Management in simple terms means the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals. Management comprises planning, organizing, resourcing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Planning in Organizations and Public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a Plan; and the psychological process of Organizing (English Organising is the act of rearranging elements following one The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form
Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management.
The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse), which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. 
Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Mary Parker Follett (1868&ndash1933 was an American Social worker, Consultant, and author of books on Democracy, Human relations, and  One can also think of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach one's intended goal. For other uses and for specific types of plans see Plan (disambiguation. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions:
Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. Henri Fayol (1841 in Istanbul – 1925 in Paris) was a French Management theorist Planning in Organizations and Public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a Plan; and the psychological process of Organizing (English Organising is the act of rearranging elements following one The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading Control is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class. En cadre is a military expression for a group around whom a unit is formed or a training staff Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures.
One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. Commerce is a division of trade or production which deals with the exchange of goods and services from producer to final consumer The definition of charitable organization, and of charity varies according to the country and in some instances the region of the country in which the charitable organization operates The public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the Government, whether national Regional More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes, technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments which teach management as "business schools. A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration " Some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School of Management) employ the more inclusive term "management. Harvard Business School ( HBS) is a renowned Business school in the United States About the School The School conducts education and research in Leadership, Economics, Operations management, "
Speakers of English may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business Historically this use of the term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed. The field of industrial relations (also called labor relations) looks at the relationship between Management and workers particularly groups of workers represented
In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Governance relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely.
In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. The public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the Government, whether national Regional Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Some 2500 people serve at the pleasure of the United States Chief Executive, including all of the top US government executives.
Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. If they fail to convince employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations. The term innovation means a new way of doing something It may refer to incremental radical and revolutionary changes in thinking products processes or organisations
Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a late modern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. Modernity is a term that refers to the Modern era. It is distinct from Modernism, and in different contexts refers to cultural and intellectual movements of the On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). A steward (from Old English stíweard stiȝweard, from stiȝ "hall household" + weard " Warden, keeper" corresponding Others, however, detect management-like activities in the pre-modern past. Some writers trace the development of management-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control. The arabic numerals (often capitalized are the ten Digits (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 which—along with the system In Accountancy, the double-entry
Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over Property, which may be an object, land/real estate, Intellectual property But with growing size and complexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common. A mutual shareholder or stockholder is an Individual or company (including a Corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of
While management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background of works that assisted in modern management theories. 
Written by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BCE, The Art of War is a military strategy book that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager's organization and a foe's. Sun Tzu ( ("Master Sun" also called Sun Wu ( is traditionally considered to be the author of The Art of War (also simply called the The Art of War ( is a Chinese military Treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. 
Believing that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in 1513 as advice for the leadership of Florence, Italy. Il Principe ( The Prince) is a political Treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany  Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.
Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work through division of labor. Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the Magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. Division of labour or specialization is the specialization of cooperative labour in specific circumscribed tasks and roles intended to increase the Productivity  Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day. 
Some argue that modern management as a discipline began as an off-shoot of economics in the 19th century. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723 - 1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Resource allocation is used to assign the available Resources in an economic way Pricing is one of the Four p's of the Marketing mix. The other three aspects are product promotion and place. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765 - 1825), James Watt (1736 - 1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728 - 1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. James Watt ( 19 January 1736 &ndash 25 August 1819 Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman and both men eventually made fortunes Matthew Boulton ( September 3, 1728 &ndash 18 August 1809) was an English Manufacturer and Engineer. Standardization (or standardisation) is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. In Engineering and Manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services In Management accounting, cost accounting is that part of management accounting which establishes budget and actual cost of operations processes departments or product and For other uses and for specific types of plans see Plan (disambiguation. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production. Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of
By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842 - 1924) and Léon Walras (1834 - 1910) and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinnings of management. Marginalism is the use of Marginal concepts within Economics. Alfred Marshall (born 26 July 1842 in Bermondsey, London, England, died 13 July 1924 in Cambridge Marie-Esprit-Léon Walras ( December 16, 1834 in Évreux, France - January 5, 1910 in Clarens near Montreux Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881. Joseph Wharton ( March 3, 1826 &ndash January 11, 1909) was a prominent Philadelphia merchant industrialist and philanthropist who
