|— Borough of New York City —|
|New York County|
Location of Manhattan shown in yellow. In New York City, a borough is a unique form of government which administers the five fundamental constituent parts that make up the consolidated city
|County||New York County|
|City||New York City|
|- Borough president||Scott Stringer|
|- Total||33. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The City of New York Borough President (informally BP, or Beep in slang is an elective office in each of the five boroughs of New York City. Scott Stringer (born 1960) is a New York Democratic politician and the current Borough President of Manhattan. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 77 sq mi (87. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 5 km²)|
|- Land||22. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 96 sq mi (59. 5 km²)|
|- Water||10. 81 sq mi (28 km²)|
|- Density||70,595/sq mi (27,256. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 9/km²)|
|Website: Official Website of the Manhattan Borough President|
Manhattan (coterminous with New York County) is an island borough within New York City, with a 2007 population of 1,620,867 living in a land area of 22. In New York City, a borough is a unique form of government which administers the five fundamental constituent parts that make up the consolidated city The City of New York The United States Census is a decennial Census mandated by the United States Constitution. 96 square miles (59. 47 km²), it is the most densely populated county in the United States at 70,595 residents per square mile (27,267/km²). Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume It is also the wealthiest county in the United States, with a 2005 personal per capita income above $100,000. There are 3142 counties in the United States. The source of the data is the U Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 00.  The borough consists of Manhattan Island, Roosevelt Island, Randalls Island, almost one-tenth of Ellis Island, the above-water portion of Liberty Island, several much smaller islands, and a small section on the mainland of New York State adjacent to the Bronx. Roosevelt Island, formerly known as Welfare Island, and before that Blackwell's Island, is a narrow island in the East River of New York Randall's Island is situated in the East River in New York City, part of the borough of Manhattan. Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloe's Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States best known as the location of the
Manhattan is a major commercial, financial, and cultural center of the United States, and to some extent, the world.  Most major radio, television, and telecommunications companies in the United States are based here, as well as many news, magazine, book, and other media publishers. Manhattan has many famous landmarks, tourist attractions, museums, and universities. It is also home to the headquarters of the United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Manhattan has the largest central business district in the United States, is the site of both the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, and is the home to the largest number of corporate headquarters in the nation. The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. The NASDAQ (acronym of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) is an American Stock exchange. It is indisputably the center of New York City and the New York metropolitan region, holding the seat of city government, and the largest fraction of employment, business, and recreational activities.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). Henry Hudson' (1570 &ndash 1611 was an English Sea explorer and Navigator in the early 17th century  A 1610 map depicts the name Manahata twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language. The Delaware languages, also known as the Lenape languages, are Munsee and Unami, two closely related languages of the Eastern Algonquian  The Encyclopedia of New York City offers other derivations, including from the Munsee dialect of Lenape: manahachtanienk ("place of general inebriation"), manahatouh ("place where timber is procured for bows and arrows"), or menatay ("island"). The Encyclopedia of New York City is a comprehensive reference book on New York City. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Drunkenness or inebriation is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of Alcoholic beverages to a degree that mental and physical faculties are noticeably 
The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape. The history of New York City begins with its Lenape inhabitants prior to the arrival of Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and continues with its founding The shannon (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans were in the 17th century organized bands of Native American peoples with shared cultural and linguistic In 1524, Lenape in canoes met Giovanni da Verrazzano, the first European explorer to pass New York Harbor, although he did not enter the harbor past the Narrows. Giovanni da Verrazzano (c 1485 &ndash c 1528 was an Italian Explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City See also Geography and environment of New York City The Narrows is the tidal Strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn  It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Henry Hudson' (1570 &ndash 1611 was an English Sea explorer and Navigator in the early 17th century The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian  Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there on September 11, 1609, and continued up the river that bears his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. 
A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal Fur. In 1625 construction was started on a citadel and a Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that later became New York City.  Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. Fort Amsterdam (subsequently named Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James (again Fort William, Fort Anne and Fort George)  In 1626, Peter Minuit acquired Manhattan from native people in exchange for trade goods, often said to be worth $24. Peter Minuit (1589 &ndash August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, today North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of 
In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. Peter Stuyvesant (originally Pieter or Petrus, Peter is never mentioned in historical records (c  New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor  In 1664, the British conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James  Stuyvesant and his council negotiated 24 articles of provisional transfer with the British which sought to guarantee New Netherlanders liberties, including freedom of religion, under British rule. Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance 
Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America Background Fort Washington was a fort located at the northernmost tip and highest elevation of what is now the borough of Manhattan in New York City Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war.  Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. The Great Fire was a devastating fire that burned through the night of September 21 – September 22, 1776 on the west end of what then constituted See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Following the American Revolution, Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when the last vestige of British authority in the 
From January 11, 1785 to Autumn 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress residing at New York City Hall then at Fraunces Tavern. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1785 ( MDCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, also the Articles of Confederation was the governing Constitution of the alliance of thirteen independent and The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the New York City Hall is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan between Broadway, Park Row and Fraunces Tavern is a restaurant and museum in lower Manhattan, New York City. New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789 to August 12, 1790 at Federal Hall. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Federal Hall, located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States of America and the site of George Washington 
New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page By 1810, New York City had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə
Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party Political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on Patronage, the Spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control and longstanding The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate Fernando Wood ( June 14[[ 812]] - February 14[[ 881]] is famous for being one of the most colorful mayors in the history of New York. Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped park in an American city and the nation's first public park. Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually 
During the American Civil War, the city's strong commercial ties to the South, its growing immigrant population (prior to then largely from Germany and Ireland), anger about conscription and resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service, led to resentment against Lincoln's war policies, culminating in the three-day long New York Draft Riots of July 1863, one of the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority The New York Draft Riots (July 11 to July 16 1863 known at the time as Draft Week) were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people 
After the Civil War, the rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply, and New York became the first stop for millions seeking a new and better life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France. Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city was a hotbed of revolution, syndicalism, racketeering, and unionization. A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front A racket is an illegal business usually run as part of Organized crime. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
In 1883, the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge established a surface connection across the East River. The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest Suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5989 feet (1825 m over the East River connecting the The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed.  The City of Greater New York was formed in 1898, with Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, established as two separate boroughs. The City of Greater New York, was a term commonly used originally to refer to the expanded city created on January 1, 1898 by the incorporation into the city of In New York City, a borough is a unique form of government which administers the five fundamental constituent parts that make up the consolidated city On January 1, 1914, the New York State Legislature created Bronx County, and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year 
The construction of the New York City Subway, first opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency In the 1920s, Manhattan saw the increasing influx of Blacks as part of the Great Migration from the American South, and the Harlem Renaissance, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that saw dueling skyscrapers in the skyline. See also Second Great Migration (African American The Great Migration was the movement of approximately seven million African-Americans out of the The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925 Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. 
On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village took the lives of 146 garment workers, which would eventually lead to great improvements in the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest Industrial disaster in the history of the city of New Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan 
The period between the World Wars saw the election of reformist mayor Fiorello La Guardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance. LaGuardia redirects here For the airport see LaGuardia Airport. Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party Political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably  As the city's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Despite the effects of the Great Depression, the 1930s saw the building of some of the world's tallest skyscrapers, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline today. Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial
Returning World War II veterans and immigrants from Europe created a postwar economic boom and led to the development of huge housing developments, targeted at returning veterans, including Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town which opened in 1947. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Peter Cooper Village —Stuyvesant Town is a large private residential development on the East Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City  In 1951, the United Nations relocated from its first headquarters in Queens, to the East Side of Manhattan. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 
Like many major U. S. cities, New York suffered race riots and population and industrial decline in the 1960s. By the 1970s, the city had gained a reputation as a graffiti-covered, crime-ridden relic of history.  In 1975, the city government faced imminent bankruptcy, and its appeals for assistance were initially rejected, summarized by the classic October 30, 1975 New York Daily News headline as "Ford to City: Drop Dead". Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137  The fate was avoided through a federal loan and debt restructuring, and the city was forced to accept increased financial scrutiny by New York State. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous 
The 1980s saw a rebirth of Wall Street, and the city reclaimed its role at the center of the world-wide financial industry. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) and AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease. The Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC is a Non-profit, Volunteer -supported and community-based AIDS service organization that has led the United States ACT UP, or the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, "is a diverse non-partisan group of individuals.
Starting in the 1990s, crime rates dropped drastically and the outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination not only of immigrants from around the world, but of many U. S. citizens seeking a cosmopolitan lifestyle.
