A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China, and also in Feudal Vietnam where the system of Imperial examinations and scholar-bureaucrats was adopted under Chinese influence. A bureaucrat is a member of a Bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the Government. Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Sui Dynasty to
The English term comes from the Portuguese mandarim or Dutch mandarĳn, from Malay məntəri, from Hindi mantrī, from Sanskrit mantrin (meaning councilor or minister. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical A minister or a secretary is a Politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional Government.  The term is also used to refer to the northern spoken variety of Chinese because it was the language used among officials during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China
An alternative theory is that the term comes from the Chinese phrase "Mandaren" (满大人), meaning a "Manchu official". The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in However, since there is no direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and since the word "mandarin" is attested in the early 16th century before the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, this is deemed unlikely by linguists. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China
In the West, the term "Mandarin" is associated with the concept of the scholar-official, who immersed himself in poetry, literature, and Confucian learning in addition to performing civil service duties. Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Sui Dynasty to See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis
For around 1300 years, from 605 to 1905, Mandarins were selected by merit through the extremely rigorous imperial examination. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy.
China has had civil servants since at least the Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. However most high ranking positions were filled by relatives of the sovereign and the nobility. Wang (King and Huangdi (Emperor The King or Wang (Chinese 王 or 國王 wáng was the title of the Chinese Head of state until the Qin dynasty It was not until the Tang Dynasty when the final form of the mandarin was completed with the replacement of the nine-rank system. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Nine rank system ( Pinyin: jiǔ pǐn zhōng zhèng zhī or jiǔ pǐn guǎn rén fǎ or much less commonly Nine grade controller system, was a Civil service The mandarins were the founders and core of the Chinese gentry. In imperial China, Gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendants The mandarins were replaced with a modern civil service after the fall of the Qing Dynasty. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China
The wardrobe of a mandarin during the Qing Dynasty included Manchu official headwear and a mandarin square. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China A Mandarin square ( Traditional Chinese: 補子 Simplified Chinese: 补子 Pinyin: bŭzi Wade-Giles: putzŭ also known as a rank badge The office and residence of a mandarin was a yamen. Not to be confused with Yemen, the nation in the Middle East A yámen ( is any local Bureaucrat 's or mandarin 's
In modern English, "Mandarin" is also used to refer to any (though usually a senior) civil servant, often in a satirical context, and particularly in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located