|History of Greater Iran|
|Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia|
The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni, מנּי, Azeri Manna) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iran, around the 10th to 7th centuries BC. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i The Gr(aeco-Bactrian Kingdom was the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Kushan Empire (c 1st &ndash 3rd centuries) was a Bactrian state that at its cultural zenith Circa 105 &ndash 250 The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire The Hephthalites or White Huns were a Central Asian Nomadic confederation whose precise origins and composition remain obscure The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656 led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual extirpation of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656 led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual extirpation of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia The Tahirid dynasty, (سلسله طاهریان Persian: ( 821 - 873) ruled the northeastern Persian Empire region The Saffarid dynasty ( Persian: سلسله صفاریان ruled a empire in Sistan, which is a historical region now in southeastern Iran and southwestern The Samanids (819–999 ( Sāmāniyān) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan, named after its founder Saman The Ziyarids, also spelled Zeyarids (زیاریان or آل زیار were an Iranian dynasty that ruled in the Caspian sea provinces of Gorgan The Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye, Caspian: Bowyiyün also known as Buwaihids or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah Iranian The Ghaznavid Empire was a Khorāṣānian Sunni Muslim state founded by a dynasty of Turkic Mamluk. The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation Shansabānī) ( were a Persian Sunni - Ismaili Muslim dynasty in Khorasan The Great Seljuq Empire was a Medieval Sunni Muslim empire established by the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks that once controlled The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs ( Khwārezmšhāḥīān, "Kings of Khwarezmia " The Kartid Dynasty ( Karts, also known as Kurts) was a Persian dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khorassan during the 13th The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in The Muzaffarids (آل مظفر in Persian were a Sunni family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century The Chupanids, also known as the Süldüz or the Chobanids (سلسله امرای چوپانی Amir Chupani) were descendants of a Mongol family The Jalayirids (آل جلایر were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī ( were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu The Ak Koyunlu or Aq Qoyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Akgoýunly, Azeri: Ağqoyunlu, The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738 was founded in 1709 by Mirwais Khan Hotak, an ethnic Pashtun ( Afghan) from the Ghilzai clan of Kandahar province The Afsharids (سلسله افشار were an Iranian dynasty of Turkic descent from Khorasan that ruled the Persian Empire in the 18th century The Republics of the Soviet Union were according to the Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, Sovereign Soviet Socialist states that had united with other Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The Durrani Empire (also referred to as the Afghan Empire) was a large state based in modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and later included northeastern The European influence in Afghanistan refers to political social and sometimes Imperialistic influence various European nations have had on this historical development of the Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919 achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khan 's reforms but despite his efforts to rebuild an army Mohammed Daoud Khan ( July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978) was a politician in Afghanistan who overthrew the monarchy of Zahir Shah The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was a Soviet -backed government in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. See also Civil war in Afghanistan This article on the History of Afghanistan since 1992 covers the time period from the fall of the Najibullah government in 1992 This is a timeline of Afghanistan. To read about the background to these events see History of Afghanistan. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South This article is about the history of Azerbaijan. For the history of Iranian Azerbaijan, please see the History of Iran Azerbaijan or This article is about the history of Azerbaijan. For the history of Iranian Azerbaijan, please see the History of Iran Azerbaijan or The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ( ADR; Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti was the first Democratic and Secular Republic in the Muslim world This article is about the former Soviet republic for other similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf Bahrain is a borderless Island country in the Persian Gulf. Although Bahrain became an independent country in 1971 the history of these islands starts Bahrain is a borderless Island country in the Persian Gulf. Although Bahrain became an independent country in 1971 the history of these islands starts The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Zand dynasty ( (سلسله زندیه ruled southern and central Iran ( 1750 &ndash 1794) in the eighteenth century The Qajar dynasty (also known as Ghajar or Kadjar ( ( - or دودمان قاجار) is a common term to describe Iran (then known as Persia) under The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed The Interim Government of Iran ( 1979 - 1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah ( king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of The Emirate of Bukhara ( Buxoro Amirligi; Аморати Бухоро was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920 The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (Бухарская Народная Советская Республика was the name of Uzbekistan from 1920 to 1925 The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси O`zbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Республикаи Советии Социалистии Тоҷикистон Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Tocikiston; Таджикская Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly The Emirate of Bukhara ( Buxoro Amirligi; Аморати Бухоро was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920 The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси O`zbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская Located in the heart of Central Asia between the Amu Darya (Oxus and Syr Darya (Jaxartes Rivers Uzbekistan has a long and interesting heritage Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly The Azerbaijanis are an Ethnic group mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. At that time they were neighbors of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer states between the two, such as Musasir and Zikirta. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising Musasir (Persian موساسیر; also called Musri) was an ancient Mannaean city acquired by the Urartian king Ishpuini ca
