Mark from the Old English mearc and march (or various plural forms of these words) derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary"), refer to a border region, e. Old Frankish was the language of the Franks and it is classified as a West Germanic language. g. the borderland between England and Wales, similar to a frontier. A frontier is a Political and Geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature During the Frankish Carolingian Dynasty, the word spread throughout Europe. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the In contrast to a buffer zone, a march could be dominated by a country, and rather than being demilitarized, it could be fortified for defense against the neighbouring country. In geography a buffer zone is any zonal area that serves the purpose of keeping two or more other areas (often but not necessarily countries) distant from one another
Although a march generally circumscribed the same or similar land area as a county, it held its distinction from a normal county due to its more important position at the border of the state. A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. A march was ruled over by a Marquess (English pronunciation) or a Marquis (French or Scottish pronunciation), or nobles with corresponding titles in the other European states. A marquess (ˈmɑrkwɪs or marquis (/mɑrˈkiː/ is a Nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A marquess (ˈmɑrkwɪs or marquis (/mɑrˈkiː/ is a Nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people (The equivalent feminine titles of marchioness and marquise respectively may be used by the wife of a titleholder or by a woman holding the rank in her own right. ) In comparison, regular counties were ruled over by counts. A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin
The name of Denmark preserves the memory of the Old Norse cognates merki ("boundary") mörk ("wood", "forest"), up to the present. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe
A sense of the dangerous "otherness" of the marches, where the king's writ did not run, as seen from the secure cultural homeground in feasting hall or palace, is suggested in Beowulf by the lakeside marsh of the monstrous Grendel: "the fell and fen his fastness was, the march his haunt". Several things are commonly known as Halls or halls. For the development of meaning of the word 'hall' see Hall (concept. A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between Grendel is one of three Antagonists along with Grendel's mother and the Dragon, in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf
See also: List of marches
The Frankish word marka and the Old English word mearc both come from Proto-Germanic *marko, which itself comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *mereg-, meaning "edge, boundary". This is a list of European medieval marches Northeastern marches At the beginning of his rule as king of Germany, Otto I tried to reorganize his realm to prepare Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English The root *mereg- gave Armenian marz("border, land"), Latin margo ("margin"), Old Irish mruig ("borderland"), Persian marz ("border, land") and Norse mörk ("borderland, forest"). The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or rather the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age It seems in Old English "mark" meant "boundary", or "sign of a boundary", and the meaning later evolved into "sign in general", "impression or trace forming a sign". The word "march" in the sense of borderland was borrowed from French marche, which had borrowed it from Frankish. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The word "mark" in the sense of borderland is a modern borrowing from German Mark, though in some cases it is simply short for Markgrafschaft. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Margrave (marchio is the English and French form (recorded since 1551 of the German Title Markgraf (from Mark "
The specific subdivisions of Armenia are each called Marz, possibly a loanword from Persian into Armenian or an Armenian loanword into Persian. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Administrative divisions The following is a list of the provinces with population area and density information
The national anthem of Azerbaijan is "The March of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South " The land belonging to today's nation was in the 19th century Russia's march bordering Iran, the nation which remains the ruler of two-thirds of the Azeri population. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.
See Krajina and Military Frontier. Krajina is a Slavic Toponym. Ethymology In Croatian, it refers to area around certain smaller city Military Frontier (Military Border Military Krajina Vojna Krajina, Војна Крајина, Militärgrenze, Confiniaria militaria, Határőrvidék
Beyond the province of Septimania, after some early setbacks, Charlemagne's son Louis took Barcelona from the Moorish emir in 801. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Marca Hispanica (or Spanish March, also March of Barcelona) was a Buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Thus he established a foothold in the borderland between the Franks and the Moors. The Carolingian "Hispanic Marches" (Marca Hispánica) became a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona, with its own outlying small separate territories, each ruled by a lesser miles with armed retainers, who theoretically owed allegiance through the Count to the Emperor, or with less fealty to his Carolingian and Ottonian successors. The Marca Hispanica (or Spanish March, also March of Barcelona) was a Buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne The Count of Barcelona was the major ruler in Catalonia from the 9th until the 17th century Each was the catlá ("castellan" or lord of the castle) in an area largely defined by a day's ride, the region dotted with strongholds becoming known by them, like Castile at a later date, as "Catalunya. " Counties in the Pyrenees that appeared in the 9th century as appanages of the counts of Barcelona included Cerdanya, Girona and Urgell. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés An apanage or appanage is the grant of an estate titles offices or other things of value to the younger male children of a sovereign who under the system of Cerdanya (Ceritania Cerdagne Cerdaña is a small region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain and which is historically one of the Girona ( Catalan: Girona ʒiˈɾonə Spanish: Gerona xeˈɾona is a city located in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain Urgell (Spanish Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya.
