|Part of a series on|
|3 Worlds Theory|
|José María Sison|
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Parties and Organizations
|Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany|
|Communist Party of India (Maoist)|
|Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)|
|Communist Party of Peru|
|Communist Party of the Philippines|
|Communist Party of the Portuguese Workers|
/ Reorganizative Movement of the Party of the Proletariat
|Communist Party of China|
|Little Red Book|
Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: 毛澤東思想; simplified Chinese: 毛泽东思想; pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: "Mao Tse-tung"), widely applied as the political and military guiding ideology in the Communist Party of China (CPC) from Mao's ascendancy to its leadership until the inception of Deng Xiaoping Theory and Chinese economic reforms in 1978. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted In the Marxist-Leninist movement an anti-revisionist is one who favors the line of theory and practice associated with Marx - Engels - Lenin The Three Worlds Theory is a Theory developed by former Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong that suggests that the Social-imperialism is a term applied by Mao to the Soviet Union, arguing that the Soviet Union had come to dominate and exploit the smaller countries in its sphere The Mass Line is the political/organizational/leadership method developed by Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China (CPC during the Chinese revolution People's War ( Chinese language: 人民战争 also called protracted people's war, is a military-political strategy invented by Mao Zedong. For different uses of the term including Political parties with the name "New Democracy" see New Democracy (disambiguation. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Prachanda (प्रचण्ड pɾəʦəɳɖə born Pushpa Kumal Dahal on 11 December 1954 is the Post Officer of Nepal. Bob Avakian is Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party USA, which he has led since its formation in 1975 Zhang Chunqiao ( (1917&ndash April 21, 2005) was a member of the Gang of Four. José María Sison (born February 8, 1939 in Cabugao Ilocos Sur, Philippines) is a Writer and activist who reorganized the Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso (born 3 December 1934 also known by the Nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo ( English: President Gonzalo) Charu Majumdar ( Bangla: চারু মজুমদার (1918–1972 was an Indian Maoist Revolutionary born in 1918 in Siliguri Jiang Qing ( March 14, 1914 May 14, 1991) is the Pseudonym that was used by Chinese leader Mao Zedong 's last wife İbrahim Kaypakkaya was a leader of the Turkish Communist movement Pierre Mulele ( August 11, 1929 - October 3 [[October 9] depending on the source] 1968 was a Congolese Revolutionary who was briefly Saloth Sar ( May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998) also known as Pol Pot, was leader of the Communist movement known as The International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (ICMLPO is a grouping of parties and organizations adhering to Marxist-Leninist-Maoist thought The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. The Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany ( German: Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, MLPD is an antirevisionist Political party in The Communist Party of India (Maoist is an underground Maoist Political party in India. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी is a Maoist Political party The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist The Communist Party of the Philippines (in Filipino: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is the leading Communist party in the Philippines. The Communist Party of the Portuguese Workers / Reorganizative Movement of the Party of the Proletariat ( Portuguese: Partido Comunista dos Trabalhadores Portugueses / Movimento The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong ( better known in the West as The Little Red Book, was published by the Government of the Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to Communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Deng Xiaoping Theory ( also known as Dengism, is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. The Chinese economic reform ( refers to the program of economic reforms called " Socialism with Chinese characteristics " in the People's Republic of It is also applied internationally in contemporary times. Maoist organizations exist in Peru, India, and most prominently, Nepal. The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी is a Maoist Political party Its basic tenets include a revolutionary struggle of the vast majority of people termed a People's War involving peasants, and its military strategies essentially involved guerrilla war tactics focused on surrounding the cities from the countryside with a non-professional, popular armed forces. People's War ( Chinese language: 人民战争 also called protracted people's war, is a military-political strategy invented by Mao Zedong. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc
In its post-revolutionary period, Mao Zedong Thought is defined in the CPC's Constitution as "Marxism-Leninism applied in a Chinese context", synthesized by Mao Zedong and China's first-generation leaders. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted It provided the CPC's first comprehensive theoretical guideline with regards to how to continue socialist revolution, the creation of a socialist society, socialist military construction, and highlights various contradictions in society to be addressed by what is termed "socialist construction". The ideology survives in name today on the Communist Party's Constitution; it is described as the guiding thought that created "new China" and a revolutionary concept against imperialism and feudalism. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed 
Maoism generally discredits the socialist framework of the Soviet Union under Nikita Khrushchev and dismisses it as Communist revisionism. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following Traditionally, most Maoists have deemed Joseph Stalin as the last true socialist leader of the Soviet Union, although Maoist assessments of Stalin vary between the extremely positive and the more ambivalent. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party 
|People's Republic of China|
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Central People's Government
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|President: Hu Jintao|