Their original homeland was situated east and south of the Lake Urmia, roughly centered around modern-day Mahabad, and at their greatest extent their borders expanded as far as the Kura river. Lake Urmia ( Daryacheh-ye Orumieh; ارومیه گولو, ارومیه گولی ancient name Lake Matiene) is a Salt lake in northwestern Iran Mahabad ( Persian: مهاباد Kurdish: مهاباد (Mahabad Mehabad or Mihabad also known by the alternative name سابلاخ Sablax) is a Excavations that began in 1956 succeeded in uncovering the fortified city of Hasanlu, once thought to be a potential Mannaean site. Teppe Hasanlu or Tappeh Hassanlu (Persian تپه حسنلو is an archeological site of an ancient Mannaean city which was destroyed by Urartu in More recently, the site of Qalaichi (possibly ancient Izirtu/Zirta) has been linked to the Mannaeans based on a stela with this toponym found at the site. After suffering several defeats at the hands of both Scythians and Assyrians, the remnants of the Mannaean populace were absorbed by Iranic people who were known as Matiani. Matiene was the name of a kingdom in northwestern Iran which overran the kingdom of the Mannae. The area became known as Matiene and was annexed by the Medes in 616 BC. Matiene was the name of a kingdom in northwestern Iran which overran the kingdom of the Mannae. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Events and trends 619 BC — Alyattes becomes king of Lydia. 619 BC — Death of Zhou xiang wang, King of the Zhou
Minni in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 51:27) is mentioned alongside Ararat and Ashchenaz, probably the same as the Minnai of Assyrian inscriptions, perhaps corresponding to the Minyans. Jeremiah ( jirmɛ'jahu; Septuagint Greek: Ἰερεμίας was one of the 'greater prophets ' of the Hebrew Bible. Ashkenaz is Gomer 's first son brother of Riphath, and Togarmah (Gen According to Greek mythology, the Minyans ( Greek: Μινύες were an Autochthonous group inhabiting the Aegean region  Armenia is interpreted by some as ḪARMinni, that is, "the mountainous region of the Minni", see Armenia (name).  S. Bochard in his Geographia Sacra identified the Minni with Minyades, mentioned by Nicholas of Damascus as a province of Armenia. The Minyades were three sisters in Greek mythology who were daughters of Minyas, and the protagonists of a myth about the perils of neglecting the worship of Nicolaus of Damascus ( Greek, Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Syrian Historian and Philosopher who lived during the Augustan J. P. Hyatt in the Interpreter's Bible identifies them with the Mannaeans known from Assyrian inscriptions, located in the region south of Lake Urmia.
According to the Encyclopedia Iranica:
|“||It is unlikely that there was any ethnolinguistic unity in Mannea. Like other peoples of the Iranian plateau, the Manneans were subjected to an ever increasing Iranian (i. Greater Iran (in Irān-e Bozorg, or fa ایرانزمین Irān-zamīn; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term The Iranian people are a collection of Ethnic groups defined along linguistic lines as speaking Iranian languages. e. Indo-European) penetration. Boehmer's analysis of several anthroponyms and toponyms needs modification and augmentation. Melikishvili (1949, p. Giorgi Melikishvili (გიორგი მელიქიშვილი ( December 30, 1918 – April 19, 2002) was a Georgian historian 60) tried to confine the Iranian presence in Mannea to its periphery, pointing out that both Daiukku (cf. Schmitt, 1973) and Bagdatti were active in the periphery of Mannea, but this is imprecise, in view of the fact that the names of two early Mannean rulers, viz. Udaki and Azā, are explicable in Old Iranian terms.||”|
The kingdom of Mannai began to flourish around 850 B. C. Mannaeans were mainly a settled people, practicing irrigation and breeding cattle and horses. The capital was another fortified city, Izirtu (Zirta).
By the 820s BC they had expanded to become the first large state to occupy this region, later followed by the Medes and the Parsu (Persians). The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox By this time they had a prominent aristocracy as a ruling class, who somewhat limited the power of the king.
Beginning around 800 BC, the region became contested ground between Urartu, who built several forts on the territory of Mannae, and Assyria. Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture During open conflict between the two, ca. 750-730 BC, Mannae seized the opportunity to enlarge its holdings. The Mannaean kingdom reached the pinnacle of its power during the reign of Iranzu (ca. 725-720 BC).
In 716 BC, king Sargon II of Assyria moved against Mannae, where the ruler Aza, son of Iranzu, had been deposed by Ullusunu with the help of the Urartians. Sargon II ( Akkadian Šarru-kinu "legitimate king" reigned 722 – 705 BC was an Assyrian king Sargon took Izirtu, and stationed troops in Parsuash (original home of Persian tribe, on lake Urmia) and Kar-Nergal (Kishesim). The Assyrians thereafter used the area to breed, train and trade horses.
According to one Assyrian inscription, the Cimmerians (Gimirru) originally went forth from their homeland of Gamir or Uishdish in "the midst of Mannae" around this time. See Cimmeria (Conan or Cimmeria (Poem for the fiction of Robert E The Cimmerians first appear in the annals in the year 714 BC, when they apparently helped the Assyrians to defeat Urartu. Urartu chose to submit to the Assyrians, and together the two defeated the Cimmerians and thus kept them out of the Fertile Crescent. The Fertile Crescent is a Crescent -shaped region in the Middle East, originally incorporating the Levant and Ancient Mesopotamia, and often At any rate, the Cimmerians had again rebelled against Sargon by 705, the year he fell to them in battle, and by 679 they had migrated to the east and west of Mannae.
The Mannaeans are recorded as rebelling against Esarhaddon of Assyria in 676 BC, when they interrupted the horse trade between Assyria and Parsuash. Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina " Ashur has given a brother to me" was a king of Assyria who reigned
The king Ahsheri, who ruled until the 650s BC, continued to enlarge the territory of Mannae. However, Mannae suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the Assyrians around 660 BC, and revolt broke out, continuing until Ahsheri's death. Also in the 7th century BC, Mannae was defeated by the advancing Scythians, who had already encroached upon Urartu, somewhat later (585 BC) destroying it as well. In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th This defeat contributed to the further break-up of the Mannaean kingdom.
King Ahsheri's successor, Ualli, took the side of the Assyrians against the Medes (Madai), who were at this point still based to the east along the Southwest shore of the Caspian Sea. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. However, in the ensuing decades of conflict, it appears the Medes eventually gained the upper hand, conquering the remnants of Mannae in 616 BC and absorbing the populace.