In the early 9th century, Charlemagne issued his new kind of land grant the aprisio, which redisposed land belonging to the Imperial fisc in deserted areas, and included special rights and immunities that resulted in a range of independence of action. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Under the Merovingians and Carolingians the fisc (Root word of "fiscal" applied to the royal Demesne which paid taxes entirely in kind Historians interpret the aprisio both as the basis of feudalism and in economic and military terms as a mechanism to entice settlers to a depopulated border region. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Such self-sufficient landholders would aid the counts in providing armed men in defense of the Frankish frontier. A frontier is a Political and Geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature Aprisio grants (the first ones were in Septimania) emanated directly from the Carolingian king, and they reinforced central loyalties, to counterbalance the local power exercised by powerful marcher counts. Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to
But communications were arduous, and the power center was far away. Primitive feudal entities developed, self-sufficient and agrarian, each ruled by a small hereditary military elite. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The sequence in Catalonia exhibits a pattern that emerges similarly in marches everywhere. The Count is appointed by the king (from 802), the appointment settles on the heirs of a strong count (Sunifred) and the appointment becomes a formality, until the position is declared hereditary (897) and then the County declares itself independent (by Borrell II in 985). At each stage the de facto situation precedes the de jure assertion, which merely regularizes an existing fact of life. This is feudalism in the larger landscape. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed
Certain of the Counts aspired to the characteristically Frankish (Germanic) title "Margrave of the Hispanic March, a "margrave" being a graf ("count") of the march. Margrave (marchio is the English and French form (recorded since 1551 of the German Title Markgraf (from Mark "
The early History of Andorra provides a fairly typical career of another such buffer state, the only modern survivor in the Pyrenees of the Hispanic Marches. Andorra is the last independent survivor of the Marca Hispanica, the Buffer states created by Charlemagne to keep the Islamic Moors There the
The province of France called Marche (Occitan: la Marcha), sometimes Marche Limousine, was originally a small border district partly of Limousin and partly of Poitou. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of France was organised into Provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département The County of Marche (la Marcha was a Medieval French County, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan Limousin ( Occitan: Lemosin) is a former Province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
Its area was increased during the 13th century and remained the same until the French Revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Marche was bounded on the north by Berry, on the east by Bourbonnais and Auvergne; on the south by Limousin itself and on the west by Poitou. Berry is a region located in the center of France It was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements ' on March 4, Bourbonnais ( Occitan: Borbonés / Barbonés) was a historic province in the centre of France that corresponded to the modern département Auvergne ( Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a Province of It embraced the greater part of the modern département of Creuse, a considerable part of the northern Haute-Vienne, and a fragment of Indre, up to Saint-Benoît-du-Sault. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative Creuse ( Occitan: Cruesa) is a department in central France named after the Creuse River. Haute-Vienne is a French department named after the Vienne River. Indre is a department in the center of France named after the Indre River. Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a commune in the Indre department in central France. Its area was about 1900 m². ; its capital was Charroux and later Guéret, and among its other principal towns were Dorat, Bellac and Confolens. Charroux may refer to places in France Charroux Allier, a commune in the department of Allier Charroux Vienne Guéret is the préfecture (capital of the Creuse department in central France. Bellac (Belac is a commune of the Haute-Vienne département, in France. Confolens is a town in in western France. It is one of the two Sous-prefecture of the Charente département.
