|République du Mali|
Republic of Mali
|Motto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi"|
"One people, one goal, one faith"
|Anthem: Pour l'Afrique et pour toi, Mali|
"For Africa and for you, Mali"
(and largest city)
|-||President||Amadou Toumani Touré|
|-||Prime Minister||Modibo Sidibé|
|-||Declared||September 22, 1960|
|-||Total||1,240,192 km² (24th)|
478,839 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||1. The flag of Mali is a Tricolor with three equal vertical stripes Order #56/CMLN of 20 October 1973 prescribed the coat of arms of the Republic of Mali. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Population structure In July 2007 Mali's population was an estimated 12 Bamako, population 1690471 (2006 is the Capital and largest city of Mali, and currently estimated to be the fastest growing city in An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The chronological list of the Heads of State of Mali is shown below Affiliations Latest election See also General (ret Amadou Toumani Touré (born November 4, 1948 in Mopti, Mali) is the president of Mali. List of Heads of Government of Mali Affiliations- ADM = "Adema" Alliance pour la Démocratie en Mali-Parti Pan-Africain pour la Liberté Modibo Sidibé (born 7 November 1952) has been the Prime Minister of Mali since September 2007 The History of Mali covers the course of events in the area now constituting the nation of Mali. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different surface Areas here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 6|
|-||July 2007 estimate||11,995,402 (73rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$14. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 400 billion (125th)|
|-||Per capita||$1,154 (166th)|
|Gini (1994)||50. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 5 (high)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 380 (low)|
|Currency||CFA franc (|
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked nation in Western Africa. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, "céfa" or just franc colloquially is a currency used in twelve formerly French -ruled ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Mali is the seventh largest country in Africa, bordering Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Niger ( or /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/) officially the Republic of Niger, is a Landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Guinea, officially Republic of Guinea (pronounced /ˈgɪni/ République de Guinée is a country in West Africa, formerly known as French Guinea Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country
Consisting of eight regions, Mali's borders on the north stretch straightly into the center of the Sahara, while the country's southern region, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles The Sénégal River is a 1790 km long River in West Africa, that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania. The country's economical structure centers around agriculture and fishing. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Some of Mali's natural resources include gold, uranium, and salt. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Due to a high incidence of poverty, Mali is considered to be one of the poorest nations in the world.
Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (from which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. Trans-Saharan trade is trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire (existed c 750 - 1076) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, Western Mali The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a Medieval West African civilization of the Mandinka from c The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire was a pre-colonial African state of west Africa. In the late 1800s, Mali fell under French control, becoming part of French Sudan. French Sudan (Soudan was a Colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence first from 1890 to 1899 then from 1920 to 1960 when the Mali gained independence in 1959 with Senegal, as the Mali Federation in 1959. A year later, the Mali Federation became the independent nation of Mali in 1960. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.
Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and other precious commodities. The History of Mali covers the course of events in the area now constituting the nation of Mali. Trans-Saharan trade is trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants  These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities. The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of kingdoms or empires that were centered on the Sahel, the area of grasslands south of the Sahara.  The earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire, which was dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people. The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire (existed c 750 - 1076) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, Western Mali The Soninke (also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or ' Serahuli, and who include subgroups such as the Maraka and the Wangara) are The Mande languages are spoken in several countries in West Africa by the Mandé people and include Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara  The nation expanded throughout West Africa from about A. D. 700 until A. D. 1078, collapsing due to Almoravids' invasions. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during 
The Mali Empire later formed on the upper Niger River, and reached the height of power in the fourteenth century. The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a Medieval West African civilization of the Mandinka from c The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a Medieval West African civilization of the Mandinka from c The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles  Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning. Djenné (also Dienné or Jenne) is a historically and commercially important small city in the Niger Inland Delta of central Mali. Timbuktu ( Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, in the West African For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.  The empire later declined as a result of internal intrigue, ultimately being supplanted by the Songhai Empire in the fifteenth century. The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire was a pre-colonial African state of west Africa.  The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal The Songhai Empire long been a major power in West Africa and remained subjected to the Mali Empire's rule.  In the late fourteenth century, the Songhai gradually gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded, ultimately subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali Empire.  The empire's eventual collapse was largely the result of a Berber invasion in 1591. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.  The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads.  Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance. European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans, that explored and settled in North Africa 
In the colonial era, Mali fell under the control of the French beginning in the late 1800s.  By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (Soudan was a Colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence first from 1890 to 1899 then from 1920 to 1960 when the  In early 1959, Mali (then the Sudanese Republic) and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. The Mali Federation gained independence from France on June 20, 1960. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanese Republic to form the independent nation of Mali on September 22, 1960. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Modibo Keïta was elected the first president.  Keïta quickly established a one-party state, adopted an independent African and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and implemented extensive nationalization of economic resources. 