Modern New York City is familiar to many people around the globe thanks to its popularity as a setting for films and television series. Notable television examples include such award-winning shows as Friends, 30 Rock, Seinfeld, NYPD Blue, Law & Order, Will & Grace, Gossip Girl and Sex and the City. Friends was an 30 Rock is an American Television comedy Series created by Tina Fey. Seinfeld is an American Situation comedy, or sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5 1989 to May 14 1998 lasting nine seasons NYPD Blue is an American television police drama set in New York City, exploring the internal and external struggles of the fictional 15th precinct Law & Order is an American Police procedural and Legal drama television series created by Dick Wolf. Will & Grace is a popular Emmy Award -winning American television sitcom that was originally broadcast on NBC from 1998 to 2006 Gossip Girl is a series of novels written for teenagers by Cecily von Ziegesar. Sex and the City was an American Cable television program The original run of the show was broadcast on HBO from 1998 until 2004 for a Notable film examples include Miracle on 34th Street, Ghostbusters, Cloverfield, which specifically takes place in Manhattan, and many of Woody Allen's films, such as Annie Hall, Bananas, and Manhattan. Miracle on 34th Street (also titled The Big Heart in the UK is a 1947 Film written by Valentine Davies, directed by George Seaton Zuul redirects here For the videogame see Zool. Ghostbusters (titled on-screen as Ghost Busters) is Cloverfield is a 2008 monster / Horror film directed by Matt Reeves, produced by J Woody Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; December 1 1935 is an American Film director, Writer, Actor, Comedian, and Annie Hall is a 1977 Romantic comedy film directed by Woody Allen from a script he co-wrote with Marshall Brickman. Bananas is a 1971 Comedy film written by Mickey Rose and Woody Allen, Directed by Allen and starring him and Manhattan is a 1979 Romantic comedy film about Isaac Davis ( Woody Allen) a twice-divorced 42-year-old comedy writer dating a 17-year-old
Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan from The Bronx and the mainland United States. See also Geography and environment of New York City The Harlem River is a navigable tidal Strait in New York City, USA that Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Ward's Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Randall's Island is situated in the East River in New York City, part of the borough of Manhattan. Ward's Island is situated in the East River in New York City. Roosevelt Island, formerly known as Welfare Island, and before that Blackwell's Island, is a narrow island in the East River of New York This article is about Governors Island in New York For other uses see Governors Island (disambiguation Governors Island is a 172- Acre (69 ha island Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloe's Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States best known as the location of the New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City  Manhattan Island is 22. 7 square miles (58. 8 km²) in area, 13. 4 miles (21. 6 km) long and 2. 3 miles (3. 7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).  New York County as a whole covers a total area of 33. 77 square miles (87. 46 km²), of which 22. 96 square miles (59. 47 km²) are land and 10. 81 square miles (28. 00 km²) are water. 
One Manhattan neighborhood is actually contiguous with The Bronx. Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan. marble_hill_manhattan_mappng|right|thumb]] Marble Hill is the northernmost section of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States Spuyten Duyvil Creek is a channel connecting the Hudson River to the Harlem River Ship Canal, and on to the Harlem River in New York City, separating  Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All 
Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention. The borough has seen substantial land reclamation along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in topography has been evened out. Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices One involves creating new land from sea- or riverbeds the other refers to restoring an area to a more natural state (such as after 
Early in the nineteenth century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the The West Side Highway (officially the Joe DiMaggio Highway, formerly the Miller Highway or West Side Elevated Highway) is a mostly-surface section of  When building the World Trade Center, 1. The construction of the World Trade Center was conceived as an Urban renewal project spearheaded by David Rockefeller, to help revitalize Lower Manhattan The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan 2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. A cubic yard is an Imperial / US customary (non- SI non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States, Canada and CM3 redirects here If you were looking for the 3rd game in the Cooking Mama series abbreviated as CM3 see here.  Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. Battery Park City is a 92 acre (04 km² Planned community at the southwestern tip of Lower Manhattan in New York City, United States.  The result was a 700 foot (210 m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (450 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1. Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, 2 mile (1. 9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks. 
Manhattan is loosely divided into downtown, midtown, and uptown, with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the See also Manhattan Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial Upper Manhattan denotes the more northerly region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan.
Manhattan is connected by the George Washington Bridge, Holland Tunnel and Lincoln Tunnel to New Jersey to the west, and to three New York City boroughs—the Bronx to the northeast and Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island to the east and south. The George Washington Bridge (known informally as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George) is a Suspension bridge spanning The Holland Tunnel is a highway Tunnel under the Hudson River connecting the island of Manhattan in New York City with Jersey The Lincoln Tunnel is a 15 mile (24 km long Tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey and the borough New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough is the Staten Island Ferry across New York Harbor, which is free of charge. The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger Ferry service operated by the New York City Department of Transportation that runs between Manhattan and Staten The ferry terminal is located at Battery Park at its southern tip. Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 hectare public park located at the Battery the southern tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, facing It is possible to travel to Staten Island via Brooklyn, using the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked Suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New
The Commissioners' Plan of 1811, called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the Hudson River, each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue in the west. The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was a proposal by the New York State Legislature adopted in 1811 for the orderly development and sale of the land of Manhattan between The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami First Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from Houston Street northbound The West Side Highway (officially the Joe DiMaggio Highway, formerly the Miller Highway or West Side Elevated Highway) is a mostly-surface section of There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City in Manhattan's East Village. Avenue A runs from north to south and is the westernmost of the avenues to be defined by letters instead of using the numbering system in the New York City borough Avenue D is the easternmost named Avenue in the East Village neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, though several Alphabet City is a neighborhood located within the East Village in the New York City borough of Manhattan. The East Village is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The numbered streets in Manhattan run east-west, and are 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets. With each combined street and block adding up to about 260 feet (79 m), there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including 34th, 42nd, 57th and 125th Streets, some of the borough's most significant transportation and shopping venues. 34th Street is a major cross-town street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, connecting the Lincoln Tunnel and Queens-Midtown 42nd Street is a major crosstown street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, known for its Theaters especially near the intersection 57th Street runs east-west in the New York City borough of Manhattan, from a New York City Department of Sanitation dock on the Hudson River Shopping is the examining of Goods or services from Retailers with intent to purchase at that time  Broadway is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip. Broadway, as the name implies is a wide avenue in New York City. Bowling Green is a small public park in Lower Manhattan at the foot of Broadway next to the site of the original Dutch fort of New Amsterdam. Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at Union Square, Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street), Times Square (Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and 59th Street)
A consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28. Union Square Park (also known as Union Square) is an important and historic intersection in New York City, located where Broadway and the Bowery Herald Square is formed by the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue (officially named Avenue of the Americas and 34th Street in the borough Sixth Avenue is a major Avenue in New York City 's borough of Manhattan. Times Square is a major intersection in Manhattan, New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West Seventh Avenue / Adam Clayton Powell Jr Boulevard is a thoroughfare on the West Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Columbus Circle, named for Christopher Columbus, is a major landmark and point of attraction in the New York City borough of Manhattan. Central Park West (CPW is an avenue that runs north-south in the New York City borough of Manhattan, in the United States. 9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as Manhattanhenge (by analogy with Stonehenge). Manhattanhenge (sometimes referred to as Manhattan Solstice) is a semi-annual occurrence in which the setting sun aligns with the east-west streets of Manhattan 's Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury  On separate occasions in late May and early July, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level.  A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise in January and December.
The Wildlife Conservation Society, which operates the zoos and aquariums in the city, is currently undertaking The Mannahatta Project, a computer simulation to visually reconstruct the ecology and geography of Manhattan when Henry Hudson first sailed by in 1609, and compare it to what we know of the island today. The Wildlife Conservation Society ( WCS) endeavors to save Wildlife and wild lands though careful use of science conservation around the world education 
Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention. Bergen County is the most populous County of the state of New Jersey, United States. Hudson County is in New Jersey, United States. Its County seat is Jersey City. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their environmental cultural or similar value African Burial Ground National Monument at Duane Street and African Burial Ground Way (Elk Street in Lower Manhattan ( New York City) preserves a site containing the Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton was once a circular sandstone Fort now located in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan, New Federal Hall, located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States of America and the site of George Washington This article is about Governors Island in New York For other uses see Governors Island (disambiguation Governors Island is a 172- Acre (69 ha island Hamilton Grange National Memorial is a National Park Service site in St Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is a recreated Brownstone at 28 E The Neighborhoods of New York City are located within "The Five Boroughs". This is a list of Neighborhoods in the borough of Manhattan arranged geographically from the north of the island to the south Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Chinatown). The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park and the East River. ||-||-||-||}The Chinatown neighborhood of Manhattan &mdash (紐約華埠 a borough of New York City &mdash is an Ethnic enclave with a large Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintage NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITaly") . TriBeCa is a Neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York in the United States. This article is about an area of Manhattan, New York City. For the area in London UK see Soho. "Nolita" redirects here For the Italian fashion designer see No  Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands. Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center in the past usually Harlem in English is a city in the Netherlands. 
Some neighborhoods, such as SoHo, are commercial in nature and known for upscale shopping. This article is about an area of Manhattan, New York City. For the area in London UK see Soho. Others, such as Greenwich Village, the Lower East Side and the East Village, have long been associated with the "Bohemian" subculture. Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan The Lower East Side is a Neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The East Village is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists  Chelsea is a neighborhood with a large gay population, and also recently a center of New York's art industry and nightlife. Chelsea is a neighborhood on the West Side of the Manhattan borough of New York City.  Washington Heights is a vibrant neighborhood of immigrants from the Dominican Republic. Washington Heights is a New York City neighborhood in the northern reaches of the borough of Manhattan. The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with Manhattan's Chinatown has a dense population of people of Chinese descent.  The Upper West Side is often characterized as more intellectual and creative, in contrast to the old money and conservative values of the Upper East Side, one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in the United States. The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River Old Money is a term that refers to the established Upper class. The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park and the East River. 
In Manhattan, uptown means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction in which the island and its street grid system is oriented) and downtown means south (south-southwest).  This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district. Downtown is a term primarily used in North America to refer to a city's core usually in a geographical commercial and community sense A central business district ( CBD) is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city Manhattan has two central business districts, the Financial District at the southern tip of the island, and Midtown Manhattan. The Financial District of New York City (sometimes called FiDi) is a neighborhood on the southernmost section of the borough of Manhattan which See also Manhattan Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan (generally speaking, above 59th Street) and downtown to the southern portion (typically below 14th Street), with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation. 59th Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan runs east-west from York Avenue to the West Side Highway, with a discontinuity
Fifth Avenue roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e. g. , East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block in most places.  South of Waverly Place in Manhattan, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Though the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of Houston Street (pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of 14th Street, where nearly all east-west streets use numeric designations, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island. Houston Street redirects here For the Major League Baseball player with a similar name see Huston Street. 
Although located at about the same latitude as the much warmer European cities of Naples and Madrid, Manhattan has a humid continental climate (Köppen classification Dfa) resulting from prevailing wind patterns that bring cool air from the interior of the North American continent. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. The humid continental climate is a Climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist  The city's coastal position keeps temperatures relatively warmer than inland regions during winter, helping to moderate the amount of snow which averages 25 to 35 inches (63. 5 to 88. 9 cm) each year.  New York City has a frost-free period lasting an average of 220 days between seasonal freezes.  Spring and Fall in New York City are mild, while summer is very warm and humid, with temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher recorded from 18 to 25 days on average during the season.  The city's longterm climate patterns are affected by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, a 70-year-long warming and cooling cycle in the Atlantic that influences the frequency and severity of hurricanes and coastal storms in the region. The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO is a mode of natural variability occurring in the North Atlantic Ocean and which has its principle expression in the Sea surface 
Temperature records have been set as high as 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936 and as low as -15 °F (-26 °C) on February 9, 1934. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. These temperatures are not common and have not been matched or surpassed in more than seven decades. Most recently, temperatures have hit 100 degrees as recently as July 2005 and 103 degrees in August 2006, and dropped to just 1 above zero as recently as January 2004. New York can have excessive days of rain or long stretches of dry weather.
Summer evening temperatures are exacerbated by the urban heat island effect which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow. An urban heat island ( UHI) is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas 
|Average high temperature, °F|
|Average low temperature, °F|
Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the New York City Charter, which has provided for a "strong" mayor-council system since its revision in 1989. The Mayor-Council government system sometimes called the Mayor-Commission government system is one of two variations of Government used for the most part in modern  The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Manhattan.
The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Borough President (informally BP, or Beep in slang is an elective office in each of the five boroughs of New York City. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. The New York City Board of Estimate was a governmental body in New York City, responsible for budget and land-use decisions In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. The Fourteenth Amendment ( Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution is one of the post- Civil War Reconstruction Amendments, first The Equal Protection Clause, part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, provides that "no state shall… deny to any person 
Since 1990, the largely-powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Scott Stringer (born 1960) is a New York Democratic politician and the current Borough President of Manhattan. Manhattan's Borough President is Scott Stringer, elected as a Democrat in 2005. Borough President (informally BP, or Beep in slang is an elective office in each of the five boroughs of New York City. Scott Stringer (born 1960) is a New York Democratic politician and the current Borough President of Manhattan. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. 
Robert M. Morgenthau, a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of New York County since 1974. Robert Morris Morgenthau (born July 31, 1919) is an American Lawyer.  Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. It also has 12 administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. As the host of the United Nations, the borough is home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security  It is also the home of New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government housing the Mayor of New York City and the New York City Council. New York City Hall is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan between Broadway, Park Row and The Mayor of New York City is the head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The New York City Council is the lawmaking body of the City of New York. The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, completed in 1916, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world. The Manhattan Municipal Building, at 1 Centre Street in New York City, is a 40-story building built to accommodate increased governmental space demands after the 1898 
|2004||16. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. 7% 107,405||82. 1% 526,765|
|2000||14. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Democratic candidate Al Gore, then Vice President, and Republican 2% 79,921||79. 8% 449,300|
|1996||13. The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice 8% 67,839||80. 0% 394,131|
|1992||15. The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H 9% 84,501||78. 2% 416,142|
|1988||22. -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties 9% 115,927||76. 1% 385,675|
|1984||27. The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate and former Vice President 4% 144,281||72. 1% 379,521|
|1980||26. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan 2% 115,911||62. 4% 275,742|
|1976||25. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M 5% 117,702||73. 2% 337,438|
|1972||33. The United States presidential election of 1972 was waged on the issues of radicalism and the Vietnam War. 4% 178,515||66. 2% 354,326|
|1968||25. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate 6% 135,458||70. 0% 370,806|
|1964||19. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1964 was one of the most lopsided presidential elections in the history of the United States 2% 120,125||80. 5% 503,848|
|1960||34. The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D 2% 217,271||65. 3% 414,902|
The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. Community Boards of Manhattan are local government bodies in the New York City borough of Manhattan, which are appointed by the Borough President Registered Republicans are a small minority in the borough, only constituting approximately 20% of the electorate. The Democrats hold nearly 80% of those registered in a party, especially those on the Upper East Side and Financial District. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park and the East River. The Financial District of New York City (sometimes called FiDi) is a neighborhood on the southernmost section of the borough of Manhattan which  Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. Controversial political issues in Manhattan include development, noise, and the cost of housing.
Manhattan is divided between four congressional districts, all of which are represented by Democrats.
No Republican has won the presidential election in Manhattan since 1924, when Calvin Coolidge won a plurality of the New York County vote over Democrat John W. Davis, 41. Elections for President and Vice President of the United States are The United States presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate John Calvin Coolidge Jr (July 4 1872 January 5 1933 was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923–1929 John William Davis ( April 13 1873 &ndash March 24 1955) was an American politician, diplomat and lawyer 20%–39. 55%. Warren G. Harding was the most recent Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of the Manhattan vote, with 59. Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2 1865 August 2 1923 was the twenty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack aged 22% of the 1920 vote.  In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 82. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator 1% of the vote in Manhattan and Republican George W. Bush received 16. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. 7%.  The borough is the most important source of funding for presidential campaigns in the United States; in 2004, it was home to six of the top seven zip codes in the nation for political contributions. The ZIP code is the system of Postal codes used by the United States Postal Service (USPS  The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the United States presidential election for all presidential candidates, including both Kerry and Bush during the 2004 election. Elections for President and Vice President of the United States are 
Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. Crime in New York City has been a concern of residents since the 19th century After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the slums of the Five Points neighborhood, an area between Broadway and the Bowery, northeast of New York City Hall. Five Points (or The Five Points) was a notorious Slum centered on the intersection of Anthony (now Worth Orange (now Baxter Mulberry (still the same name Cross Broadway, as the name implies is a wide avenue in New York City. Bowery (ˈbaʊɚi or /ˈbaʊri/ is the name of a street and a small neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. New York City Hall is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan between Broadway, Park Row and By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and "houses of ill repute", and was known as a dangerous place to go. For the 2008 film of this name see The Brothel. For the television series of this name see Cathouse The Series. In 1842, Charles Dickens visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen.  The area was so notorious at the time that it even caught the attention of Abraham Lincoln, who visited the area before his Cooper Union Address in 1860. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal The Cooper Union Speech, or Address of American President Abraham Lincoln was delivered on February 27, 1860, at Cooper Union  The predominantly Irish Five Points Gang was one of the country's first major organized crime entities. The Five Points Gang was a 19th-century Criminal organization based in the Sixth Ward ( The Five Points) of New York City. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate.
As Italian immigration grew in the early 1900s, many joined the Irish gangs. Al Capone got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang, as did Lucky Luciano. Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone (January 17 1899 &ndash January 25 1947 commonly nicknamed Scarface, was an Italian American Gangster who Charles "Lucky" Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania; November 24 1897 – January 26 1962 was a Sicilian Mobster.  The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. Lucky Luciano established La Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the Jewish mob, led by Meyer Lansky, the leading Jewish gangster of that period. Largely originating from the immigration from Eastern Europe during the late-19th and early 20th centuries Jewish-American organized crime (sometimes referred to as the Kosher Meyer Lansky (born Majer Suchowliński, July 4, 1902 &ndash January 15, 1983) was a gangster who with Charles  from 1920–1933, Prohibition helped create a thriving black market in liquor, which the Mafia was quick to capitalize on. In the United States, the term Prohibition refers to the period from 1920 to 1933 during which the sale manufacture and transportation of alcohol for consumption 
New York City experienced a sharp increase in crime during the 1960s and 1970s, with a near fivefold jump in the total number of police-recorded crimes, from 21. 09 per thousand in 1960 to a peak of 102. 66 in 1981. Homicides continued to increase in the city as a whole for another decade, with murders recorded by the NYPD jumping from 390 in 1960, to 1,117 in 1970, 1,812 in 1980 and reaching its peak of 2,262 in 1990. Starting circa 1990, New York City saw record declines in homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, violent crime, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft and property crime, a trend that has continued to today. 
Based on 2005 data, New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States. The Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (often referred to simply as CVPI or P71) is the law enforcement version of the Ford Crown Victoria. A police car is the description for a vehicle used by Police, to assist with their duties in patrolling and responding to incidents  The city as a whole ranked fourth nationwide in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey of the 32 cities surveyed with a population above 500,000. Morgan Quitno Press is a research and publishing company based out of Lawrence, Kansas.  The New York Police Department, with 36,400 officers, is larger than the next four largest U. S. departments combined. The NYPD's counter-terrorism division, with 1,000 officers assigned, is larger than the FBI's.  The NYPD's CompStat system of crime tracking, reporting and monitoring has been credited with a drop in crime in New York City that has far surpassed the drop elsewhere in the United States. See also New York City Police Department CompStat —or COMPSTAT—(short for COMPuter STATistics or COMParative STATistics is the name given to the New York City 
Since 1990, crime in Manhattan has plummeted in all categories tracked by the CompStat profile. A borough that saw 503 murders in 1990 has seen a drop of nearly 78% to 111 in 2006. Robbery and burglary are down by more than 80% during the period, and auto theft has been reduced by more than 90%. Overall crime has declined by more than 75% since 1990 in the seven major crime categories tracked by the system, and year-to-date statistics through May 2007 show continuing declines. 
|2000 Census||Manhattan||NY City||NY State|
|Population density||66,940. The demographics of New York City depict a uniquely large and ethnically diverse Metropolis, the largest city in the United States, with 1/sq mi||26,403/sq mi||402/sq mi|
|Median household income (1999)||$47,030||$38,293||$43,393|
|Per capita income||$42,922||$22,402||$23,389|
|Bachelor's degree or higher||49. 4%||27. 4%||27. 4%|
|Foreign born||29. 4%||35. 9%||20. 4%|
|White||54. 4%||44. 7%||67. 9%|
|Black||17. 4%||26. 6%||15. 9%|
|Hispanic (any race)||27. 2%||27. 0%||15. 1%|
|Asian||9. 4%||9. 8%||5. 5%|
According to 2007 U. S. Census Bureau estimates, there were 1,620,867 people residing in Manhattan on July 1, 2007.  As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940. 1/sq mi (25,849. 9/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States.  If the 2007 census estimates are accurate, then the population density now exceeds 70,595 people per square mile. In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548/sq mi (39,222. 9/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756. 7/sq mi (13,421. 8/km²).  Only 20. 3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind The Bronx. 
The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will grow by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18. The Department of City Planning is a governmental agency of New York City responsible for setting the framework of city's physical and socioeconomic planning 8% over the period, second only to Staten Island. , while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12. 7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4. 4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57. 9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44. 2% growth citywide. 
In 2000, 56. 4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 27. 18% were Hispanic of any race, 17. 39% were Black, 14. 14% were from other races, 9. 40% were Asian, 0. 5% were Native American, and 0. 07% were Pacific Islander. 4. 14% were from two or more races. 24. 93% reported speaking Spanish at home, 4. 12% Chinese, and 2. 19% French. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people 
|Est. 2007||1,620,687||5. 4%|
There were 738,644 households. 25. 2% were married couples living together, 12. 6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59. 1% were non-families. 17. 1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2 and the average family size was 2. 99.
Manhattan's population was spread out with 16. 8% under the age of 18, 10. 2% from 18 to 24, 38. 3% from 25 to 44, 22. 6% from 45 to 64, and 12. 2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90. 3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87. 9 males.
Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than 1 million. There are 3142 counties in the United States. The source of the data is the U Based on IRS data for the 2004 tax year, New York County (Manhattan) had the highest average federal income tax liability per return in the country. The Average tax liability was $25,875, representing 20. 0% of Adjusted Gross Income. Adjusted gross income (AGI is a United States tax term for an amount used in the calculation of an individual's Income tax liability  As of 2002, Manhattan had the highest per capita income of any county in the country. 
The Manhattan ZIP Code 10021, on the Upper East Side, is home to more than 100,000 people and has a per capita income of over $90,000. The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park and the East River.  It is one of the largest concentrations of extreme wealth in the United States. Most Manhattan neighborhoods are not as wealthy. The median income for a household in the county was $47,030, and the median income for a family was $50,229. Males had a median income of $51,856 versus $45,712 for females. The per capita income for the county was $42,922. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country About 17. 6% of families and 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country 8% of those under age 18 and 18. 9% of those age 65 or over. 
Lower Manhattan (Manhattan south of Houston Street) has a sharply different population than the rest of the borough. Houston Street redirects here For the Major League Baseball player with a similar name see Huston Street. According to the 2000 census, the neighborhood was 41% Asian, 32% non-Hispanic white, 19% Hispanic and 6% black. 43% of residents were immigrants. These figures are affected by the demographic weight of Chinatown, which accounts for 55% of the population of Lower Manhattan. While the Financial District had few non-commercial residents after the 1950s, the area has seen a significant surge in its residential population, with estimates showing over 30,000 residents living in the area as of 2005, a jump from the 15,000 to 20,000 before the September 11, 2001 attacks. The Financial District of New York City (sometimes called FiDi) is a neighborhood on the southernmost section of the borough of Manhattan which 
Manhattan is religiously diverse. The largest religious affiliation is the Roman Catholic Church, whose adherents constitute 564,505 persons (more than 36% of the population) and maintain 110 congregations. Jews comprise the second largest religious group, with 314,500 persons (20. American Jews, or Jewish Americans 5%) in 102 congregations. The next largest religious groups are Protestants, with 139,732 adherents (9. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. 1%) and Muslims, with 37,078 (2. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion 4%). 
The borough is also experiencing a baby boom. Since 2000, the number of children under age 5 living in Manhattan grew by more than 32%. 
The skyscraper, which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive skyline, has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century. The building form most closely associated with New York City is the Skyscraper (a pioneering urban form first used in Chicago) that saw New York buildings A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper From 1890–1973, the world's tallest building was in Manhattan, with nine different buildings holding the title. While determining the world's tallest structure has generally been straightforward the definition of the world's tallest building or the  The New York World Building on Park Row, was the first to take the title, standing 309 feet (91 m) until 1955, when it was demolished to construct a new ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge. The New York World Building was a Skyscraper in New York City designed by George Browne Post and built in 1890 to house the now defunct Newspaper for the former elevated train station see Park Row (BMT station Park Row is a street located in the Financial District of the The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest Suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5989 feet (1825 m over the East River connecting the  The nearby Park Row Building, with its 29 stories standing 391 feet (119 m) high took the title in 1899. First known as the Ivins Syndicate Building or just the Syndicate Building the Park Row Building is located on Park Row in the Financial District of the  The 41-story Singer Building, constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the eponymous sewing machine manufacturer, stood 612 feet (187 m) high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished. The Singer Building at Liberty Street and Broadway in Manhattan New York, was an office building completed in 1908 as the headquarters of the  The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, standing 700 feet (213 m) at the foot of Madison Avenue, wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of St Mark's Campanile in Venice. The Metropolitan Life Tower (also known as Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Building or Met Life Tower) located at 1 Madison Avenue New York City, was St Mark's Campanile is the Bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, Italy, located in the square (piazza of the same name Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the  The Woolworth Building, and its distinctive Gothic architecture, took the title in 1913, topping off at 792 feet (241 m). The Woolworth Building, at 57 stories is one of the oldest—and one of the most famous— Skyscrapers in New York City. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. 
The Roaring Twenties saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. Roaring Twenties is a phrase used to describe the 1920s principally in North America, that emphasizes the period's social artistic and cultural dynamism As the stock market soared in the days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, two developers publicly competed for the crown. The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the ’29 Crash, the Crash of 1929, the Great Crash of 1929, the Great Crash of October 1929  At 927 feet (282 m), 40 Wall Street, completed in May 1930 in an astonishing 11 months as the headquarters of the Bank of Manhattan, seemed to have secured the title. 40 Wall Street is a 70-story Skyscraper originally known as the Bank of Manhattan Trust building, but then became known by the numerical address when its founding The Bank of the Manhattan Company (established 1799) is the earliest of the predecessor institutions that eventually formed the current JPMorgan Chase.  At Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street, auto executive Walter Chrysler and his architect William Van Alen developed plans to build the structure's trademark 185-foot (56 m)-high spire in secret, pushing the Chrysler Building to 1,046 feet (319 m) and making it the tallest in the world when it was completed in 1929. Lexington Avenue, often abbreviated by New Yorkers as "Lex" is an avenue on the East Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that carries 42nd Street is a major crosstown street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, known for its Theaters especially near the intersection Walter Percy Chrysler ( April 2, 1875 – August 18, 1940) was an American Machinist, Railroad man Automotive industry William Van Alen (August 10 1883 – May 24 1954 was an American Architect, best known as the architect in charge of designing New York City 's Chrysler The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco Skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd  Both buildings were soon surpassed, with the May 1931 completion of the 102-story Empire State Building with its Art Deco tower soaring 1,250 feet (381 m) to the top of the building. The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco Skyscraper in New York City at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial The 203ft high pinnacle was later added bringing the total height of the building to 443 m (1,453 ft). 
The former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, once an iconic symbol of the City, were located in Lower Manhattan. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the At 1,368 and 1,362 feet (417m& 415m), the 110-story buildings were the world's tallest from 1972, until they were surpassed by the construction of the Sears Tower in 1974. The Sears Tower, a Skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, has been the tallest building in North America since 1973  By the end of the 20th century the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were arguably among the world's most famous and recognizable buildings until their destruction in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The Freedom Tower, a replacement for the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, is currently under construction and is slated to be ready for occupancy in 2011. 1 World Trade Center, or the Freedom Tower, is the main building of the new World Trade Center complex currently under construction in Lower Manhattan in 
In 1961, Penn Central unveiled plans to tear down the old Penn Station and replace it with a new Madison Square Garden and office building complex. The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American Railroad company that operated from 1968 Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as “Penn Station”) is the major intercity rail station and a major Commuter rail hub in New York City Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially as The Garden, has been the name of four Arenas in New York City. One Penn Plaza is a Skyscraper near Pennsylvania Station in New York City, west of Seventh Avenue, between 33rd and 34th Streets Organized protests were aimed at preserving the McKim, Mead, and White-designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City. McKim Mead and White was a prominent architectural firm in the eastern United States at the turn of the twentieth century Beaux Arts architecture denotes the academic classical Architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris.  Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963. The loss of Penn Station—called “an act of irresponsible public vandalism” by historian Lewis Mumford—led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which is responsible to preserve the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage". Lewis Mumford ( October 19, 1895 &ndash January 26, 1990) was an American Historian of Technology and Science The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission is the New York City agency charged with administering the city's Landmarks Preservation Law.  The historic preservation movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including nearly 1,000 in New York City. Historic preservation or heritage conservation is a professional endeavor that seeks to preserve the ability of older (e 
The theatre district around Broadway at Times Square, New York University, Columbia University, Flatiron Building, the Financial District around Wall Street, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Little Italy, Harlem, the American Museum of Natural History, Chinatown, and Central Park are all located on this densely populated island. Broadway, as the name implies is a wide avenue in New York City. Times Square is a major intersection in Manhattan, New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West New York University ( NYU) is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research University in New York City. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. The Flatiron Building, which when constructed was called the Fuller Building, was one of the tallest buildings in New York City upon its completion in 1902 and is The Financial District of New York City (sometimes called FiDi) is a neighborhood on the southernmost section of the borough of Manhattan which Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. Little Italy is a neighborhood in lower Manhattan, New York City, once known for its large population of Italians. Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center The American Museum of Natural History ( AMNH) located on the Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York, USA is one of the largest and most ||-||-||-||}The Chinatown neighborhood of Manhattan &mdash (紐約華埠 a borough of New York City &mdash is an Ethnic enclave with a large Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually
The city is a leader in energy-efficient "green" office buildings, such as Hearst Tower, owned by Englishman Samuel Fox, and the rebuilt 7 World Trade Center. Hearst Tower in New York City, New York is located at 300 West 57th Street, 959 8th Avenue, near Columbus Circle. 7 World Trade Center is a building in New York City located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. 
Central Park is bordered on the north by West 110th Street, on the west by Eighth Avenue, on the south by West 59th Street, and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually 59th Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan runs east-west from York Avenue to the West Side Highway, with a discontinuity Along the park's borders, these streets are usually referred to as Central Park North, Central Park West, and Central Park South, respectively. Central Park North is a street in the borough of Manhattan, New York City; it is a section of 110th Street. Central Park West (CPW is an avenue that runs north-south in the New York City borough of Manhattan, in the United States. Central Park South is the section of 59th Street in the borough of Manhattan, New York City that lies along the southern end of Central (Fifth Avenue retains its name along the eastern border. ) The park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Calvert Vaux ( December 20, 1824 – November 19, 1895) was an architect and landscape designer The 843 acre (3. 4 km²) park offers extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and grassy areas used for various sporting pursuits, as well as playgrounds for children. A trail is a Path or Road used for Walking, Cycling, Cross-country skiing, or other activities Ice skating is Traveling on Ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special Boots A study The park is a popular oasis for migrating birds, and thus is popular with bird watchers. The 6 mile (10 km) road circling the park is popular with joggers, bicyclists and inline skaters, especially on weekends and in the evenings after 7:00 p. m. , when automobile traffic is banned. 
While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped and contains several artificial lakes. The construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects. Some 20,000 workers crafted the topography to create the English-style pastoral landscape Olmsted and Vaux sought to create. Workers moved nearly 3,000,000 cubic yards (2,300,000 m³) of soil and planted more than 270,000 trees and shrubs. 
17. 8% of the borough, a total of 2,686 acres (10. 9 km²), are devoted to parkland. Almost 70% of Manhattan's space devoted to parks is located outside of Central Park, including 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts and many other amenities. 
The African Burial Ground National Monument at Duane Street preserves a site containing the remains of over 400 Africans buried during the 17th and 18th centuries. African Burial Ground National Monument at Duane Street and African Burial Ground Way (Elk Street in Lower Manhattan ( New York City) preserves a site containing the The remains were found in 1991 during the construction of the Foley Square Federal Office Building. Foley Square is a green space in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
Manhattan is home to some of the nation's most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for $510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,224/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,888/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2. 3 million workers drawn from the entire New York metropolitan area accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City. The New York metropolitan area, often referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the most populous Metropolitan area in the United States and is also one  Manhattan's daytime population swells to 2. 874 million, with commuters adding a net 1. 337 million people to the population. This commuter influx of 1. 459 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any other county or city in the country, and was more than triple the 481,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C.
Its most important economic sector is the finance industry, whose 280,000 workers earned more than half of all the wages paid in the borough. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Wall Street is frequently used to represent the entire financial industry. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. In 2006, those in the Manhattan financial industry earned an average weekly pay about $8,300 (including bonuses), while the average weekly pay was about $2,500. The health care sector represented 11. 3% of the borough's jobs and 4% of total compensation, with workers taking home about $900 per week. 
New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the nation, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan.  Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the United States.  Lower Manhattan is home to both the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, and is the nation's third-largest central business district (after Chicago's Loop). The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. The NASDAQ (acronym of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) is an American Stock exchange. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop 
Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks are headquartered in Manhattan. An advertising agency or ad agency is a service Business dedicated to creating planning and handling Advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion  "Madison Avenue" is often used metonymously to refer to the entire advertising field, after Madison Avenue became identified with the advertising industry after the explosive growth in the area in the 1920s. In Rhetoric, metonymy (mɨˈtɒnɨmi is the use of a word for a concept or object associated with the concept/object originally denoted by the word
2006 statistics showed that the average weekly wages paid to Manhattan workers is $1,453 (excluding bonuses), the highest in the country's 325 largest counties, and the salary growth of 7. 8% was the highest among the ten largest counties. Pay in the borough was 85% higher than the $784 pay earned weekly nationwide and nearly double the amount earned by workers in the outer boroughs. Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white collar professions, with manufacturing (39,800 workers) and construction (31,600) accounting for a small fraction of the borough's employment. 
Historically, this corporate presence has been complemented by many independent retailers, though a recent influx of national chain stores has caused many to lament the creeping homogenization of Manhattan. 