Marche first appeared as a separate fief about the middle of the 10th century when William III, duke of Aquitaine, gave it to one of his vassals named Boso, who took the title of count. William III (915&ndash 3 April 963) called Towhead ( French: Tête d'étoupe, Latin: Caput Stupe) from the colour A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin In the 12th century it passed to the family of Lusignan, sometime also counts of Angouleme counts of Limousin, until the death of the childless Count Hugh in 1303, when it was seized by King Philip IV. The Lusignan family originated in the Poitou near Lusignan in western France in the early 10th century. In 1316 it was made an appanage for his youngest son the Prince, afterwards King Charles IV and a few years later (1327) it passed into the hands of the family of Bourbon. An apanage or appanage is the grant of an estate titles offices or other things of value to the younger male children of a sovereign who under the system of Charles IV (18/ 19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328) was the King of France and of Navarre (as Charles I) and The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. The family of Armagnac held it from 1435 to 1477, when it reverted to the Bourbons, and in 1527 it was seized by King Francis I and became part of the domains of the French crown. This article is about the historical party during the Hundred Years' War Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 It was divided into Haute-Marche (i. e. "Upper Marche") and Basse-Marche (i. e. "Lower Marche"), the estates of the former being in existence until the 17th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar From 1470 until the Revolution the province was under the jurisdiction of the parlement of Paris. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
See County of Marche. The County of Marche (la Marcha was a Medieval French County, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
Several communes of France are named similarly:
The Germanic tribes that Romans called Marcomanni, who battled the Romans in the 1st and 2nd centuries were simply the "men of the borderlands. Marches is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. La Marche is a village and commune in the Nièvre département of central France. Nièvre is a department in the center of France named after the Nièvre River. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Buri, Suebi or Suevi "
Marches were territorial organisations created as borderlands in the Carolingian Empire and had a long career as purely conventional designations under the Holy Roman Empire. Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in In modern German, "Mark" denotes a piece of land that historically was a borderland, as in the following names:
In medieval Hungary the system of gyepű and gyepűelve, effective until the mid-13th century, can be considered as marches even though in its organisation it shows major differences from Western European feudal marches. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic For one thing, the gyepű was not controlled by a Marquess.
The Gyepű was a strip of land that was specially fortified or made impassable, while gyepűelve was the mostly uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land beyond it. The gyepűelve is much more comparable to modern buffer zones than traditional European marches. In geography a buffer zone is any zonal area that serves the purpose of keeping two or more other areas (often but not necessarily countries) distant from one another
The portions of the gyepű was usually guarded by tribes who joined the Hungarian nation and were granted special rights for their services at the borders, such as the Szeklers, Pechenegs and Cumans. For the village in northeastern Hungary see Székely (village The Székely ( pronounced) or Szekler people (Székely The Pechenegs or Patzinaks ( Turkish: Peçenekler, Hungarian: Besenyő, Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται Cumans (Кумани Byzantine: Kuman or Cuman, Kunok Turkic: Kumanlar) were a nomadic Turkic people who inhabited a These ethnic groups merged into the Hungarian ethnicity and identity also taking up the Hungarian language at different times ranging from as before the tenth century (the Szeklers) to as late as thew seventeenth century (some Cumans). Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. For the village in northeastern Hungary see Székely (village The Székely ( pronounced) or Szekler people (Székely Cumans (Кумани Byzantine: Kuman or Cuman, Kunok Turkic: Kumanlar) were a nomadic Turkic people who inhabited a
From the Carolingian period onwards the name marca begins to appear in Italy, first the Marca Fermana for the mountainous part of Picenum, the Marca Camerinese for the district farther north, including a part of Umbria, and the Marca Anconitana for the former Pentapolis (Ancona). Picenum was a Region of ancient Roman Italy. Picenum was the birthplace of such notables as Pompey the Great and his father Pompeius Strabo Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. A pentapolis, from the Greek words penta 'five' and Polis 'city(-state' is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities Ancona (Ankon is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101909 (2005 In 1080, the marca Anconitana was given in investiture to Robert Guiscard by pope Gregory VII, to whom the Countess Matilda ceded the marches of Camerino and Fermo. Robert Guiscard (from Latin Viscardus and Old French Viscart, often rendered the Resourceful, the Cunning, the Wily Pope Matilda of Canossa ( Italian: Matilde, Latin: Mathilde; 1046 &ndash 24 July 1115) called la Gran Contessa Camerino is small town of 7000 inhabitants in the Marches ( Marche region in the Province of Macerata, Italy. Fermo (ancient Firmum Picenum) is a town and Comune of the Marche, Italy, previously in the Province of Ascoli In 1105, the Emperor Henry IV invested Werner with the whole territory of the three marches, under the name of the March of Ancona. Henry IV ( November 11, 1050 &ndash August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until Werner II was the margrave of Ancona and Duke of Spoleto from 1093 to 1119 The March of Ancona or marca Anconitana (also Anconetana) was a frontier march centred on the city of Macerata in the It was afterwards once more recovered by the Church and governed by papal legates as part of the Papal States. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa The Marche became part of the kingdom of Italy in 1860. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom
Marche were repeated on a miniature level, fringing many of the small territorial states of pre-Risorgimento Italy with a ring of smaller dependencies on their borders, which represent territorial marche on a small scale. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian A map of the Duchy of Mantua in 1702 (Braudel 1984, fig 26) reveals the independent, though socially and economically dependent arc of small territories from the principality of Castiglione in the northwest across the south to the duchy of Mirandola southeast of Mantua: the lords of Bozolo, Sabioneta, Dosolo, Guastalla, the count of Novellare. The Duchy of Mantua was a Duchy in Lombardy, Northern Italy, subject to the Holy Roman Empire. Mirandola ( local dialect: La Miràndla) is a City of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, in the Province of Modena, 31 km Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the Bozzolo is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Mantua in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 110 km southeast of Sabbioneta is a town in Lombardy, Italy, in the Province of Mantua, about 30 km north of Parma, not far from the N Dosolo is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Mantua in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 130 km southeast of Guastalla is a town and commune in the Province of Reggio Emilia in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Novellara is a town in the Province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.
The European concept of marches applies just as well to the fief of Matsumae on the southern tip of Hokkaidō which was at Japan's northern border with the Ainu people of Hokkaidō, known as Ezo at the time. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The was a Japanese clan which was granted the area around Matsumae Hokkaidō as a march fief in 1590 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and charged with defending it and by ʔáinu (also called Ezo in historical texts are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan 's EZO is the American self-titled debut album from the Japanese Metal band Ezo. In 1590, this land was granted to the Kakizaki clan, who took the name Matsumae from then on. The Lords of Matsumae, as they are sometimes called, were exempt from owing rice to the shogun in tribute, and from the sankin kotai system established by Tokugawa Ieyasu, under which most lords (daimyo) had to spend half the year at court (in the capital of Edo). is a military rank and historical title in Japan. The Japanese word for "general" it is made up of two Kanji words sho, meaning "commander" Sankin kōtai (参勤交代 ("alternate attendance" was a policy of the Shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history.  was the founder and first Shogun  of the Tokugawa shogunate The ( were powerful territorial lords who ruled most of Japan from their vast hereditary land holdings literally bay - Door, " Estuary " edo once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the
By guarding the border, rather than conquering/colonizing Ezo, the Matsumae, in essence, made the majority of the island an Ainu reservation. This also meant that Ezo, and the Kurile Islands beyond, were left essentially open to Russian colonization. The Kuril Islands (ˈkʊrɪl or /ˈkjuˈriˈl/ Кури́льские острова́ əstrʌˈva ru-Latn ''Kuril'skie ostrova'' or Kurile Islands in Russia However, the Russians never did colonize Hokkaidō/Ezo, and the marches were officially eliminated during the Meiji Restoration in the late 19th century, when the Ainu came under Japanese control, and Ezo was renamed Hokkaidō, and annexed to Japan. The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan 's political and social structure
In Norse, "mark" meant "borderlands" and "forest", while it in present-day Norwegian has adapted the meaning "wilderness" or "forest". The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th Willow Palisade (柳條邊 was a system of ditches and embankments planted with Willows intended to restrict movement into Manchuria, built by the Qing Dynasty From around the time of the Roman Empire until about 800 AD many stone inscriptions can be found written in Runes
The Norwegian county Finnmark, "the borderlands (or, the forests) of the Sami" (known to the Norse as Finns). or Finnmárku ( Sami language) is a county in the extreme northeast of Norway. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language Also, Hedmark ("the borderlands of heath") and Telemark ("the borderlands of the Þela tribe" ). is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Akershus. is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder.
The forests surrounding Norwegian cities are often called "marka" - the marches, e. g. the forests surrounding Oslo are called Nordmarka, Østmarka and Vestmarka - i. (called Christiania from 1624 to 1878 and Kristiania from 1878 to 1924 is the Capital and largest city of Norway. e. the northern, eastern and western marches.
Markland was the Norse name of an area in North America discovered by Norwegian Vikings. Markland is the name given to a part of shoreline in Labrador Canada, named by Leif Eriksson when he landed in North America Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas
See also مرزبان Marzban. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Marzban (in مرزبان derived from the words Marz مرز meaning "border" or "boundary" and the suffix -ban بان meaning guardian were
See Limes Romanus
The name of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the midlands of England was Mercia. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. The name "Mercia" comes from the Old English for "boundary folk", and the traditional interpretation was that the kingdom originated along the frontier between the Welsh and the Anglo-Saxon invaders, although P. The Welsh people ( Welsh: Cymro ("Welshman" Cymraes ("Welsh woman" Cymry ("Welshmen/women" Cymry Hunter Blair has argued an alternative interpretation that they emerged along the frontier between the Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria and the inhabitants of the River Trent valley. The River Trent is one of the major rivers of England. Its source is in Staffordshire between Biddulph and Biddulph Moor.
Latinizing the Anglo-Saxon term mearc, the border areas between England and Wales were collectively known as the Welsh Marches (marchia Wallia), while the native Welsh lands to the west were considered Wales Proper (pura Wallia). The Welsh Marches ( Welsh: Y Mers) is an area along the border of England and Wales on the island of Great Britain, in the current The Norman lords in the Welsh Marches were to become the new Marcher Lords. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. A Marcher Lord is the English equivalent of a Margrave (in the Holy Roman empire
The title Earl of March is at least two distinct feudal titles: one, created 1328, held by the powerful border families of Mortimer (in the Peerage of England), in the west Welsh Marches and one, Dunbar, in the northern marches (in the Peerage of Scotland). The title Earl of March has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of England. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed For Mortimer in Berkshire see Stratfield Mortimer. For the town in Shropshire see Cleobury Mortimer. The Peerage of England comprises all Peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. The Welsh Marches ( Welsh: Y Mers) is an area along the border of England and Wales on the island of Great Britain, in the current Dunbar is a town in East Lothian on the southeast coast of Scotland, approximately 30 miles east of Edinburgh and 28 miles from the English Border The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707.
The Scottish Marches is a term for the border regions on both sides of the border between England and Scotland. The Scottish Marches is a term for the Border country on both sides of the border between Scotland and England. From the Norman conquest of England until the reign of King James VI of Scotland, who also became King James I of England, border clashes were common and the monarchs of both countries relied on Marcher Lords to defend the frontier areas known as the Marches. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James A Marcher Lord is the English equivalent of a Margrave (in the Holy Roman empire They were hand-picked for their suitability for the challenges the responsibilities presented.
Patrick Dunbar, 8th Earl of Dunbar, a descendant of the Earls of Northumbria was recognized in the end of 13th century to use the name March as his earldom in Scotland, otherwise known as Dunbar, Lothian, and Northumbrian border. Patrick IV Earl of March, sometimes called Patrick de Dunbar "8th" Earl of March (1242 &ndash October 10, 1308) was the most important
Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Regent of England during the minority of Edward III and usurper who had supplanted Edward II, was created an earl 1328. Roger de Mortimer 1st Earl of March ( 25 April 1287 &ndash 29 November 1330) an English nobleman was for three years de facto ruler A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. He was married to Joan of Joinville, whose mother was one of the heiresses of French Counts of La Marche and Lusignan. His family, Mortimer Lords of Wigmore, had been border lords and leaders of defenders of Welsh marches for centuries. For Mortimer in Berkshire see Stratfield Mortimer. For the town in Shropshire see Cleobury Mortimer. He selected March as the name of his earldom for several reasons: Welsh marches referred to several counties, whereby the title signified superiority compared to usual single county-based earldoms. Mercia was an ancient kingdom. His wife's ancestors had been Counts of March in France.