By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). The term scientism can be used as a neutral term to describe the view that Natural science has authority over all other interpretations of life such as philosophical Examples include Henry R. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's Scientific management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gantt's charts (1910s). Henry Robinson Towne was an American Mechanical engineer and businessman Frederick Winslow Taylor ( 20 March 1856 &ndash 21 March 1915) widely known as F Lillian Moller Gilbreth PhD, ( May 24 1878 &ndash January 2, 1972) was one of the first working female Engineers holding Henry Laurence Gantt, AB ME ( 1861 - 23 November 1919) was a mechanical engineer and Management consultant who is most famous J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. A textbook is a manual of instruction or a standard book in any branch of study In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style". Yoichi Ueno (1883-1957 founder of SANNO, a scholar in the fields of management science and industrial psychology For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Management consulting refers to both the industry of and the practice of helping organizations improve their performance primarily through the analysis of existing business problems His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality-assurance. In the vernacular quality can mean a high degree of excellence (“a quality product” a degree of excellence or the lack of it (“work of average quality” or a property of
The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. Harvard Business School ( HBS) is a renowned Business school in the United States The Master of Business Administration ( MBA) is a Master's degree in Business administration, which attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines People like Henri Fayol (1841 - 1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. Henri Fayol (1841 in Istanbul – 1925 in Paris) was a French Management theorist Alexander Hamilton Church (1866-1936 was an English efficiency engineer and author In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891 - 1973), Walter Scott and J. Sir Walter Scott 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 &ndash 21 September 1832 was a prolific Scottish Historical novelist and Poet popular throughout Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868 - 1933), Chester Barnard (1886 - 1961), Max Weber (1864 - 1920), Rensis Likert (1903 - 1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - ) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and George Elton Mayo ( December 26, 1880 - September 7, 1949) was an Australian Psychologist, Sociologist and Mary Parker Follett (1868&ndash1933 was an American Social worker, Consultant, and author of books on Democracy, Human relations, and Chester Irving Barnard (1886 &ndash 1961 was an American executive and an early Organizational theorist. Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered American educator and organizational psychologist Rensis Likert (pronounced 'Lick-urt' (1903&ndash1981 is best known for his research on Management styles Chris Argyris (born July 16 1923 in Newark New Jersey, USA is an American business theorist Professor Emeritus at Harvard Business School Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge"
Peter Drucker (1909 – 2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). Peter Ferdinand Drucker ( November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005) was a writer management consultant and self-described “social ecologist It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr ( May 23, 1875 – February 17, 1966) was a long-time President and Chairman of General General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. An organisation (or organization &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein.
H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890 - 1962), and Thornton C. Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS ( 17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English Statistician, Evolutionary Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories with microeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett Baron Blackett OM CH FRS ( 18 November 1897 &ndash 13 July 1974) was an Microeconomics is a branch of Economics that studies how individuals households and firms and some states make decisions to allocate limited resources typically in markets The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Operations Research (OR in North America South Africa and Australia and Operational Research in Europe is an interdisciplinary branch of applied Mathematics and Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Logistics is the management of the flow of Goods, Information and other resources including Energy and people between the point of origin and the point
Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cog's Ladder. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Theory of Constraints (TOC is an overall Management philosophy. Management by Objectives (MBO is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that Management and Employees agree to the objectives Reengineering is radical Redesign of an Organization 's Processes especially its Business processes Rather than organizing a firm into Six Sigma is a Business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, that today enjoys wide-spread application in many sectors of industry Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support Agile software development refers to a group of Software development methodologies that are based on similar principles Cog's Ladder of group development is based on the work "Cog's Ladder A Model of Group Growth" by George O
As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. A business philosophy or popular management theory is any of a range of approaches to Accounting, Marketing, Public relations, operations In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. A management fad is used characterize a change in philosophy or operations that sweeps through businesses and institution The term popular psychology (frequently called pop psychology or pop psych) refers to concepts and theories about human mental life and behaviour that are purportedly
Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely:
In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services and involves the responsibility of ensuring that Business operations Strategic management is the art science and craft of formulating implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its objectives Marketing management is a Business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the Management of a firm's marketing resources The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated Information technology management (or IT management) is a combination of two branches of study Information technology and Management. Management Information System ( MIS) is a subset of the overall Internal controls of a business covering the application of people documents technologies and procedures More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management.
Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. Public management considers that government and non-profit administration resembles private-sector management in some important ways Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed Social entrepreneurship is the work of a social entrepreneur.
Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism. Business ethics is a form of Applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment Critical management studies (CMS is a loose but rapidly growing grouping of politically Left wing and theoretically innovative approaches to Management, business Anti-corporate activists (see Activism) believe that the rise of large business Corporations is posing a threat to the legitimate authority of the public good
As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. Workplace democracy is the application of Democracy in all its forms (including Voting systems Debates Democratic structuring, Due process However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. A command hierarchy is a group of people committed to carrying out orders "from the top" that is of Authority. All management to some degree embraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support to management; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Hence management has started to become less based on the conceptualisation of classical military command-and-control, and more about facilitation and support of collaborative activity, utilizing principles such as those of human interaction management to deal with the complexities of human interaction. Human Interaction Management ( HIM) is a set of management principles patterns and techniques complementary to Business process management. Indeed, the concept of Ubiquitous command-and-control posits such a transformation for 21st century military management.
Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, leading/motivating and controlling.
All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in the execution of any departmental policy.
The management of a large organization may have three levels: