Margarine (pronounced /ˈmɑrdʒərɪn/ or /ˈmɑrgəriːn/), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk. In many parts of the world, margarine has become the best-selling table spread, although butter and olive oil also command large market shares. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Margarine is an ingredient in the preparation of many other foods. In some regions people may refer to margarine as butter in informal speech, but in several countries laws forbid food packaging to refer to margarine as "butter". Recipes sometimes refer to margarine as oleo.
Margarine has a long and sometimes confusing history. Its name originates with the discovery by Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1813 of "margaric acid" (itself named after the pearly deposits of the fatty acid from Greek μαργαρίς, -ρῖτης or μάργαρον (margarís, -îtēs / márgaron), meaning "a pearl-oyster" or "a pearl"). Michel Eugène Chevreul ( August 31, 1786 &ndash April 9, 1889) was a French Chemist whose work with Fatty acids Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Scientists at the time regarded margaric acid, like oleic acid and stearic acid, as one of the three fatty acids which, in combination, formed most animal fats. Oleic acid is a Monounsaturated omega-9 Fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources Stearic acid (first syllable rhymes with either bear or gear) ( IUPAC Systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is a saturated In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water In 1853 the German structural chemist Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz analyzed margaric acid as simply a combination of stearic acid and of the previously unknown palmitic acid. Year 1853 ( MDCCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz (1817 &ndash 1880 was a German structural Chemist who earned his PhD at Berlin in 1844 under Heinrich Rose. Palmitic acid,CH3(CH214COOH or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is one of the most common saturated Fatty acids found in animals
In 1869 Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory substitute for butter, suitable for use by the armed forces and the lower classes. Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types  French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés invented a substance he called oleomargarine, the name of which became shortened to the trade name "Margarine". A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés ( Draguignan 24 October 1817 - Paris 31 May 1880) was a French Chemist who Margarine now refers generically to any of a range of broadly similar edible oils. A genericized trademark (also known as a generic trademark or proprietary eponym) is a Trademark or Brand name that has become the colloquial Cooking oil is purified Fat of Plant or Animal origin which is liquid at room temperature The name oleomargarine is sometimes abbreviated to oleo.
Manufacturers produced oleomargarine by taking clarified vegetable fat, extracting the liquid portion under pressure, and then allowing it to solidify. Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. When combined with butyrin and water, it made a cheap and more-or-less palatable butter-substitute. Butyrin, also known as tributyrin, is any of the three Isomeric glyceryl Esters of Butyric acid, naturally present in Butter Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Sold as Margarine or under any of a host of other trade names, butter-substitutes soon became a substantial market segment — but too late to help Mège-Mouriés: although he expanded his initial manufacturing operation from France to the United States in 1873, he had little commercial success. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common By the end of the decade both the old world and the new could buy artificial butters. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia.
From that time on, two main trends would dominate the margarine industry: on one hand a series of refinements and improvements to the product and its manufacture, and on the other a long and bitter struggle with the dairy industry, which defended itself from the margarine industry with vigor. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal Milk &mdashmostly from goats or cows, but also from buffalo, Sheep As early as 1877 the first U.S. states had passed laws to restrict the sale and labelling of margarine. Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United States of America —commonly referred to as the By the mid-1880s the United States federal government had introduced a tax of two cents per pound, and devotees needed an expensive license to make or sell the product. Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of Electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered Individual states began to require the clear labelling of margarine, banning passing it off as real butter.
The key to slowing margarine sales (and protecting the established dairy industries), however, emerged as restricting its color. Margarine naturally appears white or almost white: by forbidding the addition of artificial coloring-agents, legislators found that they could keep margarine off kitchen tables. Bans on coloration became commonplace around the world and endured for almost 100 years. It did not become legal to sell colored margarine in Australia, for example, until the 1960s. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
In the United States, the color bans, drafted by the butter lobby, began in the dairy states of New York and New Jersey. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. In several states, the legislature enacted laws to force margarine manufacturers to add pink colorings to make the product look unpalatable, but the Supreme Court struck down New Hampshire's law and overruled these measures. By the start of the 20th century, eight out of ten Americans could not buy yellow margarine, and those that could had to pay a hefty tax on it. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Bootleg colored margarine became common, and manufacturers began to supply food-coloring capsules so that the consumer could knead the yellow color into margarine before serving it. Nevertheless, the regulations and taxes had a significant effect: the 1902 restrictions on margarine color, for example, cut annual U. S. consumption from 120 million to 48 million pounds (54,000 to 22,000 tons). Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United However, by the end of the 1910s, it had become more popular than ever.
With the coming of World War I, margarine consumption increased enormously, even in unscathed regions like the United States. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In the countries closest to the fighting, dairy products became almost unobtainable and were strictly rationed. Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services The United Kingdom, for example, depended on imported butter from Australia and New Zealand and the risk of submarine attack meant that little arrived. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability Margarine became the staple spread, and butter a rare and expensive luxury. A staple food is a Food that forms the basis of a Traditional diet. In Economics, a luxury good is a good for which Demand increases more than proportionally as income rises in contrast to a "necessity good"
The long-running rent-seeking battle between the margarine and dairy lobbies continued: in the United States, the Great Depression brought a renewed wave of pro-dairy legislation; the Second World War, a swing back to margarine. In Economics, rent seeking occurs when an individual organization or firm seeks to make money by manipulating the economic and/or legal environment rather than by trade and Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Post-war, the margarine lobby gained power and, little by little, the main margarine restrictions were lifted, the last state to do so being Wisconsin in 1967. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. However, some vestiges of the legal restrictions remain in the U. S. : the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act still prohibits the retail sale of margarine in packages larger than one pound . The United States Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA FDCA or FD&C is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the 
In Canada, margarine was banned from 1886 until 1948 though this ban was temporarily lifted from 1917 until 1923 due to dairy shortages.  Nevertheless, bootleg margarine was produced in neighboring British colony of Newfoundland from whale, seal and fish oil by the Newfoundland Butter Company (which, in fact, produced only margarine) and was smuggled to Canada where it was widely sold for half the price of butter. Newfoundland may refer to Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province (known simply as Newfoundland from 1949 to 2001 Eastern part of Canada The Capital of Newfoundland The Supreme Court of Canada lifted the margarine ban in 1948. The Supreme Court of Canada ( French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian In 1950, as a result of a court ruling giving provinces the right to regulate the product, rules were implemented in much of Canada regarding margarine's color requiring it to be bright yellow or orange in some provinces or colorless in others. By the 1980s most provinces had lifted the restriction, however, in Ontario it was not legal to sell butter-colored margarine until 1995. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec  As of 2008, Quebec, which requires margarine to be colorless, is the only jurisdiction in North America to regulate the color of margarine. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Quebec's margarine law was upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2005. 
In the meantime, margarine manufacturers had made many changes. Modern margarine can be made from any of a wide variety of animal or vegetable fats, and is often mixed with skimmed milk, salt, and emulsifiers. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Margarine made from vegetable oils is especially important in today's market, as it provides a vegan and pareve substitute for butter. See also Kashrut Kosher foods are those that conform to the regulations of Jewish religion Nearly all margarine is salted, which makes shortening (which contains no salt) a better choice for baking. Shortening is a semisolid Fat used in food preparation especially baked goods and is so called because it promotes a "short" or crumbly texture (as in Shortbread
In terms of microstructure, margarine is a water-in-oil emulsion, containing dispersed water droplets of typically 5-10 µm diameter. An emulsion ( IPA: /ɪˈmʌlʃən/ is a mixture of two Immiscible (unblendable liquids The amount of crystallizing fat in the continuous oil+fat phase determines the firmness of the product. Crystallization is the (natural or artificial process of formation of solid Crystals precipitating from a homogeneous --> identical Solution In the relevant temperature range, saturated fats contribute most to the amount of crystalline fat, whereas monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats contribute relatively little to the amount of crystalline fat in the product. Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health see Diet and heart disease. In nutrition polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated Fatty acid. Mono- and polyunsaturated fats and oils can be transformed into suitable substrates by the chemical process of hydrogenation, which renders them solid at room temperature. Hydrogenation is the Chemical reaction that results in addition of Hydrogen (H2 Full hydrogenation results in saturated fats only, but partial hydrogenation will lead to the formation of trans-fats as well (see Trans fat). Trans fat is the common name for a type of Unsaturated fat with trans - isomer Fatty acid (s
Three main types of margarine are common:
Many popular table spreads today are blends of margarine and butter — something that was long illegal in countries including the United States and Australia — and are designed to combine the lower cost and easy-spreading of artificial butter with the taste of the real thing.
Margarine, particularly polyunsaturated margarine, has become a major part of the Western diet. In the United States, for example, in 1930 the average person ate over 18 lb (8 kg) of butter a year and just over 2 lb (900g) of margarine. By the end of the 20th century, an average American ate just under 4 lb (1. 8 kg) of butter and nearly 8 lb (3. 6 kg) of margarine.
Under European Union directives, margarine products cannot be called "butter", even if most of it consists of natural butter. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in In some European countries butter based table spreads and margarine products are marketed as "butter mixtures".
These "butter mixtures" compose a significant portion of the table spread market. The brand "I Can't Believe It's Not Butter" spawned a variety of similarly-named spreads that can be found on supermarket shelves all over the world. I Can't Believe It's Not Butter is a brand of Margarine produced by Becel /Flora/Promise which is a subsidiary of Unilever. With names like "Utterly Butterly," "You'd Butter Believe it," "Unbelievable! This Is Not Butter," and "Butterlicious," these butter mixtures avoid the restrictions on labeling with marketing techniques that imply a strong similarity to real butter.
The United States imports 10 billion pounds (4. 5 million tons) of margarine a year. Additionally, the United States exports 2 billion pounds (900,000 tons) of margarine annually.
Margarine has a particular market to Orthodox Jews. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized The laws of Kashrut (the Jewish dietary laws) forbid the mixing of meat and dairy products, and hence there are strictly Kosher margarines available, which are often used by Jews adapting recipes that use meat and butter to be Kosher. Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, he כַּשְׁרוּת refers to Jewish dietary laws.
Discussions concerning the nutritional value of margarine revolve around two aspects: the total amount of fat, and the types of fat (saturated fat, trans fat). Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs Trans fat is the common name for a type of Unsaturated fat with trans - isomer Fatty acid (s Usually, a comparison between margarine and butter is included in this context as well.
Fat is an essential part of nutrition. It is needed in the production of cell membranes, as well as in several hormone-like compounds called eicosanoids. In addition, fat acts as carrier for fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.
The total amount of fat you eat isn't really linked with disease. However, fat consumption in the Western world is quite high, which is one of the reasons for weight problems. Traditional margarine (~80% fat) contributes to this, but is not the main factor causing over-consumption. Low-fat spreads could serve as an alternative, and are widely available.
The roles of butter and margarine are quite similar with respect to their energy content.
The saturated fatty acids in triglycerides contribute to elevated blood cholesterol levels, which in turn has often been linked to cardiovascular diseases. Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs Saturated fat increases both LDL and HDL cholesterol.
Vegetable fats can contain anything between 10% and 100% saturated fatty acids. Liquid oils (unhardened canola oil, sunflower oil) tend to be on the low end, while tropical oils (coconut oil, palm kernal oil) and fully hardened oils are at the high end of the scale. Canola is a type of Edible oil derived from plants initially bred in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson in the 1970s The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family Palm oil is an edible plant oil derived from the Fruit of the Arecaceae Elaeis Oil palm. A margarine blend is a mixture of both types of components, and will rarely exceed 50% saturated fatty acids on fat. Exceptions are some traditional kitchen margarines or products that have to maintain stability under tropical conditions.  Generally, firmer margarines contain more saturated fat.
Regular butterfat contains ~65% saturated fatty acids on fat , although this varies somewhat with season. One tablespoon of butter contains over 7g of saturated fat.
