|Spoken in:||India, Nepal|
|Region:||Bihar in India|
|Total speakers:||45 million|
|Writing system:||Devanagari, Kaithi, Mithilakshar|
|Official language in:||Bihar state in India|
|Regulated by:||no official regulation|
|ISO 639-1:||bh (Bihari)|
Maithili (मैथिली Maithilī) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages It is spoken in the Indian state of Bihar and in the eastern Terai region of Nepal. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. The Terai ("moist land" is a belt of marshy Grasslands Savannas and Forests at the base of the Himalaya range in India Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Linguists consider Maithili to be an Eastern Indic language, and thus a different language from Hindi , which is Central Indic. The Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 ( SIL estimate languages and dialects spoken by many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is The Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 ( SIL estimate languages and dialects spoken by many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Maithili has been considered a dialect of both Hindi and Bengali, and in fact was classified as a mother tongue of Hindi in the Census of India. In 2003 Maithili gained the status of an independent language in India. A movement to give the language official status through inclusion in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution so that it may be used in education, government, and other official contexts, resulted in Maithili being given official status in 2004. The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India.
Maithili was traditionally written in the Maithili script (also known by the names Tirhuta and Mithilakshar). Mithilakshar ( Devanagari script मिथिलाक्षर mithilākṣar; Eastern Nagari script: মিথিলাক্ষর or Tirhuta Mithilakshar ( Devanagari script मिथिलाक्षर mithilākṣar; Eastern Nagari script: মিথিলাক্ষর or Tirhuta It was also written in the Kaithi script, but the Devanagari script is the script most commonly used today for Maithili. Kaithi (कैथी also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi" is the name of a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former An effort is underway to preserve the Maithili script and to develop it for use in digital media by encoding the script in the Unicode standard, for which a proposal, submitted by Anshuman Pandey, to allocate the script in the Unicode Roadmap has been submitted as the first step. In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's
The term Maithili comes from Mithila, which was an independent state in ancient times. Mithila ( Sanskrit: मिथिला mithilā) was a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom Maithili is a separate language, having a large Maithili-speaking community (4. 5 crore, or 45 million, people) with a rich literature. The most famous literary figure in Maithili is the poet Vidyapati. Vidyapati Thakur (1352? - 1448? also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil (the poet Cuckoo of Maithili) was a Maithili poet and a He is credited for raising the importance of 'people's language', i. e. Maithili, in the official work of the state by influencing the Maharaja of Darbhanga with the quality of his poetry. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Darbhangā is a city and a Municipal corporation in and headquarters of Darbhanga district and The state's official language used to be Sanskrit, which distanced common people from the state and its functions. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The name Maithili is also one of the names of Sita, the consort of Rama. SITA is a multinational Information technology company specialising in providing IT and telecommunication services to the Aviation industry Rama ( IAST: rāma Devanāgarī: राम Khmer: Phreah Ream Thai: Phra Ram Lao: Phra Lam Tagalog:
It is a fact that scholars in Mithila used Sanskrit for their literary work and Maithili was the language of the common folk (Abahatta). Abahatta (also Apabhramsa Avahatta, Apabhramsha Abahatta or Purvi Apabhramsa) is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages The earliest work in Maithili appears to be Varn Ratnakar by Jyotirishwar Thakur dated about 1224 AD. Jyotirishwar Thakur or Kaviśekharācārya Jyotirīśvara Ṭhākura (1290 - 1350 was a Sanskrit poet and an early Maithili writer known for the
The name Maithili is derived from the word Mithila, an ancient kingdom of which King Janaka was the ruler (See Ramayana). Mithila ( Sanskrit: मिथिला mithilā) was a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom In ancient India, Janaka ( Sanskrit: जनक janaka) or Raja Janaka (राजा जनक rājā janaka) were the Kings of The Rāmāyaṇa ( Devanāgarī: sa रामायण is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage ( Maharishi) Valmiki Maithili is also one of the names of Sita, the wife of King Rama and daughter of King Janaka. SITA is a multinational Information technology company specialising in providing IT and telecommunication services to the Aviation industry Rama ( IAST: rāma Devanāgarī: राम Khmer: Phreah Ream Thai: Phra Ram Lao: Phra Lam Tagalog: In ancient India, Janaka ( Sanskrit: जनक janaka) or Raja Janaka (राजा जनक rājā janaka) were the Kings of
The Medieval age of Maithili appears to be during Karnat Dynasty when the names of the following scholars got prominence: Gangesh, Padmanabh, Chandeshwar, Vireshwar, Vidyapati, Vachaspati, Pakshadhar, Ayachi, Udayan, Shankar etc.
Vidyapati is said to have lived in the period 1350 to 1450. Vidyapati, though a Sanskrit scholar, wrote innumerable poems(songs) relating to Bhakti and Shringar in Maithili. Though equally accepted in Bengal and Mithila, his songs are the soul of Mithila and no celebration is complete without his songs. It will not be an exaggeration to say that his songs have survived in the throats of Maithil women folk. Verses of Vidhyapati are given religious importance in the culture of Mithila.
Theatrical writings in Medieval age are not less important. The following need mention: Umapati: (Parijat Haran), Jyotireeshwar: (Dhurt Samagam), Vidyapati: (Goraksha Vijay, Mani Manjari), Ramapati: (Rukmini Haran), Lal: (Gauri Swayambar), Manbodh: (Krishna Janma)
Maithili has been preferred by many authors to write humour and satire. Writers like Dr. Hari Mohan Jha took steps to bring about fundamental changes in the centuries old Mithila Culture. His work like Khatar Kaka Ke Tarang decorated mordern maithili Literature.
Maithili has now been listed in VIIIth schedule of the Indian Constitution and thus now it is one of the 22 National Languages of India. Maithali was accepted by Sahitya Academy and since its inclusion has won awards almost every year. A number of academy awards have been won for translation from other languages.
Modern Maithili came into its own after Sir George Abraham Grierson, Irish linguist and civil servant, tirelessly reasearched Maithili folklore and wrote its grammar. George Abraham Grierson ( 7 January 1851, Glenageary, County Dublin, Ireland - 9 March 1941, Camberley
See category Maithili-language books.