Manhattan has been the scene of many important American cultural movements. In 1912, about 20,000 workers, a quarter of them women, marched on Washington Square Park to commemorate the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, which killed 146 workers on March 25, 1911. See Washington Square Park (disambiguation Washington Square Park is one of the best-known of New York City 's 1700 public The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest Industrial disaster in the history of the city of New Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a clothing style that became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of female independence, reflecting the alliance of labor and suffrage movements.  The Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925 Manhattan's vibrant visual art scene in the 1950s and 1960s was a center of the American pop art movement, which gave birth to such giants as Jasper Johns and Roy Lichtenstein. Pop Art is a visual Art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in parallel in the late 1950s in the United States. Jasper Johns Jr (born May 15, 1930 in Augusta Georgia) is a contemporary American artist who primarily works in painting and Printmaking Roy Fox Lichtenstein (October 27 1923 &ndash September 29 1997 was a prominent American Pop artist his work heavily influenced by both popular advertising and Perhaps no other artist is as associated with the downtown pop art movement of the late 1970s as Andy Warhol, who socialized at clubs like Serendipity 3 and Studio 54. For the song by David Bowie, see Andy Warhol (song. Andrew Warhola (August 6 1928 &ndash February 22 1987 known as Andy Warhol Serendipity 3 (Serendipity III is a restaurant and general store located in the Upper East Side, in New York City. Studio 54 is a New York City Broadway theater and former Discothèque located at 254 West 54th Street in Manhattan.
A popular haven for art, the downtown neighborhood of Chelsea is widely known for its galleries and cultural events, with more than 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from upcoming artists and respected artists as well. Chelsea is a neighborhood on the West Side of the Manhattan borough of New York City. 
Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located Plays and musicals are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square. A play, or stageplay, is a form of Literature written by a Playwright, almost always consisting of Dialogue between Fictional characters Musical theatre is a form of Theatre combining Music, Songs spoken Dialogue and Dance.  Off-Broadway theatres feature productions in venues with 100-500 seats. Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City.  A little more than a mile from Times Square is the Lincoln Center, home to one of the world's most prestigious opera houses, that of the Metropolitan Opera. The Metropolitan Opera Association of New York City, founded in April 1880 is a major presenter of all types of opera including Grand Opera. 
Manhattan is also home to some of the most extensive art collections, both contemporary and historical, in the world including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Guggenheim Museum. The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City, The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth The Whitney Museum of American Art, often referred to simply as "the Whitney" harbors one of the most important collections of 20th century American art Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 &ndash April 9 1959 was an American (of Welsh descent Architect, Interior designer, Writer, and educator who This article refers to the Guggenheim's landmark New York museum
Manhattan is the borough most closely associated with New York City by non-residents; even some natives of New York City's outer boroughs will describe a trip to Manhattan as "going to the city". 
The borough has a place in several American idioms. An idiom is a Phrase whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal Definition, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only The phrase "a New York minute" is meant to convey a very short period of time, sometimes in hyperbolic form, as in "perhaps faster than you would believe is possible". A New York minute is an informal term used to mean a very short period of time It refers to the rapid pace of life in Manhattan.  The term "melting pot" was first popularly coined to describe the densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side in Israel Zangwill's play The Melting Pot, which was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet set by Zangwill in New York City in 1908. The melting pot is an analogy for the way in which homogeneous societies develop in which the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures races and religions are The Lower East Side is a Neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Israel Zangwill ( January 21, 1864 - August 1, 1926) was an English -born humourist and writer The Melting Pot is a play by Israel Zangwill, first staged in 1908 William Shakespeare ( baptised Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the  The iconic Flatiron Building is said to have been the source of the phrase "23 skidoo" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building. The Flatiron Building, which when constructed was called the Fuller Building, was one of the tallest buildings in New York City upon its completion in 1902 and is  The "Big Apple" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stablehands to refer to New York City's racetracks and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple. The Big Apple is a nickname or Moniker for New York City. It was first popularized in the 1920s by John J New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana " Jazz musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term. 
Today, Manhattan is home of the NBA's New York Knicks and NHL's New York Rangers, who play their home games at Madison Square Garden, the only major professional sports arena in the borough. The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America The New York Rangers are a professional Ice hockey team based in New York, New York, United States. Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially as The Garden, has been the name of four Arenas in New York City. The New York Jets proposed a West Side Stadium for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, leaving them at Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey. The New York Jets are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area. The West Side Stadium (also known as the New York Sports and Convention Center) was a proposed football Stadium to be built on a platform over the Giants Stadium, is the home Stadium for the New York Giants and New York Jets football teams of the NFL, and the Red Bull New East Rutherford is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Today, Manhattan is the only borough in New York City that does not have a pro baseball franchise. The Bronx has the Yankees and Queens has the Mets of the Major League Baseball. The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. "Mets" redirects here For the medical term see Metastasis. The Minor League Baseball Brooklyn Cyclones play in Brooklyn, while the Staten Island Yankees play in Staten Island. Part of the History of baseball series Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of Professional baseball leagues in North The Brooklyn Cyclones are a minor league Baseball team in the Short-Season A classification New York - Penn League, affiliated with the New York Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. The Staten Island Yankees are a minor league Baseball team located in Staten Island, New York. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name Yet three of the four major league teams to play in New York City played in Manhattan. The New York Giants played in the various incarnations of the Polo Grounds at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue from their inception in 1883 — except for 1889, when they split their time between Jersey City and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911 — until they headed west with the Brooklyn Dodgers after the 1957 season. The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball team based in, that currently play in the National League West Division. The Polo Grounds was the name given to four different Stadiums in Upper Manhattan, New York City used by Baseball 's New York Giants Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name The Los Angeles Dodgers are a Major League Baseball team based in Los Angeles California, USA  The New York Yankees began their franchise as the Hilltoppers, named for Hilltop Park, where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912. Hilltop Park was the nickname of a Baseball park that formerly stood in the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City. The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the New York Yankees, remaining there until they moved across the Harlem River in 1923 to Yankee Stadium. See also Geography and environment of New York City The Harlem River is a navigable tidal Strait in New York City, USA that The original Yankee Stadium is a Stadium located in The Bronx in New York City.  The New York Mets played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before Shea Stadium was completed in 1964. "Mets" redirects here For the medical term see Metastasis. William A Shea Municipal Stadium, usually shortened to Shea Stadium or just Shea (ʃeɪ̪ is a Stadium located in the New York City borough  After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing. 
The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The National Invitation Tournament (NIT is a men's college Basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association.  The New York Knicks started play in 1946 as one of the National Basketball Association's original teams, playing their first home games at the 69th Regiment Armory, before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home. The 69th Regiment Armory located at 68 Lexington Avenue, New York New York, is a historical building completed in 1904  The New York Liberty of the WNBA have shared the Garden with the Knicks since their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams. The New York Liberty is a Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA team based in New York City.  Rucker Park in Harlem is a playground court, famed for its street ball style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league. Rucker Park is a Basketball court in the New York City borough of Manhattan, located at 155th Street and Frederick Douglass Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center Streetball is an urban form of Basketball, played on Playgrounds and in Gymnasiums across the world 
Though both of New York City's football teams play today across the Hudson River in Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami Giants Stadium, is the home Stadium for the New York Giants and New York Jets football teams of the NFL, and the Red Bull New East Rutherford is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. The New York Giants played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the National Football League in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956. The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York City suburb of East Rutherford New Jersey. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league.  The New York Jets, originally known as the Titans, started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens in 1964. The New York Jets are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area. 
The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since their founding in the 1926–1927 season. The New York Rangers are a professional Ice hockey team based in New York, New York, United States. The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America The Rangers were predated by the New York Americans, who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season in which it played in the Garden as the Brooklyn Americans. For the 1941 American football team see New York Americans (AFL. 
The New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League played their home games at Downing Stadium for two seasons, starting in 1974. The New York Cosmos (1971–1985 known simply as the Cosmos for the 1977 and 1978 seasons was a soccer franchise based in New York City and its suburbs that operated North American Soccer League (NASL was a professional soccer League with teams in the United States of America (U Downing Stadium, previously known as the Triborough Stadium, was a 22000 seat Football Stadium in the city of New York. In 1975, the team signed Pelé, officially recorded by FIFA as the world's greatest soccer player, to a $4. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (French for International Federation of Association Football) 5 million contract, drawing a capacity crowd of 22,500 to watch him lead the team to a 2-0 victory.  The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in dreadful condition though and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat Icahn Stadium which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of Pele's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a FIFA-approved floodlit soccer stadium which hosts matches involving some 48 youth teams who are members of a Manhattan soccer club. Icahn Stadium opened in 2005 Located on Randall's Island, in New York City, it is one of only three Class 1 internationally certified tracks in the United States The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (French for International Federation of Association Football) 
Manhattan is served by the major New York City dailies, including The New York Times, New York Daily News, and New York Post, which are all headquartered in the borough. The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137 The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually The nation's largest financial newspaper, The Wall Street Journal, is also based here. Other daily newspapers include AM New York and The Villager. See also List of New York City newspapers and magazines AM New York is a free daily New York City (The Friday edition is combined The Villager is a weekly newspaper serving Downtown Manhattan. The New York Amsterdam News, based in Harlem, is one of the leading African American weekly newspapers in the United States. The New York Amsterdam News is a weekly Newspaper geared for the African-American community of New York City. The Village Voice is a leading alternative weekly based in the borough. This article is about a New York newspaper For the Ottawa Hills Ohio magazine see The Village Voice of Ottawa Hills. 
