Magnolia x wieseneri
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Magnoliopsida is the Botanical name for a class of Flowering plants By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae, but its Magnoliales is an order of Flowering plants Classification The Magloliales includes six families Annonaceae (custard apple family The Magnoliaceae is a family in the flowering plant Order Magnoliales. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. The Magnoliaceae is a family in the flowering plant Order Magnoliales. The Magnoliaceae is a family in the flowering plant Order Magnoliales.
The natural range of Magnolia species is rather scattered and includes eastern North America, Central America and the West Indies and east and southeast Asia. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Some species are found in South America. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Today many species of Magnolia and an ever increasing number of hybrids can also be found as ornamentals in large parts of North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. The genus is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol, from Montpellier. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Pierre Magnol ( June 8, 1638 - May 21, 1715) was a French Botanist. Montpellier ( Occitan Montpelhièr) is a City in the south of France. See Origin of the name Magnolia. Magnolia is a large Genus of about 210 Flowering plant Species in the subclass Magnolioideae of the family
Magnolia is an ancient genus. Having evolved before bees appeared, the flowers developed to encourage pollination by beetles. Bees are flying Insects closely related to Wasps and Ants Bees are a Monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea Beetles are the group of Insects with the largest number of known Species. As a result, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough, to avoid damage by eating and crawling beetles. A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. Fossilised specimens of M. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae dating back to 95 million years ago. Another primitive aspect of Magnolias is their lack of distinct sepals or petals. A sepal (from Latin separatus "separate" + petalum "petal" is a part of the flower of Angiosperms or flower plants A petal (from Ancient Greek petalon "leaf" "thin plate" regarded as a highly modified leaf is one member or part of the corolla The term tepal has been coined to refer to the intermediate element that Magnolia has instead. Tepals are elements of the Perianth, or outer part of a flower which include the Petals or Sepals The term tepal is usually used when all segments Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Giant Leopard Moth. A larva ( Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of Animal with indirect development, undergoing Metamorphosis (for example Lepidoptera is an order of Insect that includes Moths and butterflies. The Giant Leopard Moth or Eyed Tiger Moth ( Hypercompe scribonia) is a Moth of the family Arctiidae.
Magnolia grandiflora is the official state flower of both Mississippi and Louisiana. Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the Southern magnolia or bull bay, is a Magnolia native to the southeastern United This is a list of US state flowers: See also List of US state trees Lists of U Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America  The flower's abundance in Mississippi is reflected in its state nickname, "Magnolia State". This is a list of US state nicknames, including officially adopted Nicknames and other traditional nicknames for individual states of the United States. The magnolia is also the official state tree of Mississippi. This List of US state trees includes official trees of the following states and U
One of the oldest nicknames for Houston, Texas Is "The Magnolia City" due to the abundance of Magnolias growing along Buffalo Bayou.
In 1703 Charles Plumier (1646-1704) described a flowering tree from the island of Martinique in his Genera. Charles Plumier ( April 20, 1646 - November 20, 1704) was a French botanist, after whom the genus Plumeria, or Martinique is an Island in the eastern Caribbean Sea, having a land area of 1128 km² A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic He gave the species, known locally as 'Talauma', the genus name Magnolia, after Pierre Magnol. Pierre Magnol ( June 8, 1638 - May 21, 1715) was a French Botanist. The English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. William Sherard ( 27 February 1659 - 11 August 1728) was an English Botanist. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort ( 5 June, 1656 — 28 December, 1708) was a French Botanist, notable as the first to make a clear He was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesby's famous Natural history of Carolina. Johann Jakob Dillen (Dillenius ( 1687 - April 2, 1747) was a German Botanist. Mark Catesby ( April 3, 1683 - December 1749 was an English naturalist. These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America.
