Marie Aimée de Rohan-Montbazon, duchesse de Chevreuse (1600- August 12, 1679) was a French aristocrat of great personal charm who placed herself at the center of all the intrigues of the first half of the 17th century in France. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar
Marie de Rohan, styled "Mlle de Montbazon", was the daughter of Hercule de Rohan, duc de Montbazon of the House of Rohan, possessed of great estates in Brittany and Anjou. See Rohan (disambiguation for other uses of the word The house of Rohan was a family of Viscounts later Dukes and In September 1617 she married the Grand Constable (supreme commander of the French armies) Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes, a favourite of Louis XIII; he formed her taste for unscrupulous political intrigue, introducing her at court, where she gained the confidence of both king and queen. The Constable of France (connétable de France from Latin comes stabuli for " Count of the stables" as the First Officer of the Crown was one Charles d'Albert duc de Luynes ( August 5, 1578 - December 15, 1621) was Constable of France and the first Duke of Luynes In December 1618, Louis XIII named her surintendante of the Queen's household, ousting the connétable de Montmorency. Henri I de Montmorency-Damville ( June 15 1534 - April 2 1614) Marshal of France, and Constable of France, seigneur of Her influence with the queen consort Anne of Austria was unrivalled. A queen consort is the title given to the wife of a reigning king. For the queen consort of Sigismund III of Poland see Anna of Austria (1573-1598 For the queen consort of Philip II of Spain see Anna of Austria In 1620 she gave birth to Louis-Charles d'Albert, for whom Louis XIII stood godfather.
After Luynes died in combat in 1621, she married Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Chevreuse 21 April 1622. Duke of Chevreuse ( French Duc de Chevreuse) was a French title of nobility elevated from the barony of Chevreuse in 1545 From this second marriage she had three daughters. Two of them were religious, Anne-Marie de Lorraine (1625-1652), abbess of Pont-aux-Dames, and Henriette de Lorraine (1631-1693), abbess of Jouarre and later at Port-Royal. The Convent of Port-Royal was built in Paris in 1626 as an off-shoot of Port-Royal-des-Champs, the stronghold of Jansenist thought in France The third daughter, Charlotte-Marie de Lorraine (1627-1652), having failed to wed Armand de Bourbon, Prince de Conti, became the mistress of Cardinal de Retz and played a role in the Fronde, never having married. Armand de Bourbon Prince de Conti (1629 &ndash 1666 was the second son of Henry II Prince of Condé and brother of Louis II de Bourbon Prince de Condé and Jean François Paul de Gondi cardinal de Retz ( September 29, 1613 – August 24, 1679) was a French churchman writer of memoirs and agitator La Fronde (1648–1653 was a Civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635
Friend and confidante of the Queen, she was banished from Court after an incident in which she had encouraged the pregnant queen in boisterous games in the corridors of the Louvre, resulting in a mishap and the abortion of the child. The duc de Chevreuse used all his influence to have her reintegrated at Court.
In her attempts at regaining her lost position, she provoked or encouraged the conspiracies of the court, such as the Buckingham affair (1623-24) that compromised the Queen, which she instigated with the connivance of her English lover, Henry Rich, later created Earl of Holland, and of the highest-ranking aristocrats against Richelieu, such as her complicity in the conspiracy of her lover, the comte de Chalais, that she set up in 1626, with the unlikely intention of replacing Louis XIII with his brother, Gaston d'Orléans, for which Chalais, deeply embroiled, lost his head, 19 August 1626, while the duchesse de Chevreuse fled to Lorraine, where she soon carried on an affair with Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, who intervened on her behalf to allow her back in France; once she was reestablished at Dampierre, her subversion of royal power continued. Henry Rich 1st Earl of Holland (baptized August 19, 1590 &ndash March 9, 1649) was the son of Robert Rich 1st Earl of Warwick and This article is about a cardinal For information on the Russian also called The Red Eminence, see Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov. Henri de Talleyrand-Périgord comte de Chalais (1599–1626 was a favourite of Louis XIII of France. Gaston Jean-Baptiste de France, duc d'Orléans, ( April 25, 1608 &ndash February 2, 1660, Blois) was the third son of Lorraine (Lorraine Lothringen is a historical area in present-day northeast France. Charles IV ( April 5 1604 &ndash September 18 1675) was Duke of Lorraine from 1624 to 1634 when he abdicated under French pressure
She was at the center of all the intrigues that involved foreign powers against France: negotiations with the duchy of Lorraine and with Spain conducted by Charles de l'Aubespine, marquis de Châteauneuf, keeper of the seals, who ruined himself on her behalf, revealing to her the councils of the king (1633). Lorraine (Lorraine Lothringen is a historical area in present-day northeast France. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Charles de l'Aubespine marquis de Châteauneuf (1580-1653 was a French diplomat and government official Secret exchanges of correspondence with Spain carried out by Anne of Austria were unmasked in 1637, requiring Mme de Chevreuse to flee to Spain, then to England and finally to Flanders. She was involved in the conspiracy of the comte de Soissons (1641) and at the death of the king, a clause in the testament of succession forbade the return to France of the Duchess: a decision of the parlement of Paris was required to break the will. Louis of Bourbon-Soissons, Count of Soissons, (1604-1641 was the son of Charles de Bourbon Comte de Soissons and Anne de Montafié. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament.
After the death of Richelieu, once again in France, she conspired at the center of the cabale des Importants led by Chateauneuf against Mazarin, in 1643; with the arrest and exile of César de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme she too fled once again. Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino ( July 14 1602 &ndash March 9 1661) was an accomplished French statesman César of Bourbon-Vendôme (César I Duke of Vendôme Beaufort and Etampes ( Château de Coucy, 3 June 1594 &ndash Paris, 22 October During the Fronde, she came closer to Mazarin for a time (1649-1650), but then she switched back to the aristocratic party when the parliamentary Fronde and the aristocratic Fronde joined forces in 1651. La Fronde (1648–1653 was a Civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635
She died in retirement in the convent of Gagny (Seine-Saint-Denis département) in 1679. Gagny is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 14 Seine-Saint-Denis is a French department located in the Île-de-France region. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative
She was a tempting subject for colorful biography in the Romantic era: Alexandre Dumas, père entangles her in the plots of The Three Musketeers and Twenty Years After, in which Raoul, the hero of the third novel of Dumas' trilogy, is the secret son of La Chevreuse and the musketeer Athos. The Three Musketeers ( Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a Novel by Alexandre Dumas père. Twenty Years After ( Vingt ans après) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas père. Athos (born c 1595; died 1661 is a Fictional character in the novels The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and Gaetano Donizetti's tragic opera Maria di Rohan, which debuted at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna, 5 June 1843, followed by a success in Paris in November, was freely based on the conspiracy of Chalais. Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 &ndash 8 April 1848 was an Italian composer from Bergamo, Lombardy. Maria di Rohan is a Melodramma tragico, or tragic Opera, in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Theater am Kärntnertor or Kärntnertortheater was a prestigious Theater in Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Victor Cousin published a more serious biography in 1856 Modern biographies are by Denis Tillinac (L'Ange du désordre, (Paris: Robert Laffont) 1985, by Christian Bouyer, La Duchesse de Chevreuse : L'Indomptable et voluptueuse adversaire de Louis XIII (Paris: Pygmalion-Gérard Watelet) 2002, and by Georges Poisson (Paris:Librairie Académique Perrin) 1999. Victor Cousin ( 28 November 1792 - 13 January 1867) was a French Philosopher. The most recent biography in English is H. Noel Williams, A Fair Conspirator: Marie de Rohan, Duchesse de Chevreuse 2005.