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Manufacturing methods; Batch production, Continuous production, Job production
Improvement methods; LM, TPM, QRM, TOC, Six Sigma, RCM
Information & communication; ISA-88, ISA-95, ERP, SAP, IEC 62264, B2MML
Process control; PLC, DCS
Assembly of Section 41 of a Boeing 787 Dreamliner
. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" The primary characteristic of batch production is that all components are completed at a workstation before they move to the next one Continuous production is a method used to manufacture, produce or process materials without interruption Job production involves producing a one-off product for a specific customer Lean manufacturing or lean production, which is often known simply as " Lean " is the practice of a theory of production that considers the expenditure Total Productive Maintenance is a new way of looking at maintenance or conversely a reversion to old ways but on a mass scale Theory of Constraints (TOC is an overall Management philosophy. Six Sigma is a Business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, that today enjoys wide-spread application in many sectors of industry Reliability-Centered Maintenance, often known as RCM, is an industrial improvement approach focused on identifying and establishing the operational maintenance and capital S88, shorthand for ANSI/ISA-88, is a standard addressing batch process control ANSI/ISA-95, or ISA-95 as it is more commonly referred is an International standard for developing an automated interface between enterprise and control systems Enterprise resource planning ( ERP) is the planning of how business resources (materials employees customers etc IEC 62264 is a International standard for Enterprise-control system integration B2MML or Business To Manufacturing Markup Language is an XML implementation of the ANSI/ ISA -95 family of standards ( ISA-95) known internationally A programmable logic controller ( PLC) or programmable controller is a Digital computer used for Automation of industrial processes such as A distributed control system (DCS refers to a Control system usually of a Manufacturing system, Process or any kind of Dynamic system, WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand") is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply Craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools High tech is Technology that is at the cutting edge —the most advanced technology currently available A raw material is something that is acted upon or used by Organisms, or by human labour or Industry, for use as a Building material to create some product Finished goods are goods that have completed the Manufacturing process but have not yet been sold or distributed to the end user
Manufacturing takes place under all types of economic systems. An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation. This article is for the legal term For regulation of genes see Regulation of gene expression.
Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create chips the Integrated circuits that are present in everyday Electrical and electronic Fabrication, when used as an industrial term applies to the building of Machines, Structures or Process equipment for the chemical or fertilizer sector
The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Industrial design is an Applied art whereby the Aesthetics and Usability of mass-produced products may be improved for marketability and Examples of major manufacturers in the United States include General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company, Chrysler, Boeing, Gates Rubber Company and Pfizer. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following Chrysler LLC is an American Automobile manufacturer that has been producing Automobiles since 1925 The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Charles Cassius Gates Jr ( May 27, 1921 - August 28, 2005) was a businessman and philanthropist Pfizer Incorporated ( is a major Pharmaceutical company, which ranks number one in the world in sales Examples in Europe include France's Airbus and Michelin Tire. Airbus SAS (ˈɛərbʌs in English, Airbus2ogg|/ɛʁbys/]] in French, and /ˈɛːɐbʊs/ in German) is an aircraft manufacturing Michelin (full name SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) ( based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne Région
- The economics and commercial of a company is covered in Business. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to
- The classification of those Businesses is covered in Industry. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious"
- The economic decisions taken within this activity is covered in Production.
- The law as applied to businesses is covered in Commercial Law. Commercial law (sometimes known as business law) is the body of Law which governs Business and commercial transactions
- The general management of a business is in Management (see also: General manager). Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise General Manager or GM for short is a descriptive term for certain executives in a Business operation
- The political impact of the development of industry is covered in Political economy
- The use of computer technology is covered by Product Lifecycle Management, Advanced Planning and Scheduling and Scheduling (production processes)
History and development
- In its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Political economy originally was the term for studying production buying and selling and their relations with law custom and government Product lifecycle management ( PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception through design and manufacture to service Advanced Planning & Scheduling (also referred to as APS and Advanced Manufacturing) refers to a manufacturing management process by which Raw materials Scheduling is an important tool for Manufacturing and Engineering, where it can have a major impact on the productivity of a process An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing Training was by apprenticeship. Apprenticeship is a system of Training a new generation of practitioners of a skill In much of the pre-industrial world the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers
- Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture (and continues to do so in places). The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work It was also known as the workshop system.
- The beginnings of modern industrial manufacturing are covered in the Industrial Revolution article. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the
- The development of the modern manufacturing facility is covered in the factory article. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods
- The development of the applied science behind manufacturing is covered in the industrial process article. Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical or mechanical steps to aid in the Manufacture of an item or items usually carried out on a very
- Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm.