Carolus Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema naturae, without a description but with a reference to Plumier's work. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for The book Systema Naturae was one of the major works of the Swedish doctor of medicine Carolus Linnaeus. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species plantarum. Species Plantarum ("The Species of Plants" was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work by Carl Linnaeus. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen (if there has ever been one) of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1730 'Natural History of Carolina, and placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana variety foetida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora. This article deals with the general meaning of the term "synonym" A taxon (plural taxa) or taxonomic unit, is a name designating an organism or a group of Organisms In Biological nomenclature according to
The species that Plumier originally named Magnolia was later described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, and has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri (and still a number of other names) but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala. Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck ( August 1, 1744 &ndash December 18, 1829) was a French Soldier xx
Magnolias have long been known and used in China. References to their medicinal qualities go back to as early as 1083. After the Spanish conquest of Mexico, Philip II commissioned his court physician Francisco Hernandez in 1570 to undertake a scientific expedition. Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 Francisco Hernández, was a football player from Costa Rica. Better known as "Chico", he played his entire career for Deportivo Saprissa Hernandez made numerous descriptions of plants, accompanied by drawings, but publication was delayed and hampered by a number of consecutive accidents. Between 1629 and 1651 the material was re-edited by members of the Academy of Lincei and issued (1651) in three editions as Nova plantarum historia Mexicana. The Accademia dei Lincei, (literally the " Academy of the Lynxes" but also known as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy located This work contains a drawing of a plant under the vernacular name Eloxochitl, that is almost certainly Magnolia dealbata Magnolia macrophylla subsp. dealbata). This must have been the first-ever description of a Magnolia that came to the Western World. It is unclear whether there are early descriptions made by English or French missionaries that were sent to North America but the first introduction of a Magnolia into Europe is well documented. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. It was the missionary and plant collector John Banister (1654-1693) who sent back Laurus tulipifera, foliis subtus ex cinereo aut argenteo purpurascentibus from Virginia in 1688, to Henry Compton, the Bishop of London. John Banister (1650 &ndash 1692 was an English Clergyman and Scientist. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Henry Compton (1632 – July 7, 1713) English bishop was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. This species is now known as Magnolia virginiana (Sweetbay magnolia). Thus the first Magnolia had already found its way to Europe before Charles Plumier discovered his Talauma on Martinique and gave it the name Magnolia.
When Linnaeus took up Magnolia in his Species plantarum (1753), he created a lemma of only one species: Magnolia virginiana. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Species Plantarum ("The Species of Plants" was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work by Carl Linnaeus. Under that species he described five varieties (glauca, foetida, grisea, tripetala and acuminata). In the tenth edition of Systema naturae (1759), he merged grisea with glauca, and raised the four remaining varieties to specific status. The book Systema Naturae was one of the major works of the Swedish doctor of medicine Carolus Linnaeus.
By the end of the 18th century, botanists and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan. The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora, and Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and, within a close proximity to that period, Magnolia kobus was also first collected. Early life Thunberg was born at Jönköping, and became a pupil of Carolus Linnaeus at Uppsala University.
With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into subgenus Magnolia, and subgenus Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species Magnolia grandiflora, which is of horticultural importance, especially in the United States, and Magnolia virginiana, the type species. Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of Plant propagation The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as Magnolia denudata and Magnolia kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including Classified in Yulania, is also the American deciduous Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber tree), which has recently attained greater status as the parent which is responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids.
Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time. Because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events (such as ice ages, mountain formation and continental drift), its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family (or even within the genus Magnolia), solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a near impossible task
By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large scale research on phylogenetic relationships. The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the Nucleotide bases Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more closely allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia. These phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data.
As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically there are three choices; 1: to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for which the name Michelia has priority); 2: to raise subgenus Yulania to generic rank, leaving Michelia names and subgenus Magnolia names untouched; or 3: to join Michelia with genus Magnolia into genus Magnolia s. l. (a big genus). Magnolia subgenus Magnolia can not be renamed because it contains Magnolia virginiana, the type species of the genus and of the family. Not many Michelia species have so far become horticulturally or economically important, apart for their wood. Both subgenus Magnolia and subgenus Yulania include species of major horticultural importance, and a change of name would be very undesirable for many people, especially in the horticultural branch. In Europe, Magnolia even is more or less a synonym for Yulania, since most of the cultivated species in this continent have Magnolia (Yulania) denudata as one of their parents. Most taxonomists who acknowledge close relations between Yulania and Michelia therefore support the third option and join Michelia with Magnolia.
The same goes, mutatis mutandis, for the (former) genera Talauma and Dugandiodendron, which are then placed in subgenus Magnolia, and genus Manglietia, which could be joined with subgenus Magnolia or may even earn the status of an extra subgenus. Elmerrillia seems to be closely related to Michelia and Yulania, in which case it will most likely be treated in the same way as Michelia is now. The precise nomenclatural status of small or monospecific genera like Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax, Manglietiastrum, Aromadendron, Woonyoungia, Alcimandra, Paramichelia and Tsoongiodendron remains uncertain. Taxonomists who merge Michelia into Magnolia tend to merge these small genera into Magnolia s. l. as well. At present, western botanist tend toward a big Magnolia genus, whereas many Chinese botanists still recognize the different small genera.
Note: the following list only includes temperate species; many other species occur in tropical areas. For a full list, see the Magnolia Society list
In general, Magnolia is a genus which has attracted a lot of horticultural interest. Magnolia acuminata, commonly called the Cucumber tree (often spelled as a single word "Cucumbertree" or Cucumber Magnolia is one of the UserPolbot. --> Magnolia amoena is a species of Plant in the Magnoliaceae family Campbell's Magnolia ( Magnolia campbellii) is a species of Magnolia that grows in sheltered valleys in the Himalaya from eastern Nepal UserPolbot. --> Magnolia cylindrica is a species of Plant in the Magnoliaceae family Dawson's magnolia ( Magnolia dawsoniana) is a Magnolia Species native to the provinences of Sichuan and Yunnan in China, Magnolia denudata, known as the Yulan magnolia, is native to central and eastern China. The deciduous tree species Magnolia hypoleuca is commonly known as the Whitebark Magnolia Magnolia kobus, known as the Kobushi Magnolia, is a species of Magnolia native to Japan Magnolia liliiflora, commonly known as the Mulan magnolia, Tulip magnolia or Lily magnolia, is a small tree native to southwest China Magnolia salicifolia, also known as Willow-leafed magnolia or Anise Magnolia, originates from Japan. Sargent's magnolia, Magnolia sargentiana, is a tall deciduous tree that grows in provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan in China, where its forest Sprenger's magnolia, ( Magnolia sprengeri) is a species of Magnolia native to China, occurring in Gansu, Henan, Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata, is a very slow growing perennial Shrub or small Tree native to Japan with large showy white UserPolbot. --> Magnolia zenii is a species of Plant in the Magnoliaceae family Magnolia hodgsonii ( syn Talauma hodgsonii) is a species of Magnolia native to the forests of the Himalaya and southeastern Magnolia splendens, commonly known as the Laurel magnolia, Shining Magnolia or locally as the laurel sabino, is a Magnolia native Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the species themselves, as well as having more impressive flowers. In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. One of the most popular garden magnolias is a hybrid, M. x soulangeana (Saucer magnolia; hybrid M. liliiflora x M. denudata).
The bark from M. officinalis has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is known as hou po (厚朴). Traditional Chinese medicine (also known as TCM,) includes a range of traditional medical practices originating in China. In Japan, kōboku, M. obovata has been used in a similar manner. The aromatic bark contains magnolol and honokiol, two polyphenolic compounds that have demonstrated anti-anxiety and anti-angiogenic properties. Magnolol is a bioactive compound found in the bark of the Houpu magnolia ( Magnolia officinalis) Honokiol (C18H18O2 is a biphenolic compound present in the cones bark and leaves of Magnolia grandifloris Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants characterized by the presence of more than one Phenol unit or building block per molecule Angiogenesis is a physiological process involving the growth of new Blood vessels from pre-existing vessels Magnolia bark also has been shown to reduce allergic and asthmatic reactions. 
Magnolia has attracted the interest of the dental research community because magnolia bark extract inhibits many of the bacteria responsible for caries and periodontal disease. Caries is a progressive destruction of any kind of Bone structure including the Skull, Ribs and other bones or the teeth.  In addition, the constituent magnolol interferes with the action of glucosyltransferase, an enzyme needed for the formation of bacterial plaque. Glucosyltransferases are a type of Glycosyltransferase which enable the transfer of Glucose. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins 
On January 18, 2008, the Botanic Gardens Conservation International (representing botanic gardens in 120 countries) stated that "400 medicinal plants are at risk of extinction, from over-collection and deforestation, threatening the discovery of future cures for disease. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI is a plant conservation charity based in London, England. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of Plants primarily to categorize and document for scientific purposes Herbalism is a traditional Medicinal or Folk medicine practice based on the use of Plants and Plant extracts Herbalism is also known as " These included Yew trees (the bark is used for cancer drugs, paclitaxel); Hoodia (from Namibia, source of weight loss drugs); half of Magnolias (used as Chinese medicine for 5,000 years to fight cancer, dementia and heart disease); and Autumn crocus (for gout). Paclitaxel is a Mitotic inhibitor used in Cancer Chemotherapy. Hoodia (ˈhʊdiːə is a Genus of 13 species in the Flowering plant family Apocynaceae, under the subfamily Asclepiadoideae Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast Weight loss, in the context of Medicine or Health or Physical fitness, is a reduction of the total Body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid Dementia (from Latin de- "apart away" + Mens ( genitive mentis) "mind" is the progressive decline Colchicum autumnale, commonly known as autumn crocus, meadow Saffron or naked lady, is a Flower which resembles the Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of Uric acid.  The WHO estimates that as many as 80% of the world's population depend on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. 
An unripe Magnolia seedpod.
The seeds are exposed when the fruit splits open.
Magnolia x soulangeana flower.
Flower of a Magnolia Tree
Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia) - a large tree at Hemingway, South Carolina
Flower of Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia)