A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), "owned"; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub ( Arabic: الملك الصالح نجم الدين ايوب) ( Nickname: Abu al-Fituh أبو الفتوح) (b The Battle of Ridanieh was fought on January 22, 1517 in Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Different approaches and methods for the Romanization of Arabic exist As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for Over time, they became a powerful military caste, and, on more than one occasion, they seized power for themselves, for example ruling Egypt in the Mamluk Sultanate from 1250-1517. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics.
The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs at the end of the 9th century Baghdad. The birth of the Mamluk System during the Abbasid Period Al-Mu`tasim was the first Caliph to depend on the Turkish Slaves Soldiers (Ghulams when as Amir he bought around 3000 Ghulams Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The Mamluk system was an evolution of a previous system, the Ghulam system, invented by the Caliph al-Mu'tasim, in which Turkish prisoners of war became the caliphal guard. Abu Ishaq al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون ʾAbū ʾIsḥāq al-Muʿtaṣim ibn Hārūn 794 &ndash January 5, 842) was an This system ended in disaster in the 860s with the murder of four caliphs in a row, and the Mamluk system was created on its ruins. The main difference was that the Mamluks were captured as children and then trained and moulded within the Islamic world to ensure their loyalty to their masters. The Abbasids "recruited" them mainly from areas near the Caucasus (mainly Circassian and Georgian) and in areas north of the Black Sea (mainly Turkic, most of whom were Kipchak Turks) and of Yoruk background. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Yörük, also Yürük or Yuruk (yörük Bulgarian юрук, plural юруци) are a Turkish people ultimately of Most of those captured were of non-Muslim origin. Many mamluks had been sold into slavery by their impoverished steppe families or kidnapped by slave-traders. In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced
The mamluk system gave rulers troops who had no link to any established power structure. Local non-mamluk warriors were often more loyal to their tribal sheiks, their families, or nobles than to the sultan or caliph. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings If a commander conspired against the ruler, it was often not possible to deal with the conspiracy without causing unrest among the nobility. The mamluk slave-troops were strangers of the lowest possible status who could not conspire against the ruler and who could easily be punished if they caused trouble, making them a great military asset. Mamluks were also frequently used as mercenaries.
After mamluks had converted to Islam, many were trained as cavalry soldiers. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on Mamluks had to follow the dictates of furusiyya, a code that included values such as courage and generosity, and also cavalry tactics, horsemanship, archery and treatment of wounds, etc.
Mamluks lived within their garrisons and mainly spent their time with each other. Their entertainments included sporting events such as archery competitions and presentations of mounted combat skills at least twice a week. The intensive and rigorous training of each new recruit helped ensure continuity of mamluk practices.
While they were no longer actually slaves after training, they were still obliged to serve the Sultan. The Sultan kept them as an outsider force, under his direct command, to use in the event of local tribal frictions. The Sultan could also send them as far as the Muslim regions of Iberia. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra
Sultans had the largest number of mamluks, but lesser amirs could have their own troops as well. Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) Many mamluks rose to high positions throughout the empire, including army command. At first their status remained non-hereditary and sons were strictly prevented from following their fathers. However over time, in places such as Egypt, the mamluk forces became linked to existing power structures and gained significant amounts of influence on those powers.
A similar evolution occurred in the Ottoman Empire with the Janissaries. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed
The origins of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt lie in the Ayyubid Dynasty that Saladin (Salah al-Din) founded in 1174. The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c With his uncle Shirkuh he conquered Egypt for the Zengid King Nur al-Din of Damascus in 1169. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. By 1189, after the capture of Jerusalem, Saladin had consolidated the dynasty's control over the Middle East. After Saladin's death his sons fell to squabbling over the division of the Empire, and each attempted to surround himself with larger expanded mamluk retinues.
By 1200 Saladin's brother Al-Adil succeeded in securing control over the whole empire by defeating and killing or imprisoning his brothers and nephews in turn. Al-Adil I (1145-1218 (العادل in full al-Malik al-Adil Sayf al-Din Abu-Bakr ibn Ayyub, الملك العادل سيف الدين أبو بكر بن أيوب was an With each victory Al-Adil incorporated the defeated mamluk retinue into his own. This process was repeated at Al-Adil's death in 1218, and at his son Al-Kamil's death in 1238. The Ayyubids became increasingly surrounded by the power of the mamluks and soon involved them in the internal court politics of the kingdom itself.