In November 1968, following progressive economic decline, the Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by Moussa Traoré.  The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president, attempted to reform the economy. However, his efforts were frustrated by political turmoil and a devastating drought between 1968 to 1974.  The Traoré regime faced student unrest beginning in the late 1970s and three coup attempts. However, the Traoré regime repressed all dissenters until the late 1980s.  The government continued to attempt economic reforms, and the populace became increasingly dissatisfied.  In response to growing demands for multi-party democracy, the Traoré regime allowed some limited political liberalization, but refused to usher in a full-fledged democratic system.  In 1990, cohesive opposition movements began to emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise of ethnic violence in the north following the return of many Tuaregs to Mali. The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic 
Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution. The 1992 Constitution of Mali was approved by a referendum on 12 January 1992 after being drawn up by a national conference in August 1991  In 1992, Alpha Oumar Konaré won Mali's first democratic, multi-party presidential election. Alpha Oumar Konaré (born 2 February 1946) was the President of Mali for two five-year terms (1992 to 2002 and was Chairperson of the African Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Upon his reelection in 1997, President Konaré pushed through political and economic reforms and fought corruption. In 2002, he was succeeded in democratic elections by Amadou Toumani Touré, a retired general, who had been the leader of the military aspect of the 1991 democratic uprising. General (ret Amadou Toumani Touré (born November 4, 1948 in Mopti, Mali) is the president of Mali.  Today, Mali is one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa. 
Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria. Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria, extending south-west from the southern Sahara through the Sahel This is a List of cities and towns in Mali: Aguel'hoc Araouane Azawad Bafoulabé West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's At 1,240,000 square kilometres (479,000 sq mi), Mali is the world's 24th-largest country and is comparable in size to South Africa or Peru. This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Most of the country lies in the southern Sahara, which produces a hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest The Harmattan is a dry and dusty West African Trade wind. It blows south from Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea between the end of November and the  The country extends southwest through the subtropical Sahel to the Sudanian savanna zone. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of See also Sahel Tunisia, a region of eastern Tunisia. The Sahel or Sahel Belt (from Arabic ساحل sāḥil For the country in north-east Africa see Sudan. The Sudan, from the Arabic bilâd as-sûdân or "land of the  Mali is mostly flat, rising to rolling northern plains covered by sand. Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles The Adrar des Ifoghas lies in the northeast. The Adrar des Ifoghas is a Sandstone Massif in Mali 's Kidal Region, having an area of about 250000 km²
The country's climate ranges from subtropical in the south to arid in the north. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of In general terms the Climate of a local or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available Water, to the extent of hindering  Most of the country receives negligible rainfall; droughts are frequent. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply  Late June to early December is the rainy season. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common.  The nation has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Kaolinite is a Clay mineral with the chemical composition Al 2 Si 2 O 5( OH)4 Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Mali faces numerous environmental challenges, including desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate supplies of potable water. Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting primarily from human activities and influenced by climatic variations Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not 
Mali is divided into eight regions (régions) and one district. |||} Mali is divided into eight Regions and one capital district. |||} A Cercle is the second level administrative unit in Mali. The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government.  Each region has a governor.  Since Mali's regions are huge, the country is subdivided into 49 cercles, totaling 288 arrondissements. |||} A Cercle is the second level administrative unit in Mali. An arrondissement is an Administrative division in some French or Dutch -speaking countries  Mayors and elected members of the city councils officiate the arrondissements. 
The regions and district are:
Mali is a constitutional democracy governed by the constitution of January 12, 1992, which was amended in 1999. |||} Mali is divided into eight Regions and one capital district. The Gao Region is located in eastern Mali. The region's capital city is Gao. Kayes Region is one of eight first level national subdivisions called Regions in Mali. Kidal is the eighth administrative region of Mali, covering 151430 km². Koulikoro is a region in Mali. It is the second administrative area of Mali and covers an area of 90120 km² Mopti is the fourth administrative region of Mali, covering 79017 km² Ségou is the fourth most populous administrative region in Mali, whose capital is the city of Ségou. Sikasso is the southern-most region of Mali. The capital city of the same name is the 3rd-largest city and is growing rapidly due to people fleeing theviolence in Côte Tombouctou is the largest northern-most region of Mali, comprised mostly of the Southwestern section of the Sahara Desert. Bamako, population 1690471 (2006 is the Capital and largest city of Mali, and currently estimated to be the fastest growing city in Politics of Mali takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Mali is both Events 475 - Basiliscus becomes Byzantine Emperor, with a coronation ceremony in the Hebdomon palace in Constantinople Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar)  The constitution provides for a separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State  The system of government can be described as "semi-presidential. "
Executive power is vested in a president, who is elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage and is limited to two terms.  The president serves as chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces  A prime minister appointed by the president serves as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of Ministers.  The unicameral National Assembly is Mali’s sole legislative body, consisting of deputies elected to five-year terms.  Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly. The Alliance for Democracy and Progress (Alliance pour la démocratie et le progrès is an alliance of political parties in Mali, that supports president Amadou  The assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the government. 
Mali’s constitution provides for an independent judiciary, but the executive continues to exercise influence over the judiciary by virtue of power to appoint judges and oversee both judicial functions and law enforcement.  Mali's highest courts are the Supreme Court, which has both judicial and administrative powers, and a separate Constitutional Court that provides judicial review of legislative acts and serves as an election arbiter.  Various lower courts exist, though village chiefs and elders resolve most local disputes in rural areas. 
Mali's foreign policy orientation has become increasingly pragmatic and pro-Western over time. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Following independence in 1960 Mali initially followed a Socialist path and was aligned ideologically with the communist bloc  Since the institution of a democratic form of government in 2002, Mali’s relations with the West in general and with the United States in particular have improved significantly. Konaré stepped down after his constitutionally mandated limit of two terms and did not run in the 2002 elections  Mali has a longstanding yet ambivalent relationship with France, a former colonial ruler. French Sudan (Soudan was a Colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence first from 1890 to 1899 then from 1920 to 1960 when the  Mali is active in regional organizations such as the African Union. The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African  Working to control and resolve regional conflicts, such as in Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, is one of Mali’s major foreign policy goals. Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.  Mali feels threatened by the potential for the spillover of conflicts in neighboring states, and relations with those neighbors are often uneasy.  General insecurity along borders in the north, including cross-border banditry and terrorism, remain troubling issues in regional relations. An outlaw or bandit is a person living the lifestyle of outlawry; the word literally means "outside the Law " by folk-etymology from the original Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion 
Mali’s military forces consist of an army, which includes land forces and a small navy and air force, as well as the paramilitary Gendarmerie and Republican Guard, all of which are under the control of Mali's Ministry of Defense and Veterans, headed by a civilian. Mali 's armed forces number some 7000 and are under the control of the Minister of Armed Forces and Veterans Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and Political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's  The military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization.  Organization has suffered from the incorporation of Tuareg irregular forces into the regular military following a 1992 agreement between the government and Tuareg rebel forces. The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic  The military has generally kept a low profile since the democratic transition of 1992. The incumbent president, Amadou Toumani Touré, is a former army general and as such reportedly enjoys widespread military support. General (ret Amadou Toumani Touré (born November 4, 1948 in Mopti, Mali) is the president of Mali.  In the annual human rights report for 2003, the U. S. Department of State rated civilian control of security forces as generally effective but noted a few "instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of government authority. "
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world. The Economy of Mali is based to a large extent on Agriculture, with an overwhelmingly rural population many of whom are engaged in subsistence agriculture.  The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500.  Between 1992 to 1995, Mali implemented an economic adjustment program that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in financial imbalances. The program increased social and economic conditions, and led to Mali joining the World Trade Organization on May 31, 1995. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995  The gross domestic product (GDP) has risen as a result. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3. 4 billion, and increased to US$5. 8 billion in 2005, which amounts to approximately 17. 6% annual growth rate.
Mali's key industry is agriculture. Along with gold and livestock, agriculture is eighty percent of Mali's exports.  Agriculture consists of eighty percent of employment in Mali, and services consist of fifteen percent.  However, due to growing and drought seasons, some workers are unemployed. 
Cotton is exported west throughout Senegal and the Ivory Coast.  During 2002, 620,000 tons of cotton were produced in Mali.  However, due to the declining cotton prices in 2003, demand for the crop had dropped.  In addition to cotton, Mali produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. 
The mining industry in Mali has recently attracted renewed interest and investment from foreign companies. In 1991, with the assistance International Development Association, Mali relaxed the enforcement of mining codes.  Gold exists in Mali's southern region, making Mali the third ranking African country (after South Africa and Ghana) for gold production. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the  The emergence of gold as Mali’s leading export product since 1999 has helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Côte d’Ivoire crises.  Other natural resources include kaolin, salt, phosphate, and limestone. Kaolinite is a Clay mineral with the chemical composition Al 2 Si 2 O 5( OH)4 Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 
Electricity and water are maintained by the Energie du Mali, or EDM, and textiles are generated by Industry Textile du Mali, or ITEMA.  Mali has made efficient use hydroelectricity, consisting of over half of Mali's electrical power. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water In 2002, 700kWh of hydroelectric power were produced in Mali. 
The Malian government participates in foreign involvement, concerning commerce and privatization. Mali underwent economic reform, beginning in 1988 by signing agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic  During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed public enterprises. Since the agreement, sixteen enterprises were privatized, twelve partially privatized, and twenty liquidated.  In 2005, the Malian government conceded a railroad company to the Savage Corporation, which is based in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States.  Two major companies, Societé de Telecommunications du Mali (SOTELMA) and the Cotton Ginning Company (CMDT), are expected to be privatized in 2008. 
In July 2007, Mali's population was an estimated 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 2. The Bozo are a West African Ethnic group located predominantly along the Niger River in Mali. Population structure In July 2007 Mali's population was an estimated 12 7%.  The population is predominantly rural (68% in 2002), and 5–10% of Malians are nomadic. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that  More than 90% of the population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in Bamako, which has over 1 million residents. Bamako, population 1690471 (2006 is the Capital and largest city of Mali, and currently estimated to be the fastest growing city in 
In 2007, about 48% of Malians were less than fifteen years old, 49% were 15–64 years old, and 3% were 65 and older.  The median age was 15. 9 years.  The birth rate in 2007 was 49. Crude birth rate is the natality or Childbirths per 1000 people per year 6 births per 1,000, and the total fertility rate was 7. The total fertility rate ( TFR, sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR or total 4 children per woman.  The death rate in 2007 was 16. Mortality rate is a measure of the number of Deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in some population scaled to the size of that population per unit time 5 deaths per 1,000.  Life expectancy at birth was 49. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age 5 years total (47. 6 for males and 51. 5 for females).  Mali has one of the world's highest rates of infant mortality, with 106 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007. This is a list of countries by infant mortality rate. Figures are from the 2006 revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects report for the period 2005-2010 and the Infant mortality is defined as the number of deaths of Infants (one year of age or younger per 1000 live births 
Mali’s population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups, most of which have historical, cultural, linguistic, and religious commonalities. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries  The Bambara are by far the largest single ethnic group, making up 36. Bambara Empire|Bambara language The Bambara ( Bamana in their own language or sometimes Banmana) are a Mande people living in west Africa 5% of the population.  Collectively, the Bambara, Soninké, and Malinké, all part of the broader Mandé group, constitute 50% of Mali's population. The Soninke (also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or ' Serahuli, and who include subgroups such as the Maraka and the Wangara) are The Malinké or Maninka are a part of Mandé in Africa. Approximately 7750000 Malinké are scattered throughout West Africa, including Mandé is an Ethnic group of West Africa. Speakers of the Mande languages are found in Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau  Other significant groups are the Peul (17%), Voltaic (12%), Songhai (6%), and Tuareg and Moor (10%). The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of The Volta is a River in western Africa that drains into the Gulf of Guinea. The Songhai are an ethnic group from western Africa akin to the Mandé. The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic  Mali historically has enjoyed reasonably good inter-ethnic relations; however, some hereditary servitude relationships exist, as do ethnic tensions between the Songhai and the Tuareg. 
Mali’s official language is French, but numerous (40 or more) African languages also are widely used by the various ethnic groups. The Great Mosque of Djenné is the largest Mud brick or Adobe building in the world and is considered by many Architects to be the greatest achievement French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people There are an estimated 2000 Languages spoken in Africa. About a hundred of these are widely used for inter-ethnic communication  About 80% of Mali’s population can communicate in Bambara, which is the country’s principal lingua franca and marketplace language. Bambara, also known as Bamanankan in the language itself is a Language spoken in Mali by as many as six million people (including second language users A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely  An estimated 90% of Malians are Muslim (mostly Sunni), 9% adhere to indigenous or traditional animist beliefs, and 1% are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant). Muslims currently make up approximately 90 percent of the population of Mali, the largest country in West Africa. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic See also Religion in Africa African traditional religions, also referred to as African indigenous religions or African The Roman Catholic Church in Mali is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Curia in Rome Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.  Atheism and agnosticism are believed to be rare among Malians, most of whom practice their religion on a daily basis. Atheism Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the  Islam as practiced in Mali is moderate, tolerant, and adapted to local conditions; relations between Muslims and practitioners of minority religious faiths are generally amicable.  The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right. A secular state is a State or Country that is officially neutral in matters of Religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance 
Mali faces numerous health challenges related to poverty, malnutrition, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation. Health in Mali, one of the world’s poorest nations, is greatly affected by Poverty, Malnutrition, and inadequate Hygiene Public education in Mali is in principle provided free of charge and is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and 16 Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing human contact from the hazards of wastes to promote health  Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world.  In 2000, only 62–65 percent of the population was estimated to have access to safe drinking water and only 69 percent to sanitation services of some kind.  In 2001, the general government expenditures on health totaled about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate.  Medical facilities in Mali are very limited, and medicines are in short supply.  Malaria and other arthropod-borne diseases are prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common  Mali’s population also suffers from a high rate of child malnutrition and a low rate of immunization. Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's Immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the  An estimated 1. 9 percent of the adult population was afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries 
Public education in Mali is in principle provided free of charge and is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and 16.  The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age seven, followed by six years of secondary education. Primary education is the first stage of Compulsory education. Australia See also Education  However, Mali’s actual primary school enrollment rate is low, in large part because families are unable to cover the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and other fees required to attend.  In the 2000–01 school year, the primary school enrollment rate was 61% (71% of males and 51% of females); in the late 1990s, the secondary school enrollment rate was 15% percent (20% of males and 10% of females).  The education system is plagued by a lack of schools in rural areas, as well as shortages of teachers and materials.  Estimates of literacy rates in Mali range from 27–30% to 46. 4%, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than men. 