The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO and Comedy Central. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's MSNBC is a 24-hour cable television news channel based in the United States and available in Canada. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. Comedy Central is an American Cable television and Satellite television channel that carries predominantly Comedy programming In 1971, WLIB became New York's first black-owned radio station and the crown jewel of Inner City Broadcasting Corporation. WLIB (1190 kHz AM) is an Urban contemporary gospel Radio station located in New York City and owned by Inner City Broadcasting Located in New York City, the Inner City Broadcasting Corporation ("Inner City" was founded in 1971 by Percy Sutton, former Borough President A co-founder of Inner City was Percy Sutton, a former Manhattan borough president and long one of the city’s most powerful black leaders. Percy Sutton is a civil rights activist, Lawyer and Entrepreneur.  WLIB began broadcasts for the African-American community in 1949 and regularly interviewed civil rights leaders like Malcolm X and aired live broadcasts from conferences of the NAACP. Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19 1925 February 21 1965 also known as El-Hajj Malik El- Shabazz, was an African American The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations Influential WQHT, also known as Hot 97, claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States. WQHT, more commonly known as "Hot 97", is a high-profile Rhythmic Radio station in New York City under the corporate ownership of WNYC, comprising an AM and FM signal, has the largest public radio audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan.  WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. WBAI, a part of the Pacifica Radio Network, is a Non-commercial, listener-supported Radio station, broadcasting at 99
The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a jazz hour to discussion of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming. Public-access television in the United States is a form of Citizen media, similar to Canada's community channels Australia's community television Manhattan Neighborhood Network (MNN is a Non-profit organization that broadcasts programming on four Public access stations in Manhattan, New York  NY1, Time Warner Cable's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics. NY1 (pronounced " New York One " is a twenty-four hour news channel available exclusively to over two million Cable television customers within the five boroughs Time Warner Cable ( (formerly Warner Cable Communications) is an American national cable television company that operates in 27 states and has 31 operating divisions
In the early days of Manhattan, wood construction and poor access to water supplies left the city vulnerable to fires. In 1776, shortly after the Continental Army evacuated Manhattan and left it to the British, a massive fire broke out destroying one-third of the city and some 500 houses. The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America 
The rise of immigration near the turn of the century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the Lower East Side, densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. The Lower East Side is a Neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Tenements were usually five-stories high, constructed on the then-typical 25x100 lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants.  By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new housing code that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough. 
Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town is a sprawling private residential development on the East Side of Manhattan. Peter Cooper Village —Stuyvesant Town is a large private residential development on the East Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City One of the most successful of postwar private housing communities, Stuyvesant Town was planned in 1943.  Its first tenants, two World War II veterans and their families, moved into the first completed building on August 1, 1947. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Stuyvesant Town is a collection of red brick apartment buildings with typical housing project-style architecture, stretching from First Avenue to Avenue C, between 14th and 20th Streets. A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. Public housing is a form of Housing tenure in which the property is owned by a Government authority which may be central or local First Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from Houston Street northbound " Avenue C " is the name of a number of streets in various cities It covers about 80 acres of land. Stuyvesant Town has 8,757 apartments and with its sister development Peter Cooper Village they have a combined 110 buildings, 11,250 apartments, and over 25,000 residents. Peter Cooper Village is a residential development in the New York City borough of Manhattan, which is located east of Gramercy Park, between
Today, Manhattan offers a wide array of public and private housing options. There were 798,144 housing units in Manhattan as of the 2000 Census, at an average density of 34,756. 7/sq mi (13,421. 8/km²).  Only 20. 3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind The Bronx. 
Manhattan is unique in the United States for its intense use of public transportation and lack of private car ownership. The transportation system of New York City is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs and only 5% use public transportation, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transportation and only 18% driving to work.  According to the 2000 U.S. Census, more than 75% of Manhattan households do not own a car. 
In 2007, Mayor Bloomberg proposed a congestion pricing system that would charge drivers entering Manhattan below 60th Street between 6 a. New York Congestion pricing was a proposed Traffic congestion fee for vehicles traveling into or within the Manhattan central business district of Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of a Transport network in periods of peak Demand to reduce Traffic congestion m. and 6 p. m. weekdays a fee of $8 per car or $21 per truck, with lower fees for travel within the pricing zone. The plan was modeled on a similar system in London, and was intended to improve air quality and traffic flow, with funds raised used for mass transit improvements throughout the city. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. 
The New York City Subway, the largest subway system in the world by track mileage and the largest by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, connecting to every borough except Staten Island. The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway A second subway, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) system, connects Manhattan to northern New Jersey. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson ( PATH) is a Rapid transit railroad linking Manhattan, New York with New Jersey, and providing service New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Transit passengers tender their fares with pay-per-ride MetroCards, which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains. MetroCard redirects here For other cards see MetroCard (disambiguation See also Transportation in New York City The MetroCard A one-way fare on the bus or subway is $2. 00, and PATH costs $1. 75.  There are daily, 7-day, 14-day, and 30-day MetroCards that allow unlimited trips on all subways (except PATH) and MTA bus routes (except for express buses).  The PATH QuickCard is being phased out, and both PATH and the MTA are testing "smart card" payment systems to replace the MetroCard.  Commuter rail services operating to and from Manhattan are the Long Island Rail Road (which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to Long Island), the Metro-North Railroad (which connects Manhattan to Westchester County and Southwestern Connecticut) and New Jersey Transit trains to various points in New Jersey. Various terms are used for Passenger rail lines and equipment The City of New York Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or more commonly Metro-North, is a Suburban commuter rail service Westchester County is a primarily Suburban county located in the U The New Jersey Transit Corporation (usually shortened to New Jersey Transit, NJ Transit or NJT) is a statewide Public transportation system serving
The MTA New York City Bus offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan. New York City Transit buses, operating under the MTA New York City Bus brand is a service of MTA Regional Bus Operations that operates in all five boroughs employing An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan. The bus system served 740 million riders in 2004, ranking first in the nation, more than double the ridership in second-ranked Los Angeles. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West 
New York's iconic yellow cabs, which number 13,087 city-wide and must have the requisite medallion authorizing the pick up of street hails, are ubiquitous in the borough.  Manhattan also sees tens of thousands of bicycle commuters. The densely packed New York City has had a love-hate relationship with bicycles since they were first invented The Roosevelt Island Tramway, one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, whisks commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been servicing the island since 1978. The Roosevelt Island Tramway is an Aerial tramway in New York City that spans the East River and connects Roosevelt Island to Manhattan Roosevelt Island, formerly known as Welfare Island, and before that Blackwell's Island, is a narrow island in the East River of New York (The other system in North America is the Portland Aerial Tram. Description Route The tram consists of two stations and a single intermediate tower )  The Staten Island Ferry, which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 19 million passengers on the 5. The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger Ferry service operated by the New York City Department of Transportation that runs between Manhattan and Staten 2 mile (8. 4 km) run between Manhattan and Staten Island. Each weekday five vessels are used to transport almost 65,000 passengers on 110 boat trips.  The ferry has been fare-free since 1997, when the then-50-cent fare was eliminated. 
The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as “Penn Station”) is the major intercity rail station and a major Commuter rail hub in New York City "Grand Central Station" redirects here For other uses see Grand Central. They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. About one in every three users of mass transit in the country and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York and its suburbs.  Amtrak provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, D.C.; Upstate New York, New England; cross-border service to Toronto and Montreal; and destinations in the South and Midwest. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Upstate New York is the region of New York State north of the core of the New York metropolitan area. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec
The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles per day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Manhattan, is the world's busiest vehicular tunnel. The Lincoln Tunnel is a 15 mile (24 km long Tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey and the borough  It was built instead of a bridge to allow for unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson to Manhattan's piers. New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City The Queens Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-Federal project of its time when it was completed in 1940. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel (sometimes simply Midtown Tunnel) is a Toll road in New York City.  President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. 
The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive are two limited-access routes that skirt the East Side of Manhattan along the East River, designed by controversial New York master planner Robert Moses. The Franklin D Roosevelt East River Drive (commonly referred to as the FDR Drive) is a Freeway -standard Parkway on the east side of the New York The Harlem River Drive is a major Freeway -standard Parkway on the east side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Robert Moses ( December 18 1888 – July 29 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long 
Manhattan has three public heliports. US Helicopter offers regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the Downtown Manhattan Heliport with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey. US Helicopter is an independent air shuttle service that operates regularly scheduled helicopter flights from Manhattan to Newark and JFK airport The Downtown Manhattan Heliport, also known as the Downtown Manhattan/Wall St John F Kennedy International Airport is an International airport located in Queens County on Long Island in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 Newark Liberty International Airport, first named Newark Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international Airport within the New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. 