National People's Congress
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|Premier: Wen Jiabao|
People's Liberation Army
Central Military Commission
|Law of the PRC|
Supreme People's Court
Supreme People's Procuratorate
Judicial system of the PRC
|Communist Party of China|
Politburo Standing Committee
Minor Political Parties
Politics of Hong Kong
Politics of Macau
Politics of the Republic of China
Other countries · Atlas
Since the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, and the reforms of Deng Xiaoping starting in 1978, the role of Mao's ideology within the PRC has radically changed. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The politics of the People's Republic of China take place in a framework of a single-party socialist republic. Power within the Government of the People's Republic of China is divided among three bodies the Communist Party of China, the state and the People's The Central People's Government is the Central government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China ( is the highest law within the People's Republic of China. The 1954 Constitution of the People's Republic of China was promulgated by the 1st National People's Congress meeting in Beijing on September 20, The 1975 Constitution of the People's Republic of China was promulgated in the midst of the unrest of the Cultural Revolution by the 4th National People's Congress The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China was promulgated in 1978. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Deng Xiaoping Theory ( also known as Dengism, is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. Jiang Zemin ( born 17 August 1926 was the "core of the third generation " of Communist Party of China leaders serving as General Secretary of The Three Represents ( is a socio-political ideology credited to General Secretary Jiang Zemin which became a guiding ideology of the Communist Party of China at Hu Jintao ( born 21 December 1942 is currently the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist The Scientific Development Concept ( Pinyin: Kēxué Fāzhǎn Guān is the current official guiding socio-economic ideology of the Communist Party of China The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman Hu Jintao ( born 21 December 1942 is currently the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist A similar term is "National Congress" which is a less common translation of People's Political Consultative Conference. The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) is a committee of about 150 members of the National People's Congress (NPC of the People's The legislative system of the People's Republic of China may either refer to the system of laws and regulations generated in China's legal system or more narrowly the system of formulation The Premier of the State Council ( sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Prime Minister" is the Chairman of the State Council of the People's Republic of China This is a Chinese name; the family name is Wen. Wen Jiabao ( (born 15 September 1942 is the Premier of the The State Council ( which is largely synonymous with the Central People's Government ( is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The Central Military Commission ( CMC) ( refers to one of two bodies within the People's Republic of China, either to the Central Military Commission of the People's Law of the People's Republic of China is the legal regime of the People's Republic of China, with the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Supreme People's Procuratorate ( is the highest agency at the national level responsible for Prosecution in the People's Republic of China. The Judicial system (or Judicial branch) of the People's Republic of China has both broad and narrow meanings The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the The Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC ( has 53 Articles and includes contents of General Program Membership Organization System Central Organizations The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee ( is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat The National Congress of the Communist Party of China ( is a Party congress that is held about once every five years The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì formerly The Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会书记处 pinyin Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú (also "Political The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC, abbreviated) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 people usually men and includes The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference ( People's Political Consultative Conference The People's Republic of China (PRC is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CCP in the Popular front model similar Elections in the People's Republic of China take two forms Direct elections occur for village councils in designated rural areas and for the local People's Congress See also Administrative divisions of the Republic of China Due to China 's large Population and area the political divisions of China have consisted Since the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the human rights issue of China has come to the forefront The Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China draw upon traditions extending back to imperial China in the Qing Dynasty Foreign aid to the People's Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official Development assistance and official aid to individual recipients Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by People's Republic of China, its own legislature the Chief Executive Politics of Macau takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by the People's Republic of China, an own legislature the Chief Executive as the The Politics of the Republic of China (ROC takes place in a framework of a Semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar)  Although Mao Zedong Thought nominally remains the state ideology, Deng's admonition to seek truth from facts means that state policies are judged on their practical consequences and the role of ideology in determining policy has been considerably reduced. " Seek truth from facts " ( Chinese: 实事求是 Pinyin: shí shì qiú shì is a slogan in the People's Republic of China referring to Pragmatism Deng also separated Mao from Maoism, making it clear that Mao was fallible and hence that the truth of Maoism comes from observing social consequences rather than by using Mao's quotations as holy writ, as was done in Mao's lifetime.
In addition, the party constitution has been rewritten to give the pragmatic ideas of Deng Xiaoping as much prominence as those of Mao. One consequence of this is that groups outside China which describe themselves as Maoist generally regard China as having repudiated Maoism and restored capitalism, and there is a wide perception both in and out of China that China has abandoned Maoism. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where However, while it is now permissible to question particular actions of Mao and to talk about excesses taken in the name of Maoism, there is a prohibition in China on either publicly questioning the validity of Maoism or questioning whether the current actions of the CCP are "Maoist. "
Although Mao Zedong Thought is still listed as one of the four cardinal principles of the People's Republic of China, its historical role has been re-assessed. The Four Cardinal Principles ( Chinese: 四項基本原則 Pinyin: sì xiàng jīběn yuánzé were stated by Deng Xiaoping in 1979 and are The Communist Party now says that Maoism was necessary to break China free from its feudal past, but that the actions of Mao are seen to have led to excesses during the Cultural Revolution. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into The official view is that China has now reached an economic and political stage, known as the primary stage of socialism, in which China faces new and different problems completely unforeseen by Mao, and as such the solutions that Mao advocated are no longer relevant to China's current conditions. This article is about the term itself and its relationships For its implementation and effects see Economy of the People's Republic of China and Chinese economic
Both Maoist critics outside China and most Western commentators see this re-working of the definition of Maoism as providing an ideological justification for what they see as the restoration of the essentials of capitalism in China by Deng and his successors.
Mao himself is officially regarded by the CCP as a "great revolutionary leader" for his role in fighting the Japanese and creating the People's Republic of China, but Maoism as implemented between 1959 and 1976 is regarded by today's CCP as an economic and political disaster. In Deng's day, support of radical Maoism was regarded as a form of "left deviationism" and being based on a cult of personality, although these 'errors' are officially attributed to the Gang of Four rather than to Mao himself. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise The Gang of Four ( was the name given to a leftist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist party officials
Although these ideological categories and disputes are less relevant at the start of the 21st century, these distinctions were very important in the early 1980s, when the Chinese government was faced with the dilemma of how to allow economic reform to proceed without destroying its own legitimacy, and many argue that Deng's success in starting Chinese economic reform was in large part due to his being able to justify those reforms within a Maoist framework. The Chinese economic reform ( refers to the program of economic reforms called " Socialism with Chinese characteristics " in the People's Republic of
Some historians today regard Maoism as an ideology devised by Mao as a pretext for his own quest for power. The official view of the Chinese government was that Mao did not create Maoism to gain power, but that in his later years, Mao or those around him were able to use Maoism to create a cult of personality. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise 
Both the official view of the CCP and much public opinion within China regards the latter period of Mao's rule as having been a disaster for their country. The various estimates of the number of deaths attributable to Mao's policies that have been offered remain highly controversial.
Many regret the erosion of guaranteed employment, education, health care, and other gains of the revolution that have been largely lost in the new profit-driven economy. This is reflected in a strain of Chinese Neo-Leftism in the country that seeks to return China to the days after Mao but before Deng; for more on that current's beliefs, see its article. New Leftism ( in the People's Republic of China is an ideological tendency in opposition to Capitalism and the Chinese economic reforms and in favour of
Some Western scholars argue that China's rapid industrialization and relatively quick recovery from the brutal period of civil wars 1911-1949 was a positive impact of Maoism, and contrast its development specifically to that of Southeast Asia, Russia and India. While others see it as catastrophe for the environment, with Maoism specifically engaged in a battle to dominate and subdue nature. 