Malian musical traditions are derived from the griots, who are known as "Keeper of Memories". A griot ( pronounced /gɹiɒ/ in English or in French, with a silent t) or jeli ( djeli or djéli in French  Malian music is diverse and has several different genres. The Music of Mali is dominated by forms derived from the ancient Mande Empire. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora virtouso musician Toumani Diabaté, the late roots and blues guitarist Ali Farka Touré, the Tuareg band Tinariwen, and several Afro-pop artists such as Salif Keita, the duo Amadou et Mariam, and Oumou Sangare. The kora is a 21- string Harp - Lute used extensively by peoples in West Africa. Toumani Diabaté (born August 10 1965) is a Malian kora player who has gained international acclaim for his music A guitarist is a Musician who plays the Guitar. Guitarists may perform solo pieces or play with ensembles and bands of a wide variety of genres Ali Ibrahim “Farka” Touré ( October 31, 1939 &ndash March 7, 2006) was a Malian singer and Guitarist and one of the The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic Tinariwen ( Tamashek: ⵜⵏⵔⵓⵏ "empty places" is a Musical band formed in 1982 in Muammar al-Gaddafi 's camps of Tuareg rebels "Afropop" redirects here For the radio program see Afropop Worldwide. Salif Keita (born August 25, 1949) is an internationally recognized Afro-pop Singer - Songwriter from Mali. Amadou and Mariam are a Musical duo from Mali, composed of the couple Mariam Doumbia (vocals (born in Mali's capital Bamako 15 April 1958 and Oumou Sangare (born February 25 1968, in Bamako Mali) is a Malian Wassoulou musician sometimes referred to as "The Songbird
Though Mali's literature is less famous than music, Mali has always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers.  Mali's literary tradition is largely oral, with jalis reciting or singing histories and stories from memory.  Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Mali's best-known historian, spent much of his life recording these oral traditions. Amadou Hampâté Bâ (January or February 1900 or 1901 in Bandiagara, Mali &ndash May 15, 1991 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire  The best-known novel by a Malian writer is Yambo Ouologuem's Le devoir de violence, which won the 1968 Prix Renaudot but whose legacy was marred by accusations of plagiarism. Yambo Ouologuem (born August 22, 1940) is a Malian writer His first novel Le Devoir de Violence ( 1968) won the Prix Renaudot The prix Théophraste-Renaudot or prix Renaudot is a French Literary award which was created in 1926 by ten Art critics awaiting the  Other well-known Malian writers include Baba Traoré, Ousmane Sembene, Modibo Sounkalo Keita, Massa Makan Diabaté, Moussa Konaté, and Fily Dabo Sissoko. Ousmane Sembène ( January 1, 1923 &mdash June 9, 2007) often credited in the French style as Sembène Ousmane in articles and reference Massa Makan Diabaté ( 1938 - January 27, 1988) was a Malian historian, Author, and Playwright. Moussa Konaté is a Malian writer born in 1951 in Kita ( Mali) 
The varied everyday culture of Malians reflects the country's ethnic and geographic diversity.  Most Malians wear flowing, colorful robes called boubous that are typical of West Africa. The Boubou / Bubu is one of the names for a flowing wide sleeved robe worn in most of West Africa and to a lesser extent in North Africa, related to the Dashiki West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Malians frequently participate in traditional festivals, dances, and ceremonies.  Rice and millet are the staples of Malian cuisine, which is heavily based on cereal grains. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder  Grains are generally prepared with sauces made from leaves such spinach or baobab leaves, with tomato, or with peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat (typically chicken, mutton, beef, or goat). Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea) is a Flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. Baobab is the common name of a Genus ( Adansonia) containing eight species of Trees native to Madagascar (having six species mainland The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family The peanut, or Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the Legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of Domestic sheep. The meat of an animal in its first year is lamb; that of an older sheep is hogget Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe  Malian cuisine varies regionally. 
The most popular sport in Mali is football (soccer), which became more prominent after Mali hosted the 2002 African Cup of Nations. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Host Cities & Venues Squads For a list of all squads that played in the final tournament see 2002 African  Most towns have regular games; the most popular national teams are Djoliba, Stad, and Real.  Informal games are often played by youths using a bundle of rags as a ball.  The country has produced several notable players for French teams, including Salif Keita and Jean Tigana. Salif Keita (born December 8, 1946 in Bamako) is a former Malian football player Jean Amadou Tigana (born 23 June 1955 in Bamako, Mali) is a football manager and former player having played in Midfield  Basketball is another major sport; the Mali women's national basketball team is the only African basketball team competing at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m The Mali women's national basketball team is the nationally-controlled basketball team representing Mali at world basketball competitions for women  Traditional wrestling (la lutte) is also somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years. Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of the opponent  The game wari, a mancala variant, is a common pastime. Oware is an Abstract strategy game and is the variant of Mancala most widely considered suitable for serious adult competition Mancala is a family of board games played around the world sometimes called " Sowing " games or "count-and-capture" games which describes the