New York has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet in the country, and some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan. A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a Fossil fuel substitute for Gasoline (petrol Diesel, or Propane Fuel. 
Gas and electric service is provided by Consolidated Edison to all of Manhattan. Consolidated Edison Inc is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies in the United States with approximately $13 billion in annual revenues and $30 billion in assets Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to Thomas Edison's Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the first investor-owned electric utility. The Edison Illuminating Company was established by Thomas Edison on December 17, 1880, to construct electrical generating stations initially in New The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his Pearl Street Station. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. Direct current ( DC) is the unidirectional flow of Electric charge. Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States  Con Edison operates the world's largest district steam system, which consists of 105 miles (169 km) of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning by some 1,800 Manhattan customers. The New York City steam system is a District heating system which carries Steam from central power stations under the streets of Manhattan to heat cool District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements 
Manhattan, surrounded by two brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water available on the island, which dwindled as the city grew rapidly after the American Revolutionary War. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" To supply the needs of the growing population, the city acquired land in Westchester County and constructed the Croton Aqueduct system, which went into service in 1842. Westchester County is a primarily Suburban county located in the U The Croton Aqueduct or Old Croton Aqueduct was a large and complex water distribution system constructed for New York City between 1837 and 1842 The system took water from a dam at the Croton River, and sent it down through the Bronx, over the Harlem River via the High Bridge, to storage reservoirs in Central Park and at 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue, and through a network of cast iron pipes on to consumer's faucets. The Croton River (pronounced "Crow-ton" is a river in southern New York that begins where the East and West Branches of the Croton River meet See also Geography and environment of New York City The Harlem River is a navigable tidal Strait in New York City, USA that The High Bridge (officially the Aqueduct Bridge) is a stone Masonry Arch bridge, with a height of almost 140 feet (40 m over the Harlem River Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually 42nd Street is a major crosstown street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, known for its Theaters especially near the intersection 
Today, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection provides water to residents fed by a 2,000 square mile (5,180 km²) watershed in the Catskill Mountains. The New York City Department of Environmental Protection is responsible for managing the Natural resources and environment of New York City. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills) a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany Because the watershed is in one of the largest protected wilderness areas in the United States, the natural water filtration process remains intact. As a result, New York is one of only five major cities in the United States with drinking water pure enough to require only chlorination to ensure its purity at the tap under normal conditions.  Water comes to Manhattan through New York City Water Tunnel No. 1 and Tunnel No. 2, completed in 1917 and 1936, respectively. New York City's water supply system has grown from a few wells on Manhattan Island to one of America's most extensive municipal systems New York City's water supply system has grown from a few wells on Manhattan Island to one of America's most extensive municipal systems Construction started in 1970 continues on New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, which will double the system's existing 1. New York City Water Tunnel No 3 is the largest capital construction project in New York City 's history and among the most complex engineering projects in the world today 2 billion gallon-a-day capacity while and provide a much-needed backup to the two other tunnels. 
The New York City Department of Sanitation is responsible for garbage removal. The New York City Department of Sanitation, or DSNY, is a uniformed force of unionized sanitation workers in New York City.  The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. The Fresh Kills Landfill on the New York City borough of Staten Island in the United States, was formerly the largest Landfill in Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name  A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at waste-to-energy facilities. Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash to far-flung places.
Education in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are operated by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States, serving 1. The New York City Department of Education ( NYCDOE) is the branch of municipal government in New York City that manages the city's public school system 1 million students. 
Some of the best-known New York City public high schools, such as Stuyvesant High School, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, High School of Fashion Industries, Murry Bergtraum High School, Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics and Hunter College High School, are located in Manhattan. Stuyvesant High School ( IPA: /ˈstаɪvɛsənt/ commonly referred to as Stuy ( IPA: /ˈstаɪ/ is a New York City Public high school Fiorello H LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts, also officially known as "H High School of Fashion Industries is a secondary school located in Manhattan, New York City, New York. The Murry Bergtraum High School for Business Careers is a public secondary school in New York City. Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics (also known as MCSM is a public High school in New York City, at East 116th Street between Pleasant Avenue For other uses of the acronym HCHS, see HCHS (disambiguation. The city also hosts a new hybrid school, Bard High School Early College, which serves students from around the city. Bard High School Early College (BHSEC is an alternative public Secondary school in New York City that allows five to six hundred highly motivated
Manhattan is home to many of the most prestigious private prep schools in the nation including the Upper East Side's Brearley School, Dalton School, Spence School, Chapin School, Nightingale-Bamford School, and Convent of the Sacred Heart, and the Upper West Side's Collegiate School and Trinity School. The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park and the East River. The Brearley School is an all-girls' Private school in New York City, USA. The Dalton School, originally called the Children's University School, is a private University-preparatory school on New York City 's Upper East The Spence School is an all-girls independent school in New York City, founded in 1892 by Clara B The Chapin School, founded by Maria Bowen Chapin is a private School for Girls located in Manhattan, New York City, USA. The Nightingale-Bamford School is an independent all-female University-preparatory school founded in 1920 by Frances Nicolau Nightingale and Maya Stevens Bamford Convent of the Sacred Heart is the oldest independent all-girls school in Manhattan The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River Collegiate School is a Private school for boys in New York City and lays claim to being the oldest School in the United States. Trinity School is a private, preparatory, Co-educational Day school for grades K-12 located in New York City, USA The borough is also home to two private schools that are known for being the most diverse in the nation, Manhattan Country School and United Nations International School. Manhattan Country School is a private coeducational PreK-8 school with its main location in Manhattan and a farm in Roxbury New York. The United Nations International School (UNIS is a private International school in New York City. Manhattan is home to the only official Italian American school in the U. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship S. , La Scuola d'Italia.
As of 2003, 52. 3% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a bachelor's degree, the fifth highest of all counties in the country.  By 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people. 
Manhattan has various colleges and universities including Columbia University, Barnard College, New York University (NYU), St. John's University, and Fordham University. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Barnard College is a women's liberal arts college founded in 1889 New York University ( NYU) is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research University in New York City. Fordham University is a private University in the United States, with three campuses located in and around New York City. Other schools include Touro College, Marymount Manhattan College, Manhattan School of Music, The Juilliard School, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Yeshiva University, Cooper Union, The New School, and the Fashion Institute of Technology, part of the State University of New York. Touro College is a Jewish sponsored independent institution of higher and professional education, in New York City, New York, United Marymount Manhattan College is a small Coeducational Liberal arts college located in Manhattan, New York City, New York. The Manhattan School of Music is a Music conservatory located in New York City that offers degrees on the bachelors, masters, and The Juilliard School, located in New York City, is a world renowned Performing arts conservatory. The New York Institute of Technology (also known as NYIT and New York Tech) is a private co-educational college in New York in the USA. Pace University is a private, Co-educational, and comprehensive multi-campus University in the New York metropolitan area with campuses Yeshiva University is a private Jewish University in New York City whose first component was founded in 1886. The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (commonly referred to simply as The Cooper Union or Cooper Union) is a privately-funded college in This is about the university in New York; for other uses see New School (disambiguation. The Fashion Institute of Technology ( FIT) is a State University of New York college of art and design located in New York City, New York
The City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students. The City University of New York (CUNY Acronym ˈkjuːni is the public University system of New York City.  A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the CUNY Graduate Center (graduate studies and doctoral granting institution). Bernard M Baruch College, known more commonly as Baruch College is a Public university and one of the constituent colleges comprising the City University The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as the City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as Hunter College High School|Hunter College Elementary School Hunter College of the City University of New York is a senior college of the City University of New York The John Jay College of Criminal Justice is a senior college of the City University of New York in midtown Manhattan New York City and is the only liberal arts college The Graduate School and University Center of The City University of New York (known more commonly as the CUNY Graduate Center or the GC) is the sole doctorate-granting The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College. Founded in 1963, Borough of Manhattan Community College, or BMCC is one of six two-year colleges within the City University of New York (CUNY system
Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences.  The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U. "NIH" redirects here For other meanings of NIH see NIH (disambiguation. S. cities, the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and Weill Cornell Medical College. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC is a Cancer treatment and research institution founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital. The Rockefeller University is a private University which focuses primarily on basic research in the biomedical fields and offers graduate and postgraduate education This page is about a medical school in New York For other uses please see Mount Sinai (disambiguation Mount Sinai School of Medicine Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, abbreviated P&S, is a graduate school of Columbia University located on the health sciences campus in the The Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, formerly named the Joan and Sanford I
Manhattan is served by the New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country. The New York Public Library ( NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of America's most significant Research libraries.  The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, Donnell Library Center, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan.  More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough.