The Roman province of Africa was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War. But Antony's skills as administrator were a poor match to those as general, and he seized the opportunity of indulging in the most extravagant excesses, depicted by Cicero in the Philippics. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman A philippic is a fiery damning speech or Tirade, delivered to condemn a particular political actor In 46 BC he seems to have taken offense because Caesar insisted on payment for the property of Pompey which Antony professedly had purchased, but had in fact simply appropriated. Conflict soon arose, and, as on other occasions, Antony resorted to violence. Hundreds of citizens were killed and Rome herself descended into a state of anarchy. Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance Caesar was most displeased with the whole affair and removed Antony from all political responsibilities. The two men did not see each other for two years. The estrangement was not of long continuance, for we find Antony meeting the dictator at Narbo (45 BC) and rejecting the suggestion of Trebonius that he should join in the conspiracy that was already afoot. Reconciliation arrived in 44 BC, when Antony was chosen as partner for Caesar's fifth consulship.
Whatever conflicts existed between the two men, Antony remained faithful to Caesar at all times. On February 15, 44 BC, during the Lupercalia festival, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diadem. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor For the saint by the name 'Lupercus' see Marcellus of Tangier. A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by Eastern monarchs and others as a badge of royalty This was an event fraught with meaning: a diadem was a symbol of a king, and in refusing it, Caesar demonstrated that he did not intend to assume the throne.
On March 14, 44 BC, Antony was alarmed by a talk he had with a Senator named Casca, who told him the gods would make a strike against Caesar in the Roman Forum. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC Fearing the worst, the next day he went down to warn the dictator but the Liberatores reached Caesar first and he was assassinated on March 15, 44 B. Liberatores ("Liberators" is the Latin name that the assassins of Julius Caesar gave themselves C, the date known as the Ides of March. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. In the turmoil that surrounded the event, Antony escaped Rome dressed as a slave, fearing that the dictator's assassination would be the start of a bloodbath among his supporters. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome, discussing a truce with the assassins' faction. For a while, Antony, as consul of the year, seemed to pursue peace and the end of the political tension. Following a speech by Cicero in the Senate, an amnesty was agreed for the assassins.
Then came the day of Caesar's funeral. As Caesar's ever-present second in command, partner in consulship and cousin, Antony was the natural choice to make the funeral eulogy. A eulogy is a speech or writing in Praise of a person or thing In his speech, he sprang his accusations of murder and ensured a permanent breach with the conspirators. Friends Romans countrymen lend me your ears is the first line of a famous and often-quoted speech by Mark Antony in the play ''Julius Caesar'', by William Showing a talent for rhetoric and dramatic interpretation, Antony snatched the toga from Caesar's body to show the crowd the stab wounds, pointing at each and naming the authors, publicly shaming them. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice This article is about the aviation term for the Roman garment see Toga. During the eulogy he also read Caesar's will, which left most of his property to the people of Rome, demonstrating that, contrary to the conspirator's assertions, Caesar had no intention of forming a royal dynasty. Public opinion turned, and that night, the Roman populace attacked the assassins' houses, forcing them to flee for their lives.
Antony surrounded himself with a bodyguard of Caesar's veterans and forced the senate to transfer to him the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which was then administered by Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of the conspirators. Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later For others with this cognomen see Albinus (cognomen. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born circa 85 BC died 43 BC was a Roman politician Brutus refused to surrender the province and Antony set out to attack him in October 44 BC, besieging him at Mutina. Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Encouraged by Cicero, the Senate granted Octavian imperium (commanding power), which made his command of troops legal and sent him to relieve the siege, along with Hirtius and Pansa, the consuls for 43 BC. Year 43 BC was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. In April 43, Antony's forces were defeated at the Battles of Forum Gallorum and Mutina, forcing Antony to retreat to Transalpine Gaul. The Battle of Forum Gallorum was fought near a village in Northern Italy (perhaps near modern day Castelfranco Emilia) on April 14, 43 BC between The Battle of Mutina was fought on April 21, 43 BC between the forces of Marc Antony and the forces of Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and However, both consuls were killed, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies. 
The senate attempted to give command of the consular legions to Decimus Brutus, but Octavian refused to surrender them. In July, an embassy from Octavian entered Rome and demanded that he receive the consulship. When this was refused, he marched on the city with eight legions. He encountered no military opposition and was elected consul with his relative Quintus Pedius as colleague. Meanwhile, Antony formed an alliance with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another leading Caesarian. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus ( Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVSborn ca 90 BC died 13 BC, was a Patrician Roman politician
When they knew that Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius had assembled an army in Greece in order to march on Rome, Antony, Octavian and Lepidus allied together to stop Caesar's assassins. After the battle, a new arrangement was made between the members of the Second Triumvirate: while Octavian returned to Rome, Antony went to Egypt where he allied himself with Queen Cleopatra VII, the former lover of Julius Caesar and mother of Caesar's infant son, Caesarion. Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar Greek: Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ Lepidus went on to govern Hispania and the province of Africa.