The unsaturated fatty acids are said to decrease LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) levels and increase HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol) levels in the blood, thus reducing the risk of contracting cardiovascular diseases. An unsaturated fat is a Fat or Fatty acid in which there are one or more Double bonds in the fatty acid chain .
There are two types of unsaturated oils: mono- and polyunsaturated fats. Their nutritional and health effects are recognized in contrast to saturated fats; each degree of unsaturation conferring additional benefits. Some widely grown vegetable oils such as rapeseed (and its variant canola), sunflower, safflower, and olive oils contain high amount of unsaturated fats. Rapeseed ( Brassica napus) also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and (in the case of one particular group of Canola is a type of Edible oil derived from plants initially bred in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson in the 1970s The sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) is an Annual plant in the family Asteraceae and native to the Americas, with a large flowering Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L) is a highly branched Herbaceous, Thistle -like annual usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern During the manufacture of margarine, some of the unsaturated fats are converted into saturated fats or trans fats in order to give them a higher melting point so that they are solid at room temperatures. These hydrogenated oils lose the health benefits of unsaturation, but the process need not be declared to the consumer; it will depend on local laws.
Several large studies  indicate a link between consumption of high amounts of trans fat and coronary heart disease, and possibly some other diseases. Trans fat is the common name for a type of Unsaturated fat with trans - isomer Fatty acid (s This is mainly because trans fats increase the amount of LDL cholesterol and decrease the amount of HDL cholesterol in blood stream. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association (AHA) all have recommended people to limit intake of trans-fat. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (or NHLBI) is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda The American Heart Association (AHA is a Non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate
Trans fats occur naturally in vegetable oils in only tiny quantities. However, they are a deliberate consequence of partial hydrogenation of light oils, intended to 'harden' the oil sufficiently for it to take on the eating quality of butter oil. In contrast, full hydrogenation generates few trans fats, but is intended to turn light oils into fully saturated fats, principally used in commercial vegetable shortenings for baking. The intended effect of partial hydrogenation is to straighten the molecule of polyunsaturated fatty acids, so that they behave more like saturated fats. These trans fatty acids are used by the body like saturated fats, mainly as fuel, but tend to block the use of Omega-3 and Omega-6 for vital bodily functions. They have been indicted as worse for health than even the well-publicized saturated fats in butter and meat. 
Particularly in the US, partial hydrogenation has been common as a result of national dependence on a limited number of vegetable oil sources, US-grown oils being preferred to tropical oils which are principally saturated fat. However, in other parts of the world, the industry started to move away from using partially hydrogenated oils in the mid-nineties.  This led to the production of new margarine varieties that contain less or no trans fat, the buttery consistency and 'mouth' being produced using other ingredients.  Many manufacturers in the US now label their products (following government regulations) as "zero grams" trans-fat, which effectively means less than 500 mg trans-fat per serving - no fat is entirely free of trans fats. For example, natural butterfat contains 2-5% trans fatty acids (mainly trans-vaccenic acid, a variant of the normal vaccenic acid). 
Typically about 70% of human cholesterol is produced by the human body and only 30% comes from nutrition. Thus intake of cholesterol as food has less effect on blood cholesterol levels than the type of fat you eat. However, some individuals are more responsive to dietary cholesterol than others. In the US, the FDA states that healthy people should not consume more than 300 mg of cholesterol each day.
Plant sterol esters or plant stanol esters have been added to some margarines and spreads because of their cholesterol lowering effect. Sterol esters are a heterogeneous group of Chemical compounds known to reduce the level of Low-density lipoprotein (LDL Cholesterol in Blood Stanol ester is a heterogeneous group of Chemical compounds known to reduce the level of Low-density lipoprotein (LDL Cholesterol in Blood when Several studies have indicated that consumption of about 2 grams per day provides a reduction in LDL cholesterol of about 10%. Sterol/stanol esters are tasteless and odorless, and have the same physical and chemical properties typical of most fats. However, they do not enter the the blood stream but instead pass through the gut. Thus they suit well to be used in low-fat spreads.