Manufacturing systems: The changing methods of manufacturing
Economics of manufacturing
According to some economists, manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-consuming. A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work It was also known as the workshop system. The English system of manufacturing was an early system of industrial production that required skilled machinists who were required to produce parts from a design or model The American system of Manufacturing involves semi-skilled labor using Machine tools and templates (or jigs ' to make standardized identical The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of State ownership, administrative planning Socialist competition and free labour Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of Just-in-time ( JIT) is an inventory strategy implemented to improve the Return on investment of a Business by reducing in-process Inventory and Lean manufacturing or lean production, which is often known simply as " Lean " is the practice of a theory of production that considers the expenditure A flexible manufacturing system ( FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes Mass customization, in Marketing, Manufacturing, and Management, is the use of flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes tools and training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and market changes while still Rapid Manufacturing is an additive fabrication technique for Manufacturing solid objects by the sequential delivery of energy and/or material to specified points in space to Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a Structure in a Factory or other Manufacturing site and Transporting complete Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over Property, which may be an object, land/real estate, Intellectual property To publish is to make content Publicly known. The term is most frequently applied to the distribution of text or images on paper or to the placing of content  Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Emerging technologies and converging technologies are terms used to cover various cutting edge developments in the Emergence and convergence of Technology The Rust Belt, sometimes called the Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Northeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic States, and portions of the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. The term hazardous waste comprises all toxic chemicals radioactive materials, and biologic or infectious waste. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Labour law (also known as employment or labor law is the body of Laws administrative rulings and precedents which address the legal rights of and restrictions Environmental policy is any (course of action deliberately taken (or not taken to manage human activities with a view to prevent reduce or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural In the U.S, manufacturers are subject to regulations by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. In Europe, pollution taxes to offset environmental costs are another form of regulation on manufacturing activity. Labor Unions and craft guilds have played a historic role negotiation of worker rights and wages. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers distributors suppliers retailers and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries
Manufacturing in Britain
There has been a considerable amount of research on factors affecting manufacturing growth and performance in modern Britain. Major focuses have been on:
- general trends in manufacturing and the UK economy as a whole;
- specific factors affecting the growth and performance of individual manufacturing firms and industries;
- new product developments, market trends, and other wider business-economic environmental influences;
- plant-level managerial and industrial organizational aspects of manufacturing production; and
- political-legal, educational and training, and other wider societal influences on manufacturing growth, investment and investment returns.
Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution and is still one of the most attractive countries in the world for direct foreign industrial investment. However, UK manufacturing firms and industries often significantly lag behind their overseas competitors in terms of productivity and various other key performance measures. Of late, such things as increases in taxation and regulation have also diminished the favourableness of the political-legal environment for British industry generally. 
Manufacturing and investment around the world
Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as:
- the nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth;
- attractiveness to foreign direct investors.
In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. 
Taxonomy of manufacturing processes
Taxonomy of manufacturing processes
Manufacturing Process Management
- ^ Friedman, David (2006). This tree lists various Manufacturing processes arranged by similarity of function Manufacturing Process Management (MPM is a collection of technology and methods used in the Manufacturing and ERP/MRP defines when it is to be made MPM defines how The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical A semiconductor' is a Solid material that has Electrical conductivity in between a conductor and an insulator; it can vary over that Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Biotechnology is Technology based on Biology, especially when used in Agriculture, Food science, and Medicine. Emerging technologies and converging technologies are terms used to cover various cutting edge developments in the Emergence and convergence of Technology Nanotechnology, sometimes shortened to nanotech, refers to a field of Applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an Atomic and Molecular Synthetic biology is a new area of biological research that combines Science and Engineering in order to design and build ("synthesize" Bioengineering (also known as Biological Engineering is the application of Engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of Biology and Medicine The energy industry is a generic term for all of the industries involved the production and sale of Energy, including Fuel extraction manufacturing F&B is a common abbreviation in the United States and Commonwealth countries including Hong Kong. In Agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various Businesses involved in Food production including Farming, Seed Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw Ingredients into Food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by Industrial design is an Applied art whereby the Aesthetics and Usability of mass-produced products may be improved for marketability and Interchangeable parts are components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type Metalworking is craft and practice of working with Metals to create individual parts assemblies or large scale structures A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of Metal objects A machinist is a person who uses Machine tools to make or modify parts primarily Metal parts a process known as Machining. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by Machining, which is the selective removal of metal The term machinability refers to the ease with which a metal can be machined to an acceptable surface finish Tool and die makers are highly skilled workers in the manufacturing industry. The global Steel industry has been going through major changes since 1970 Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human industries The oldest known Textiles date back to about 5000 B Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather A sailmaker is a person who makes and repairs Sails for Sailboats, typically working on shore in a Sail loft. Tentmaking, in general refers to the activities of any Christian who while functioning as a minister receives little or no pay for his or her church work and supports This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design development manufacture marketing and sale of Motor vehicles In 2007 more than 73 million motor vehicles Bus manufacturing describes the Manufacturing of Buses and coaches. Pneumatic Tires are manufactured according to relatively standardized processes and machinery in around 450 tire factories in the world Fordism, named after Henry Ford, refers to various social theories. Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics Total Quality Management ( TQM) is a business Management strategy aimed at embedding Awareness of Quality in all organizational processes In Engineering and Manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services Six Sigma is a Business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, that today enjoys wide-spread application in many sectors of industry No Light at the End of the Tunnel. Los Angeles Times. New America Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre.
- ^ Joseph, Keith (1976). Keith Sinjohn Joseph Baron Joseph, CH, PC ( 17 January 1918 &ndash 10 December 1994) was a British Barrister Monetarism Is Not Enough. Center for Policy Studies. Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre.
- ^ Manufacturing in Britain: A Survey of Factors Affecting Growth & Performance, Industrial Systems Research Publications, Manchester (UK), revised third edition, 2003. ISBN 978-0-906321-30-0.
- ^ Manufacturing & Investment Around The World: An International Survey Of Factors Affecting Growth & Performance, Industrial Systems Research Publications, Manchester (UK), revised second edition, 2002. ISBN 978-0-906321-25-6.
- Kalpakjian, Serope; Steven Schmid (2005). Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology. Prentice Hall, pp. Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher It is an Imprint of Pearson Education Inc 22-36, 951-988. ISBN 0-1314-8965-8.
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