The Parthian Empire had supported Brutus and Cassius in the civil war, sending forces which fought with them at Philippi; following Antony and Octavian's victory, the Parthians invaded Roman territory, occupying Syria, advancing into Anatolia and installing Antigonus as puppet king in Judaea to replace the pro-Roman Hyrcanus II. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Antigonus the Hasmonean was the son of King Aristobulus II of Judea. Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Hyrcanus II, a member of the Hasmonean dynasty was the Jewish High Priest and King of Judea in the 1st century BCE Antony sent his general Ventidius to oppose this invasion. Publius Ventidius Bassus was a Roman General and one of Julius Caesar 's protégées Ventidius won a series of victories against the Parthians, killing the crown prince Pacorus and expelling them from the Roman territories they had seized. Antony now planned to retaliate by invading Parthia, and secured an agreement from Octavian to supply him with extra troops for his campaign. With this military purpose on his mind, Antony sailed to Greece with his new wife, where he behaved in a most extravagant manner, assuming the attributes of the god Dionysus (39 BC). In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman But the rebellion in Sicily of Sextus Pompeius, the last of the Pompeians, kept the army promised to Antony in Italy. The Sicilian revolt was a Revolution against the Second Triumvirate which occurred between 44 BC and 36 BC. With his plans again disrupted, Antony and Octavian quarreled once more. This time with the help of his wife Octavia (Octavian's sister), a new treaty was signed in Tarentum in 38 BC. Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in The triumvirate was renewed for a period of another five years (ending in 33 BC) and Octavian promised again to send legions to the East.
But by now, Antony was skeptical of Octavian's true support of his Parthian cause. Leaving Octavia pregnant with her second child Antonia in Rome, he sailed to Alexandria, where he expected funding from Cleopatra, the mother of his twins. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt The queen of Egypt lent him the money he needed for the army, and after capturing Jerusalem and surrounding areas in 37 BC, he installed Herod the Great as puppet king of Judaea, replacing the Parthian appointee Antigonus. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Year 37 BC was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Herod (הוֹרְדוֹס Horodos, Greek: Herōdes) also known as Herod I or Herod the Great (73 BC – 4 BC in Jericho Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Antony then invaded Parthian territory with an army of about 100,000 Roman and allied troops but the campaign proved a disaster. After defeats in battle, the desertion of his Armenian allies and his failure to capture Parthian strongholds convinced Antony to retreat, his army was further depleted by the hardships of its retreat through Armenia in the depths of winter, losing more than a quarter of its strength in the course of the campaign. The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to AD 387 and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until
Meanwhile, in Rome, the triumvirate was no more. Lepidus was forced to resign after an ill-judged political move. Now in sole power, Octavian was occupied in wooing the traditional Republican aristocracy to his side. He married Livia and started to attack Antony in order to raise himself to power. Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Julia Augusta ( Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA IVLIA•AVGVSTA (58 BC-29 AD was the wife of He argued that Antony was a man of low morals to have left his faithful wife abandoned in Rome with the children to be with the promiscuous queen of Egypt. Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings Antony was accused of everything, but most of all, of "becoming native", an unforgivable crime to the proud Romans. Several times Antony was summoned to Rome, but remained in Alexandria with Cleopatra.
Again with Egyptian money, Antony invaded Armenia, this time successfully. In the return, a mock Roman Triumph was celebrated in the streets of Alexandria. A Roman triumph ( la [[wikttriumphus triumphus]], Old Latin la triumpus, attested as the exclamation la TRIVMPE in the Carmen Arvale; via The parade through the city was a pastiche of Rome's most important military celebration. The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic Genre. For the finale, the whole city was summoned to hear a very important political statement. Surrounded by Cleopatra and her children, Antony was about to put an end to his alliance with Octavian. He distributed kingdoms between his children: Alexander Helios was named king of Armenia and Media and Parthia (which were never conquered by Rome), his twin Cleopatra Selene got Cyrenaica and Libya, and the young Ptolemy Philadelphus was awarded Syria and Cilicia. Alexander Helios ( Greek: ο Αλέξανδρος Ήλιος, 25 December 40 BC - between 29 BC - 25 BC was a Ptolemaic prince and was the eldest The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Cleopatra Selene may refer to Cleopatra Selene I, daughter of Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III of Egypt Cleopatra Selene II, also Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Ptolemy Philadelphus (ο Πτολεμαίος Φιλάδελφος August/September 36 BC - 29 BC was a Ptolemaic Prince and was the youngest child of Greek Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria As for Cleopatra, she was proclaimed Queen of Kings and Queen of Egypt, to rule with Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Caesar, son of Julius Caesar), King of Kings and King of Egypt. Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar Greek: Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ Most important of all, Caesarion was declared legitimate son and heir of Caesar. These proclamations were known as the Donations of Alexandria and caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Rome. The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political statement by Mark Antony in which he distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia
Distributing insignificant lands among the children of Cleopatra was not a peace move, but it was not a serious problem either. What did seriously threaten Octavian's political position, however, was the acknowledgement of Caesarion as legitimate and heir to Caesar's name. Octavian's base of power was his link with Caesar through adoption, which granted him much-needed popularity and loyalty of the legions. In Ancient Rome, Adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure particularly in the upper senatorial class To see this convenient situation attacked by a child borne by the richest woman in the world was something Octavian could not accept. The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed. Another civil war was beginning.
During 33 and 32 BC, a propaganda war was fought in the political arena of Rome, with accusations flying between sides. Antony (in Egypt) divorced Octavia and accused Octavian of being a social upstart, of usurping power, and of forging the adoption papers by Caesar. Octavian responded with treason charges: of illegally keeping provinces that should be given to other men by lots, as was Rome's tradition, and of starting wars against foreign nations (Armenia and Parthia) without the consent of the Senate. Cleromancy is a form of Divination using Sortition, casting of lots or casting bones in which an outcome is determined by means that normally would be considered Antony was also held responsible for Sextus Pompeius' execution with no trial. In 32 BC, the Senate deprived him of his powers and declared war against Cleopatra. Both consuls (Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius) and a third of the Senate abandoned Rome to meet Antony and Cleopatra in Greece. Gaius Sosius, was a Roman general and politician Gaius Sosius was elected Quaestor in 66 BC and Praetor in 49 BC.
In 31 BC, the war started. Octavian's loyal and talented general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa captured the Greek city and naval port of Methone, loyal to Antony. Agrippa redirects here For other uses of the name see Agrippa (disambiguation. The enormous popularity of Octavian with the legions secured the defection of the provinces of Cyrenaica and Greece to his side. On September 2, the naval Battle of Actium took place. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony Antony and Cleopatra's navy was destroyed, and they were forced to escape to Egypt with 60 ships.
Octavian, now close to absolute power, did not intend to give them rest. In August 30 BC, assisted by Agrippa, he invaded Egypt. With no other refuge to escape to, Antony committed suicide by stabbing himself with his sword in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done so (30 BC). Probably within two weeks following his death, Cleopatra committed suicide. Her servants, Iras and Charmion, also killed themselves, and Caesarion was murdered. Charmian (alternately Charmion, Greek Χάρμιον was a trusted servant and advisor to the historical Cleopatra VII of Egypt. Antony's daughters by Octavia were spared, as was his son, Iullus Antonius. Iullus Antonius (43 BC-2 BC also known as Iulus, Julus or Jullus, was the second son of Mark Antony and his third wife Fulvia. But his elder son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus, was killed by Octavian's men while pleading for his life in the Caesarium. Marcus Antonius Antyllus (47 BC - 1 August 30 BC or Marcus Antonius Minor ( Minor, Latin for the younger) also known as Antonius or Antyllus
When Antony died, Octavian became uncontested ruler of Rome. In the following years, Octavian, who was known as Augustus after 27 BC, managed to accumulate in his person all administrative, political, and military offices. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was When Augustus died in 14 AD, his political powers passed to his adopted son Tiberius; the Roman Principate had begun. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century,
The rise of Caesar and the subsequent civil war between his two most powerful adherents effectively ended the credibility of the Roman oligarchy as a governing power and ensured that all future power struggles would centre upon which of two (or more) individuals would achieve supreme control of the government, rather than upon an individual in conflict with the Senate. Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Thus Antony, as Caesar's key adherent and one of the two men around whom power coalesced following his assassination, was one of the three men chiefly responsible for the fall of the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the
Antony had been married in succession to Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia, Octavia and Cleopatra VII and left behind him a number of children. Through his daughters by Octavia, he would be ancestor to the Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31 AD 12 &ndash January 24 AD 41 more commonly known by his nickname Caligula (kəˈlɪɡjʊlə was a Roman Emperor Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called
Fictional works in which the character of Mark Anthony plays a central role include
Gaius Julius Caesar without colleague
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
with Gaius Julius Caesar and Publius Cornelius Dolabella (suffectus)
Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Lucius Cornificius and Sextus Pompeius
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
with Lucius Scribonius Libo and Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (suffectus)
Imperator Caesar Augustus and Lucius Volcatius Tullus
This is a list of Roman consuls Key Abbreviations Imp = Imperator suff The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Publius Cornelius Dolabella, 70 BC - 43 BC, was a Roman general by far the most important of the Dolabellae a Plebian family Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Aulus Hirtius (ca 90-43 BC was one of the Consuls of Ancient Rome immediately after the Assassination of Julius Caesar, and a Writer Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d 43 BC Consul of the Roman Republic in 43 BC Lucius Cornificius, a member of the Plebeian Gens Cornificia, was a Roman politician and Consul in 35 BC. This is a list of Roman consuls Key Abbreviations Imp = Imperator suff The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the There were three men of Plebs status called Lucius Scribonius Libo who lived in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire who were members of the Gens Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (d 13 BC was a member of the Roman Senate. Year 34 BC was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Lucius Volcatius Tullus, was a Roman politician and Consul. He was the son of Lucius Volcatius Tullus; the consul of 66 BC.