From 1962 onwards the challenge to the Soviet hegemony in the World Communist Movement made by the CCP resulted in various divisions in communist parties around the world. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. The Juche Idea (주체사상 Juche Sasang) is the official state Ideology of North Korea and the Political system based on it Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left, which opposes the political ideas of the Bolsheviks Council communism is a Far-left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s Religious communism is a form of Communism centered on religious principles Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that National Communism, is an Islamic form of Communism which had a strong Nationalist element The Communist League was the first Marxist international organisation The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg 5 March 1870 or 1871 15 January 1919 was a Polish-born Jewish German Marxist theorist, socialist Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Communist symbolism consists of a series of Symbols that represent (either literally or figuratively a variety of themes associated with communism Criticisms of Communism can be divided in two broad categories Those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century Communist state and those concerning Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the This article intentionally focuses only on the history of communism as a self-contained self-aware political movement Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within Communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. The New Class is a term to describe the privileged Ruling class of Bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic Transition in former Communist states located in parts of Europe and Primitive communism is A term usually associated with Karl Marx, but most fully elaborated by Friedrich Engels (in The Origin of the Family 1884 and referring Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term Titoism is an adaptation of communist ideology named after Josip Broz Tito, leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily used to describe The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social This article intentionally focuses only on the history of communism as a self-contained self-aware political movement At an early stage, the Albanian Party of Labour sided with the CCP. The Party of Labour of Albania ( Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian was the sole legal Political party in Albania during So did many of the mainstream (non-splinter group) communist parties in South-East Asia, like the Burmese Communist Party, Communist Party of Thailand, and Communist Party of Indonesia. Mainstream is generally the common current of Thought of the Majority. The Communist Party of Burma (ဗမာပြည်ကွန်မြူနစ်ပါတီ CPB) is the oldest existing Political party in Burma (Myanmar The Communist Party of Thailand - CPT (พรรคคอมมิวนิสต์แห่งประเทศไทย abbreviated พคท The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was the largest non-ruling Communist party in the world prior Some Asian parties, like the Workers Party of Vietnam and the Workers Party of Korea attempted to take a middle-ground position. The Communist Party of Vietnam ( Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling as well as the only legal The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK is the ruling party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK commonly known as North Korea
In the west and south, a plethora of parties and organizations were formed that upheld links to the CCP. Often they took names such as Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) or Revolutionary Communist Party to distinguish themselves from the traditional pro-Soviet communist parties. The pro-CCP movements were, in many cases, based amongst the wave of student radicalism that engulfed the world in the 1960s and 1970s.
Only one Western classic communist party sided with CCP, the Communist Party of New Zealand. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The Communist Party of New Zealand (CPNZ was a Communist Political party in New Zealand from the 1920s to the early 1990s Under the leadership of CCP and Mao Zedong, a parallel international communist movement emerged to rival that of the Soviets, although it was never as formalized and homogeneous as the pro-Soviet tendency. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
After the death of Mao in 1976 and the resulting power-struggles in China that followed, the international Maoist movement was divided into three camps. One group composed of varies ideologically nonaligned originations, supported weakly the new Chinese leadership under Deng Xiaoping. Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Another camp denounced the new leadership as traitors to the cause of Marxism-Leninism Mao Zedong Thought. The third camp sided with the Albanians in denouncing the Three Worlds Theory of the CCP. The Three Worlds Theory is a Theory developed by former Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong that suggests that the (See Sino-Albanian Split. The Sino-Albanian split ( Chinese: 中阿破裂 Pinyin: Zhōng-Ā pòliè in 1978 saw the parting of the People's Republic of China (PRC and Socialist )
The pro-Albanian camp would start to function as an international group, led by Enver Hoxha and the APL, and was able to amalgamate much of the communist groups in Latin America, including the Communist Party of Brazil. (ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa 16 October 1908 11 April 1985 was the leader of the People's Republic of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985 as the The Party of Labour of Albania ( Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian was the sole legal Political party in Albania during The Communist Party of Brazil ( Partido Comunista do Brasil, PCdoB is a political party in Brazil.
The new Chinese leadership showed little interest in the various foreign groups supporting Mao's China. Many of the foreign parties that were fraternal parties aligned with the Chinese government before 1975 either disbanded, abandoned the new Chinese government entirely, or even renounced Marxism-Leninism and developed into non-communist, social democratic parties. Fraternal party literally means brother party. The term refers to a Political party officially affiliated with another often larger and/or international political Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left What is today called the "international Maoist movement" evolved out of the second camp — the parties that opposed Deng and claimed to uphold the legacy of Mao.
During the 1980s two parallel regrouping efforts emerged, one centered around the Communist Party of the Philippines, which gave birth to the ICMLPO, and one that birthed the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement, which the Shining Path communist guerrilla group and the Revolutionary Communist Party USA played a leading role in forming. The Communist Party of the Philippines (in Filipino: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is the leading Communist party in the Philippines. The International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (ICMLPO is a grouping of parties and organizations adhering to Marxist-Leninist-Maoist thought The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist The Revolutionary Communist Party USA ( RCP USA) known originally as the Revolutionary Union, is a Maoist Communist party formed in
Both the International Conference and the RIM tendencies claimed to uphold Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought, although RIM was later to substitute that ideology with what they termed 'Marxism-Leninism-Maoism'.
Today Maoist organizations, grouped in RIM, have their greatest influence in South Asia, they are also involved in violent struggles in other parts of the world, notably in Bangladesh, and until recently Nepal. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Nepal's Maoism had ended about a year ago and the Maoist have peacefully negotiated and now is a democratic party. There are also minor groups active in Afghanistan, Peru and Turkey. The Communist (Maoist Party of Afghanistan (حزب كمونيست (مائوئيست افغانستان previously known as Communist Party of Afghanistan is an underground Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
In the Philippines, the Communist Party of the Philippines, which is not part of the RIM, leads an armed struggle through its military wing, the New People's Army. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Communist Party of the Philippines (in Filipino: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is the leading Communist party in the Philippines. The New People's Army ( NPA) is the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
In Peru, several columns of the Communist Party of Peru/SL are fighting a sporadic war. The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist Since the capture of their leadership, Chairman Gonzalo and other members of their central committee in 1992, the PCP/SL no longer has initiative in the fight. Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso (born 3 December 1934 also known by the Nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo ( English: President Gonzalo) Several different political positions are supported by the leadership of the PCP/SL.
In India, the Communist Party of India (Maoist) have been fighting a protracted war. The Communist Party of India (Maoist is an underground Maoist Political party in India.  Formed by the merger of the People's War Group and the Maoist Communist Center ("notorious for its macabre killings") originating from the 25 May 1967 peasant uprising. , they have expanded their range of operations to over half of India and have been listed by the Prime Minister as the "greatest internal security threat" to the Indian republic since it was founded. 
In Germany the ICMLPO-affiliated MLPD is the largest unambiguously-Marxist group in the country. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany ( German: Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, MLPD is an antirevisionist Political party in
Maoism has also become a significant political ideology in Nepal. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The Maoist insurgency has been fighting against the Royal Nepalese Army and other supporters of the monarchy. The Nepal Army ( Nepali: Nepali Sena नेपाली सेना is the army of Nepal and a major component of the Military of Nepal A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), a RIM member, has conditionally halted its armed struggle and is participating in an interim government, including in elections for a national assembly. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी is a Maoist Political party 
Mao is widely regarded as a brilliant military strategist even among those who oppose his political or economic ideas. His writings on guerrilla warfare, most notably in his groundbreaking primer On Guerrilla Warfare, and the notion of people's war are now generally considered to be essential reading, both for those who wish to conduct guerrilla operations and for those who wish to oppose them. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc People's War ( Chinese language: 人民战争 also called protracted people's war, is a military-political strategy invented by Mao Zedong.
As with his economic and political ideas, Maoist military ideas seem to have more relevance at the start of the 21st century outside of the People's Republic of China than within it. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES There is a consensus both within and outside the PRC that the military context that the PRC faces in the early 21st century are very different from the one faced by China in the 1930s. As a result, within the People's Liberation Army there has been extensive debate over whether and how to relate Mao's military doctrines to 21st-century military ideas, especially the idea of a revolution in military affairs. The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The Military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs ( RMA) is a theory about the future of Warfare, often connected to technological and
Committee of Marxist-Leninist-Maoist parties from around the world