In 1315 they invaded and conquered a great part of Nubia, but the power remained with a Nubian prince converted from Coptic Orthodox to Islam.
In June 1249, the Seventh Crusade under Louis IX of France landed in Egypt and took Damietta. The Seventh Crusade was a Crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. Damietta, Damiata, or Domyat (دمياط is a port and the capital of the governorate of Domyat, Egypt. The Egyptian troops retreated at first. When the Egyptian sultan As-Salih Ayyub died, the power passed briefly to his son Turanshah and then his favorite wife Shajar Al-Durr (or Shajarat-ul-Dur). Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub ( Arabic: الملك الصالح نجم الدين ايوب) ( Nickname: Abu al-Fituh أبو الفتوح) (b Turanshah, also Turan Shah (Arabic: توران شاه ( epithet al-Malik al-Muazzam Ghayath al-Din Turanshah (Arabic: الملك المعظم غياث الدين Shajar al-Durr ( Arabic: شجر الدر " Strings of Pearls " ( Royal name: al-Malikah Ismat ad-Din Umm-Khalil Shajar al-Durr (Arabic الملكة She took control with mamluk support and launched a counterattack. Troops of the Bahri commander Baibars defeated Louis's troops. Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري The king delayed his retreat too long and was captured by the Mamluks in March 1250, and agreed to a ransom of 400,000 livres (150,000 of which were never paid). The livre tournois (" Tours pound " was one of numerous currencies used in France in the Middle Ages; and a money of Political pressure for a male leader made Shajar marry the mamluk commander Aybak; he was later killed in his bath, and in the power struggle that ensued vice-regent Qutuz took over. Saif ad-Din Qutuz also spelled Kutuz, (سيف الدين قطز ( epithet: al-Malik al-Muzafar Saif ad-Din Qutuz (Arabic الملك المظفر سيف He formally founded the first Mamluk sultanate and the Bahri dynasty.
The first Mamluk dynasty was named Bahri after the name of one of the regiments, the Bahriya or River Island regiment. The name Bahri (بحري meaning "of the sea or river") referred to their center in al-Manial Island in the Nile. The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (al-Mamalik al-Bahariyya المماليك البحرية) was a Mamluk Dynasty of mostly Kipchak The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River The regiment consisted mainly of Kipchak Turks.
When the Mongol troops of Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad in 1258 and advanced towards syria , Mamluk Emir Baibars left Damascus to Cairo where he was welcomed by Sultan Qutuz  . This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري Saif ad-Din Qutuz also spelled Kutuz, (سيف الدين قطز ( epithet: al-Malik al-Muzafar Saif ad-Din Qutuz (Arabic الملك المظفر سيف After taking Damascus, Hulagu demanded that Qutuz surrender Egypt but Qutuz had Hulegu's envoys killed and, with Baibars' help, mobilized his troops. Although Hulegu had to leave for the East when great Khan Möngke died in action against the Southern Song, he left his lieutenant, the Christian Kitbuqa, in charge. Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан also transliterated as Mongke Mongka Möngka Mangu or Mangku ( c The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Kitbuqa Noyan (d 1260 ( Turkic: Kitbuga, Mongolian: Хитбух) was a Christian Turk belonging to the tribe of Qutuz drew the Mongol army into an ambush near the Orontes River, routed them at the Battle of Ain Jalut and captured and executed Kitbuqa. See Orontid dynasty for the Armenian kings and satraps called Orontes The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between ( see Qutuz ). Saif ad-Din Qutuz also spelled Kutuz, (سيف الدين قطز ( epithet: al-Malik al-Muzafar Saif ad-Din Qutuz (Arabic الملك المظفر سيف
After this great triumph, Qutuz was assassinated by conspiring Mamluks. It was said that Baibars, who seized power, was involved in the assassination. In the following centuries power was often transferred this way: the average reign of a mamluk ruler was seven years.
The mamluks defeated the Mongols a second time in Homs in 1260 and began to drive them back east. For military actions near the city see Battle of Homs. Homs ( حمص,, anciently called Emesa (ἡ Ἔμεσα or "La Chamelle" In the process they consolidated their power over Syria, fortified the area, formed mail routes, and formed diplomatic connections between the local princes. Baibars's troops attacked Acre in 1263, captured Caesaria in 1265, and massacred the inhabitants of Antioch in 1268. Caesarea (קיסריה Qesarya قيسارية pronounced Kaysaria) is a town in Israel on the outskirts of Caesarea Maritima, the ancient port Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also
Mamluks also defeated new Mongol attacks in Syria in 1271, 1281 (2nd Battle of Homs), 1303/1304 and 1312. They were defeated by the Mongols and their Christian allies at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299. The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, also known as the Third Battle of Homs, was a Mongol victory over the Mamluks in 1299
In 1382, the Bukri or Burji dynasty took over. The Burji dynasty المماليك البرجية ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517 Burji (برجي meaning "of the tower") referred to their center in the citadel of Cairo. A citadel is a fortress for protecting a Town, sometimes incorporating a Castle. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The dynasty consisted mainly of Circassians. Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people
The Mamluk Sultanate survived until 1517, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The institution of the mamluks continued under the Ottomans, although not in the same form as under the Sultanate.
In 1768 Sultan Ali Bey Al-Kabir declared independence from the Ottomans, but the Mamluks crushed the movement and retained their position after his defeat. Ali Bey Al-Kabir (Arabic علي بك الكبير lived 1728 &ndash May 8, 1773) was a politician and general Mamluk Sultan of Egypt By this time new slave recruits were introduced from Georgia in the Caucasus. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between
Napoleon defeated Mamluk troops when he attacked Egypt in 1798 and drove them to Upper Egypt. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر Sa'id Misr) is a narrow strip of land that extends from the cataract boundaries of modern-day Aswan to the area between The Mamluks still used their cavalry charge tactics, changed only by the addition of muskets. A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder
After the departure of French troops in 1801 Mamluks continued their struggle for independence, this time against the Ottoman Empire and Great Britain. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands In 1803 Mamluk leaders Ibrahim Beg and Usman Beg wrote a letter to the Russian consul-general and asked him to act as a mediator with the Sultan as they wanted a cease-fire, and to return to their homeland Georgia. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Russian ambassador in Istanbul categorically refused to mediate because the Russian government was afraid of allowing Mamluks to return to Georgia, where a strong national liberation movement was on the rise which might have been encouraged by a Mamluk return. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
In 1805 the population of Cairo rebelled. There was an excellent opportunity for the Mamluks to seize power, but their internal tension and betrayal by some Mamluks did not allow them to exploit this opportunity. In 1806 the Mamluks defeated the Turkish forces several times, and in June the rival parties concluded a peace treaty by which Muhammad Ali, who had been appointed as governor of Egypt on 26 March 1806, was to be removed and the state authority in Egypt returned to the Mamluks. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 1806 ( MDCCCVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common But again, internal tension and conflicts between the clans did not allow the Mamluks to use this opportunity; Muhammad Ali kept his authority.
Muhammed Ali knew that eventually he would have to deal with the Mamluks if he ever wanted to control Egypt. They were still the feudal owners of Egypt and their land was still the source of wealth and power.
On March 1, 1811, Muhammed Ali invited all Mamluks to his palace to celebrate the declaration of war against the Wahhabis in Arabia. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation Between 600 and 700 Mamluks paraded in Cairo. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Near the Al-Azab gates, in a narrow road down from Mukatam Hill, Muhammad Ali's forces ambushed and killed almost all in what came to be known as the Massacre of the Citadel. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation According to the tradition, only one Mamluk, named Hasan, survived when he cut his way through the Turks and jumped his horse over a precipice to freedom.
During the following week, hundreds of Mamluks were killed throughout Egypt; in the citadel of Cairo alone more than 1,000 were killed. Throughout Egypt an estimated 3,000 Mamluks and their relatives were killed.
Despite these attempts by Muhammad Ali to defeat the Mamluks in Egypt, a party of them escaped and fled south into what is now Sudan. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. In 1811, these Mamluks established a state at Dunqulah in the Sennar as a base for their slave trading. You may be looking for the US town of Dongola Illinois. Dongola (also spelled Dunqulah or Dunqula The Funj sultanate of Sinnar, also Sennar, was a Sultanate in the north of Sudan, named Funj after the ethnic group of its dynasty or Sinnar (or Sennar In 1820, the sultan of Sennar informed Muhammad Ali that he was unable to comply with a demand to expel the Mamluks. In response, the pasha sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan, clear it of Mamluks, and reclaim it for Egypt. The pasha's forces received the submission of the kashif, dispersed the Dunqulah Mamluks, conquered Kordofan, and accepted Sennar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi VII. Pasha or pacha, formerly bashaw, (paşa پاشا ( Persian: پاشا ( Armenian: Փաշա was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire Kurdufan (sometimes Kordofan) is a former province of central Sudan. The Funj are an ethnic group in present day Sudan. Their origins are not clearly known but they are recorded as moving into Nubia from the Sudd to the Badi VII 1805 - 1821 was the last ruler of the Kingdom of Sennar.
There were various offshoots of the Mamluks.
In 1206 the mamluk commander of the Muslim forces in India, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, proclaimed himself sultan, becoming in effect the first independent Sultan-e-Hind. The Mamluk Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty ( Urdu: غلام خاندان Hindi: ग़ुलाम ख़ानदान served as the first Sultans of India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Qutb-ud-din Aybak ( Persian / Urdu: قطب الدین ایبک) was a Turkic ruler of medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi The Delhi Sultanate ( Urdu: دلی سلطنت, दिल्ली सलतनत or Sultanat e Hind ( سلطنتِ هند; सलतनत ए This Mamluk dynasty lasted until 1290. The Mamluk Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty ( Urdu: غلام خاندان Hindi: ग़ुलाम ख़ानदान served as the first Sultans of
The Mamluk corps were first introduced in the part of the Ottoman Empire that is now Iraq by pasha Hasan of Baghdad in 1702. The Delhi Sultanate ( Urdu: دلی سلطنت, दिल्ली सलतनत or Sultanat e Hind ( سلطنتِ هند; सलतनत ए The Mamluks were mostly Christian slaves converted to Islam, trained in a special school and then assigned to military and administrative duties The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Pasha or pacha, formerly bashaw, (paşa پاشا ( Persian: پاشا ( Armenian: Փաշա was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous From 1747 to 1831 Iraq was ruled, with short intermissions, by the Mamluk officers of Georgian origin who succeeded in asserting autonomy from the Sublime Porte, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order, and introduced a program of modernization of the economy and the military. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Ottoman Porte (also Sublime Porte, High Porte, or in Ottoman Turkish, Bab-ı Ali) used to refer to the Divan (court In 1831 the Ottomans managed to overthrow Daud Pasha, the last Mamluk ruler, and imposed direct control over Iraq. 
Napoleon formed his own Mamluk corps, the last known Mamluk force, in the early years of the 19th century, and used Mamluks in a number of his campaigns. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Even his Imperial Guard had Mamluk soldiers during the Belgian campaign, including one of his personal servants. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Napoleon's famous bodyguard Roustan was a Mamluk from Egypt. Roustam Raza, also known as Roustan or Rustam (Ռուստամ Ռազա was Napoleon Bonaparte 's famous Mamluk Bodyguard.
One of the pictures by Francisco de Goya shows a charge of Mamluks against the Madrilene on 2 May 1808. The Second of May 1808, also known as The Charge of the Mamelukes, is a painting by the Spanish master Francisco de Goya. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 1808 ( MDCCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
Throughout the Napoleonic era there was a special Mamluk corps in the French army. In his history of the 13th Chasseurs Colonel Descaves recounts how Napoleon used the Mamluks in Egypt. In the so-called "Instructions" that Bonaparte gave to Kleber after departure, Napoleon wrote that he had already bought from Syrian merchants about 2,000 Mamluks with whom he intended to form a special detachment. On 14 September 1799 General Kleber established a mounted company of Mamluk auxiliaries and Syrian janissaries from Turks captured at the siege of Acre. Jean Baptiste Kléber ( 9 March, 1753 &ndash 14 June, 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. The term auxiliaries comes from the Latin auxilia (help It is generally used to describe people employed in an organisation often pre-existing as a Reserve The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French Siege of the Ottoman -defended walled city of Acre (now Akko in modern Israel
On 7 July 1800 General Menou reorganized the company, forming 3 companies of 100 men each and renaming it the "Mamluks de la République". In 1801 General Rapp was sent to Marseille to organize a squadron of 250 Mamluks under his command. Count Jean Rapp ( April 27 1771, Colmar - November 8 1821, Rheinweiler) was a French On 7 January 1802 the previous order was canceled and the squadron reduced to 150 men. The list of effectives on 21 April 1802 reveals 3 officers and 155 other ranks. By decree of 25 December 1803 the Mamluks were organized into a company attached to the Chasseurs-à-Cheval of the Imperial Guard.
Mamluks fought well at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805, and the regiment was granted a standard and its roster increased to accommodate a standard-bearer and a trumpet. The Battle of Austerlitz (Bitva u Slavkova also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's greatest victories effectively destroying the Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or A decree of 15 April 1806 defined the strength of the squadron as 13 officers and 147 privates. Despite the decree of 21 March 1815 that stated that no foreigner could be admitted into the Imperial Guard, Napoleon’s decree of 24 April prescribed amongst other things that the Chasseurs-à-Cheval of the Imperial Guard included a squadron of two companies of Mamluks for the Belgian Campaign.
With the First Restoration, the company of the Mamluks of the Old Guard was incorporated in the Corps Royal des Chasseurs de France. The Mamluks of the Young Guard were incorporated into the 7th Chasseurs-à-Cheval.
During their service in Napoleon’s army, the Mamluk squadron wore the following uniform:
Before 1804: The only "uniform" part was the green cahouk (hat), white turban, and red saroual (trousers), all to be worn with a loose shirt and a vest. Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Boots were of yellow, red, or tan soft leather. Weapons consisted of an "Oriental" scimitar, a brace of pistols in a holder decorated with a brass crescent and star, and a dagger. A scimitar (ˈsɪmɪtə is a Sword with a curved blade design finding its origins in Southwest Asia Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties
After 1804: The cahouk became red with a brass crescent and star, and the shirt was closed and had a collar. The main change was the addition of a "regulation" chasseur-style saddle cloth and roll, imperial green in color, piped red, with a red and white fringe. The saddle and harness remained Arabic in style. The undress uniform was as for the Chasseurs-à-Cheval of the Guard, but of a dark blue cloth. A Chasseur (a French term for "hunter" is the designation given to certain regiments of French light Infantry ( Chasseurs à pied
Mameluco is a Portuguese word derived from "mamluk" (also named Mameluco in Spanish), used to identify people of mixed European and Amerindian descent in South America. Mameluco is a term of Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a European and an Amerindian. Mameluco is a term of Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a European and an Amerindian. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a In the 17th and 18th centuries, Mameluco also referred to organized bands of Portuguese slave-hunters based at São Paulo, known primarily as bandeirantes. São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world The Bandeirantes were Portuguese colonial Scouts who took part in the Bandeiras exploration expeditions
Mameluk was used in Hungary in the last decades of the 19th century as a nickname for Members of Parliament belonging to the governing "Liberal" party. This party governed Hungary for 30 years (1875-1905) and its members in Parliament fulfilled all wishes of party leader and prime minister Kálmán Tisza in order to preserve their parliamentary seats and accompanying privileges. Kálmán Tisza de Borosjenő (1830-1902 was the Hungarian Prime minister between 1875 and 1890
Officers of the United States Marine Corps carry a ceremonial Mameluke Sword, and Mamluke swords are used by US army in festivals. A Mameluke sword is a cross- Hilted curved Scimitar -like Sword historically used by Mamluk warriors from whom the sword derives its name The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities.
|Alama Sultaniya||علامة سلطانية||The mark or signature of the Sultan put on his decrees, letters and documents.|
|Amir Akhur||أمير آخور||supervisor of the royal stable|
|Amir Majlis||أمير مجلس||Guard of Sultan's seat and bed|
|Atabek||أتابك||Commander in chief|
|Astadar||أستادار||Chief of the royal servants|
|Bayt al-Mal||بيت المال||treasury|
|Dwadar||دوادار||Holder of Sultan's ink bottle|
|Hajib||حاجب||Doorkeeper of sultan's court|
|khond||خند||Wife of the sultan|
|Jashnakir||جاشنكير||Food taster of the sultan (to assure food was not poisoned)|
|Jomdar||جمدار||An official at the department of the Sultan's clothing|
|Iqta||إقطاع||Revenue from land allotment|
|Na'ib Al-Sultan||نائب السلطان||Vice-sultan|
|Kafel al-mamalek al-sharifah al-islamiya al-amir al-amri||كافل الممالك الشريفة الاسلاميةالاميرالأمرى||Title of the Vice-sultan (The guardian of the dignified Islamic kingdoms the commanding prince)|
|Ostaz||أستاذ||Benefactor of Mamluks (the Sultan or the Emir)|
|Qa'at al-insha'a||قاعة الإنشاء||Chancery hall|
|Qalat al-Jabal||قلعة الجبل||Citadel of the Mountain (the abode and court of the sultan in Cairo)|
|Tebaq||طباق||Campus of the Mamluks at the citadel of the mountain|
|Modwarat al-Sultan||مدورة السلطان||Sultan's tent which he used during travel.|
|Mamalik Sultaneya||مماليك سلطانيه||Mamluks of the sultan;to distinguish from the Mamluks of the Amirs (princes)|
|Mamalik Kitabeya||مماليك كتابية||Mamluks still attending training classes and who still live at the Tebaq (campus)|
|al-Nafir al-Am||النفير العام||General emergency declared during war|
|Rank||رنك||An emblem that distinguished the rank and position of a Mamluk|
|Mohtaseb||محتسب||Controller of markets, public works and local affairs.|
|Qadi al-Qoda||قاضى القضاة||Chief justice|
|Tawashi||طواشى||A Eunuch responsible for serving the wives of the sultan and supervising new Mamluks. A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to|
|Khaskiya||خاصكية||Courtiers of the sultan and most trusted royal mamluks who functioned as the Sultan's bodyguards/ A privileged group around a prominent Amir|
|Qaranisa||قرانصة||Mamluks who moved to the service of a new Sultan or from the service of an Amir to a sultan.|
|Khushdashiya||خشداشية||Mamluks belonging to the same Amir or Sultan.|
|Jamkiya||جامكية||Salary paid to a Mamluk|
|Tashrif||تشريف||Head-covering worn by a Mamluk during the ceremony of inauguration to the position of Amir.|
|Sharabkhana||شرابخانة||Storehouse for drinks, medicines and glass-wares of the sultan.|
|Tishtkhana||طشتخانة||Storehouse used for the laundry of the sultan|
|Barid Jawi||بريد جوى||Airmail (mail sent by carrier-pigeons, amplified by Sultan Baibars)|
|Mahkamat al-Mazalim||محكمة المظالم||Court of complaint. Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري A court that heard cases of complaints of people against state officials. This court was headed by the sultan himself.|
|Fondok||فندق||Hotel (some famous hotels in Cairo during the Mamluk era were Dar al-Tofah, Fondok Bilal and Fondok al-Salih)|
|Khan||خان||A store that specialized in selling a certain commodity|
|Qussad||Secret couriers and agents who kept the sultan informed|
|Yook||A large linen closet used in every mamluk home|
|Sanjaqi||سنجاقى||A standard-bearer of the Sultan.|
|Morqadar||مرقدار||Works in the Royal Kitchen|
|Mushrif||مشرف||Supervisor of the Royal Kitchen|