The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian criminal secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Secret society is a term used to describe a variety of organizations Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. An offshoot emerged on the East Coast of the United States and in Australia during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration (see also Italian diaspora). The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of In North America, the Mafia often refers to Italian organized crime in general, rather than just traditional Sicilian organized crime. According to historian Paolo Pezzino: "The Mafia is a kind of organized crime being active not only in several illegal fields, but also tending to exercise sovereignty functions – normally belonging to public authorities – over a specific territory. . . "
The Sicilian Cosa Nostra is a loose confederation of about one hundred Mafia groups, also called cosche or families, each of which claims sovereignty over a territory, usually a town or village or a neighborhood of a larger city, though without ever fully conquering and legitimizing its monopoly of violence. The word cosca (pl cosche in Italian and coschi in Sicilian) is a Sicilian word which refers to any plant – such as the Artichoke For many years, the power apparatuses of the single families were the sole ruling bodies within the two associations, and they have remained the real centers of power even after superordinate bodies were created in the Cosa Nostra beginning in the late 1950s (the Sicilian Mafia Commission). The Sicilian Mafia Commission, known as Commissione or Cupola, is a body of leading Mafia members to decide on important questions concerning the actions 
Some observers have seen "mafia" as a set of attributes deeply rooted in popular culture, as a "way of being", as illustrated in the definition by the Sicilian ethnographer, Giuseppe Pitrè, at the end of the 19th century: "Mafia is the consciousness of one's own worth, the exaggerated concept of individual force as the sole arbiter of every conflict, of every clash of interests or ideas. Giuseppe Pitrè ( December 21, 1841 &ndash April 10, 1916) was an Italian folklorist credited with extending the realm "
Many Sicilians did not regard these men as criminals but as role models and protectors, given that the state appeared to offer no protection for the poor and weak. As late as the 1950s, the funeral epitaph of the legendary boss of Villalba, Calogero Vizzini, stated that "his 'mafia' was not criminal, but stood for respect of the law, defense of all rights, greatness of character. Calogero Don Calò Vizzini ( July 24, 1877 – July 10, 1954) was the Mafia boss of Villalba in the It was love. " Here, "mafia" means something like pride, honour, or even social responsibility: an attitude, not an organization. Likewise, in 1925, the former Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando stated in the Italian senate that he was proud of being mafioso, because that word meant honourable, noble, generous. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando ( May 19 1860 - December 1 1952) was an Italian diplomat and Political figure. 
There are several theories about the origin of the term. The Sicilian adjective mafiusu may derive from the Arabic mahyas, meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud meaning "rejected". Sicilian (scn '''''lu sicilianu''''' lingua siciliana, also known as Siculu or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Roughly translated, it means "swagger", but can also be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta. 
According to the Sicilian ethnographer Giuseppe Pitrè, the association of the word with the criminal secret society was made by the 1863 play I mafiusi di la Vicaria (The Beautiful (people) of Vicaria) by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca, which is about criminal gangs in the Palermo prison. Giuseppe Pitrè ( December 21, 1841 &ndash April 10, 1916) was an Italian folklorist credited with extending the realm Gaetano Mosca ( April 1, 1858 Palermo, Italy – November 8, 1941 Rome, Italy) was an Italian  The words Mafia and mafiusi (plural of mafiusu) are never mentioned in the play, and were probably put in the title because it would add local flair.
The association between mafiusi and criminal gangs was made by the association the play's title made with the criminal gangs that were new to Sicilian and Italian society at the time. Consequently, the word "mafia" was generated from a fictional source loosely inspired by the real thing and was used by outsiders to describe it. The use of the term "mafia" was subsequently taken over in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The word "mafia" made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio. Filippo Antonio Gualterio may refer to Filippo Antonio Gualterio (cardinal (1660&ndash1728 papal nuncio to France see Papal conclave 1721
Leopoldo Franchetti, an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": "the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, and, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining vulgar criminals in other countries. Leopoldo Franchetti ( Livorno, May 31, 1847 – Rome, November 4, 1917) was an Italian publicist and politician " He saw the Mafia as deeply rooted in Sicilian society and impossible to quench unless the very structure of the island's social institutions were to undergo a fundamental change. 
According to popular myth, the word Mafia was first used in the Sicilian rebellion - the Sicilian Vespers - against the oppressive Anjou rule on March 30, 1282. The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I of Naples, who had taken control Anjou is a former County (c 880) Duchy ( 1360) and province centred on the city of Angers in the lower Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Mafia is the acronym for "Morta Alla Francia, Italia Anela" (Italian for "Death to France. This is Italy's cry"). However, this version is discarded by most serious historians nowadays.
According to some mafiosi, the real name of the Mafia is "Cosa Nostra" ("Our thing"). Many have claimed, as did the Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta, that the word "mafia" was a literary creation. Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo July 13, 1928 - New York April 2, 2000) was a Sicilian Mafioso. Other Mafia defectors, such as Antonio Calderone and Salvatore Contorno, said the same thing. Antonino Calderone ( Catania, October 24, 1935) is a Sicilian Mafioso who turned state witness ( Pentito) in 1987 after Salvatore " Totuccio " Contorno (Palermo May 28, 1946) is a former member of the Sicilian Mafia who turned into a state According to them, the real thing was "cosa nostra". To men of honour belonging to the organization, there is no need to name it. Mafiosi introduce known members to other known members as belonging to "cosa nostra" (our thing) or la stessa cosa (the same thing), meaning "he is the same thing, a mafioso, as you". Only the outside world needs a name to describe it, hence the capitalized form "Cosa Nostra".
Cosa Nostra was first used, in the early 1960s, in the United States by Joseph Valachi, a mafioso turned state witness, during the hearings of the McClellan Commission. Joseph 'Joe Cago' Valachi ( September 22, 1903 – April 3, 1971) (aka Charles Chanbano and Anthony Sorge was the first Mafia member The McClellan Hearings, more commonly known as the Valachi Hearings, investigated Organized crime activities across America and centered on Teamsters head  At the time, it was understood as a proper name, fostered by the FBI and disseminated by the media. The designation gained wide popularity and almost replaced the term Mafia. The FBI even added an article to the term, calling it 'La Cosa Nostra'. In Italy the article 'la' is never used when the term refers to the Mafia.
The Mafia has used many other names to describe itself throughout its history, such as The Honoured Society. Mafiosi are known among themselves as Men of Honour.
The orientation ritual in most families happens when a man becomes an associate, and then, a soldier. As described by Tommaso Buscetta to judge Giovanni Falcone, the neophyte is brought together with at least three "men of honor" of the family and the oldest member present warns him that "this House" is meant to protect the weak against the abuse of the powerful; he then pricks the finger of the initiate and spills his blood onto a sacred image, usually of a saint. Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo July 13, 1928 - New York April 2, 2000) was a Sicilian Mafioso. He who's afraid dies every day who's not afraid dies only once The image is placed in the hand of the initiate and lit on fire. The neophyte must withstand the pain of the burning, passing the image from hand to hand, until the image has been consumed, while swearing to keep faith with the principles of "Cosa Nostra," solemnly swearing "may my flesh burn like this saint if I fail to keep my oath. " Joseph Valachi was the first person to mention that in court.
The Sicilians also have a law of silence, called omertà; it forbids the common man, woman or child to cooperate at all with the police or the government, upon pain of death. Omertà is a popular attitude common in areas of southern Italy, such as Sicily, Calabria, and Campania, where criminal organizations like the
It has long been debated whether the mafia has medieval origins. Deceased pentito Tommaso Buscetta thought so, whilst modern scholars now believe otherwise. Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo July 13, 1928 - New York April 2, 2000) was a Sicilian Mafioso. It is possible that the "original" mafia formed as a secret society sworn to protect the Sicilian population from the threat of Catalan marauders in the fifteenth century. However, there is very little historical evidence to suggest this. It is also feasible that the "Robin Hood" origins, which are closely intertwined with the Sicilian outlaw Salvatore Giuliano, were perpetuated by the earliest known mafiosi as a means of gaining goodwill and trust from the Sicilian people. Robin Hood is an archetypal figure in English folklore, whose story originates from medieval times but who remains significant in popular culture where Salvatore Giuliano ( Montelepre, November 16, 1922 &ndash Castelvetrano, July 5, 1950) was a Sicilian Peasant This origin states that the Mafia is a means for righteous rebels to defend the people against oppression, Roman and Northern Italian control, and outside invasion.
After the Revolution of 1848 and the revolution of 1860, Sicily had fallen to complete disorder. The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany there was no " Italy " at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a collection of independent Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian The earliest mafiosi (at that time separate small bands of outlaws) offered their guns in the revolt. Author John Dickie claims that the main reasons for this were the chance to burn police records and evidence, and to kill off police and pentiti in the chaos. However, once a new government was established in Rome and it became clear that the mafia would be unable to execute these actions, they began refining their methods and techniques over the latter half of the nineteenth century. Protecting the large lemon groves and estates of local nobility became a lucrative but dangerous business. Palermo was initially the main area of these activities, but the Sicilian mafia's dominance soon spread over all of western Sicily. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in In order to strengthen the bond between the disparate gangs and so ensure greater profits and a safer working environment, it is possible that the mafia as such was formed at this time in about the mid-19th century.
From 1860, the year when the new unified Italian state first took over both Sicily and the Papal States, the Popes were hostile to the state. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa From 1870, the Pope declared himself besieged by the Italian state and strongly encouraged Catholics to refuse to cooperate with the state. Broadly speaking, in mainland Italy, this did not lead to violence. Sicily was strongly Catholic, but in a strongly tribal sense rather than in an intellectual and theological sense, and had a tradition of suspicion of outsiders. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The friction between the Church and the state gave a great advantage to violent criminal bands in Sicily who could claim to peasants and townspeople that cooperating with the police (representing the new Italian state) was an anti-Catholic activity. It was in the two decades following the 1860 unification that the term Mafia came to the attention of the general public, although it was considered to be more of an attitude and value system than an organization.
The first mention in official law documentation of the 'mafia' came in the late 1800s, when a Dr. Galati was subject to threats of violence from a local mafioso, who was attempting to oust Galati from his own lemon grove in order to move himself in. Protection rackets, cattle rustling and bribery of state officials were the main sources of income and protection for the early mafia. Cosa Nostra also borrowed heavily from masonic oaths and rituals, such as the now famous initiation ceremony.
During the Fascist period in Italy, Cesare Mori, prefect of Palermo, used special powers granted to him to prosecute the Mafia, forcing many Mafiosi to flee abroad or risk being jailed. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Cesare Mori ( Pavia, December 22, 1871 – Udine, July 6, 1942) was a " prefetto " ( Prefect  Many of the Mafiosi who escaped fled to the United States, among them Joseph Bonanno, nicknamed Joe Bananas, who came to dominate the U. Giuseppe "Joe Bananas" Bonanno ( January 18, 1905 &ndash May 12, 2002) was a Sicilian-born American Mafioso who became S. branch of the Mafia. However, when Mori started to persecute the Mafiosi involved in the Fascist hierarchy, he was removed, and the Fascist authorities proclaimed that the Mafia had been defeated. Though the mafia was weakened, it had not been defeated as claimed. Despite his assault on their brethren, Mussolini had his admirers in the New York Mafia, notably Vito Genovese (although he was from Naples and not from Sicily). Vito "Don Vito" Genovese ( November 27, 1897 – February 14, 1969) was a Mafioso who rose to power in America during
After Fascism, the Mafia did not become powerful in Italy again until after the country's surrender in World War II and the U. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including S. occupation. The United States used Italian connections of American Mafiosi during the invasion of Italy and Sicily in 1943. Lucky Luciano and other Mafiosi, who had been imprisoned during this time in the U. Charles "Lucky" Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania; November 24 1897 – January 26 1962 was a Sicilian Mobster. S. , provided information for U. S. military intelligence and used Luciano's influence to ease the way for advancing troops. Furthermore, Luciano's control of the ports prevented sabotage by agents of the Axis powers. 
Some say that the U. S. Office of Strategic Services, precursor to the CIA, deliberately allowed the mafia to recover its social and economic position as the "anti-State" in Sicily, and with the U. The Office of Strategic Services ( OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all S. -mafia alliance forged in 1943, this became the true turning point of mafia history and the new foundation for its subsequent 60-year career. Others, such as the Palermitan historian Francesco Renda, have argued that there was no such alliance. Rather, the mafia exploited the chaos of post-fascist Sicily to reconquer its social base. The OSS indeed, in its 1944 "Report on the Problem of Mafia" by the agent W. E. Scotten, pointed to the signs of mafia resurgence and warned of its perils for social order and economic progress.
An alleged additional benefit (from the American perspective) was that many of the Sicilian-Italian Mafiosi were hard-line anti-communists. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based They were therefore seen as valuable allies by the anti-communist Americans, who allegedly used them to root out socialist and communist elements in the American shipping industry as well as wartime resistance movements and postwar local and regional governments in areas where the Mafia held sway.
According to drug trade expert Dr. Alfred W. McCoy, Luciano was permitted to run his crime network from his jail cell in exchange for his assistance. Alfred W McCoy (born June 8 1945) is a Historian and a Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. After the war, Luciano was rewarded by being released from prison and deported to Italy, where he was able to continue his criminal career unhindered. He went to Sicily in 1946 to continue his activities and according to McCoy's landmark 1972 book The Politics of Heroin in South-East Asia, Luciano went on to forge a crucial alliance with the Corsican Mafia, leading to the development of a vast international heroin trafficking network, initially supplied from Turkey and based in Marseille — the so-called "French Connection". The Unione Corse, also known as the Corsican mafia is a highly secretive Criminal organization operating primarily out of Corsica and Marseilles. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ The French Connection was a scheme through which the drug Heroin was smuggled from Turkey to France and then to the United States, culminating
Later, when Turkey began to eliminate its opium production, he used his connections with the Corsicans to open a dialogue with expatriate Corsican mafiosi in South Vietnam. Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( The Unione Corse, also known as the Corsican mafia is a highly secretive Criminal organization operating primarily out of Corsica and Marseilles. "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia In collaboration with leading American mob bosses including Santo Trafficante Jr., Luciano and his successors took advantage of the chaotic conditions in Southeast Asia arising from the Vietnam War to establish an unassailable supply and distribution base in the "Golden Triangle", which was soon funneling huge amounts of Asian heroin into the United States, Australia and other countries. Santo Trafficante Jr ( November 15, 1914 - March 17, 1987) was one of the last of the old-time Mafia bosses in the United The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Golden Triangle is one of Asia 's two main illicit Opium -producing areas For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. 
The Second Mafia War in the early 1980s was a large scale conflict within the Mafia that also led to the assassinations of several politicians, police chiefs and magistrates. The Second Mafia War was a conflict within the Sicilian Mafia, mostly taking place in the early 1980s Salvatore Riina and his Corleonesi faction ultimately prevailed in the war. Salvatore Riina, also known as Totò Riina (born November 16, 1930, Corleone) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia who The Corleonesi is the name given to a faction within the Sicilian Mafia that dominated Cosa Nostra in the 1980s and the 1990s The new generation of mafiosi placed more emphasis on "white-collar" criminal activity as opposed to more traditional racketeering enterprises. In reaction to these developments, the Italian press has come up with the phrase Cosa Nuova ("the new thing", a play on Cosa Nostra) to refer to the revamped organization.
The first major pentito (a captured mafioso who collaborated with the judicial system) was Tommaso Buscetta who had lost several allies in the war and began to talk to prosecutor Giovanni Falcone around 1983. Pentito ( Italian he who has repented, Plural pentiti) designates people in Italy who formerly part of criminal or terrorist Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo July 13, 1928 - New York April 2, 2000) was a Sicilian Mafioso. He who's afraid dies every day who's not afraid dies only once This led to the Maxi Trial (1986-1987) which resulted in several hundred convictions of leading mafiosi. The Maxi Trial (Italian Maxiprocesso) was a criminal trial that took place in Sicily during the mid-1980s that saw hundreds of defendants on trial convicted When the Italian Supreme Court confirmed the convictions in January 1992, Riina took revenge. The politician Salvatore Lima was killed in March 1992; he had long been suspected of being the main government connection of the Mafia (later confirmed by testimony of Buscetta), and the Mafia was clearly displeased with his services. Salvatore Lima ( January 23, 1928, Palermo - March 12, 1992, Palermo) was an Italian Politician Falcone and fellow anti-Mafia prosecutor Paolo Borsellino were killed a few months later. Paolo Borsellino (Palermo January 19, 1940 - Palermo July 19, 1992) was an Italian anti- Mafia Magistrate This led to a public outcry and a massive government crackdown, resulting in Riina's arrest in January 1993. More and more pentitos started to emerge. Many would pay a high price for their co-operation usually through the murder of relatives. For example, Cosa Nostra defector Francesco Marino Mannoia's mother, aunt and sister were murdered. Francesco Marino Mannoia (Palermo March 5, 1951) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia who became a Pentito (government witness in 
The Corleonesi retaliated with a campaign of terrorism, a series of bombings against several tourist spots on the Italian mainland: the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, which left 10 people dead and 93 injured and caused severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The Basilica of St John Lateran ( Italian: Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano) is the Cathedral of the church of Rome and the official Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Uffizi Gallery (Galleria degli Uffizi one of the oldest and most famous Art Museums in the world is housed in the Palazzo degli Uffizi, a Bernardo Provenzano took over as boss of the Corleonesi and halted this campaign and replaced it with a campaign of quietness known as pax mafiosi. Bernardo Provenzano (born January 31, 1933 in Corleone, Italy) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia ( Cosa Nostra This campaign has allowed the Mafia to slowly regain the power it once had. He was arrested in 2006, after 43 years on the run.
The main split in the Sicilian Mafia at present is between those bosses who have been convicted and are now imprisoned, chiefly Riina and capo di tutti capi Bernardo Provenzano, and those who are on the run, or who have not been indicted. Capo di tutti i capi or capo dei capi is Italian for "boss of all bosses" or "boss of bosses" Bernardo Provenzano (born January 31, 1933 in Corleone, Italy) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia ( Cosa Nostra The incarcerated bosses are currently subjected to harsh controls on their contact with the outside world, limiting their ability to run their operations from behind bars under the article 41 bis prison regime. Antonino Giuffrè – a close confidant of Provenzano, turned pentito shortly after his capture in 2002 – alleges that in 1993, Cosa Nostra had direct contact with representatives of Silvio Berlusconi who was then planning the birth of Forza Italia. Antonino "Nino" Giuffrè (born July 21, 1945) is an Italian mafioso from Caccamo in the Province of Palermo, Sicily Pentito ( Italian he who has repented, Plural pentiti) designates people in Italy who formerly part of criminal or terrorist The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio
The deal that he says was alleged to have been made was a repeal of 41 bis, among other anti-Mafia laws in return for electoral deliverances in Sicily. Giuffrè's declarations have not been confirmed. The Italian Parliament, with the support of Forza Italia, extended the enforcement of 41 bis, which was to expire in 2002 but has been prolonged for another four years and extended to other crimes such as terrorism. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio However, according to one of Italy’s leading magazines, L'Espresso, 119 mafiosi – one-fifth of those incarcerated under the 41 bis regime – have been released on an individual basis. L'espresso is a Italian weekly news magazine with national distribution  The human rights group Amnesty International has expressed concern that the 41-bis regime could in some circumstances amount to "cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment" for prisoners. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to
In addition to Salvatore Lima, mentioned above, the politician Giulio Andreotti and the High Court judge Corrado Carnevale have long been suspected of having ties to the Mafia. Salvatore Lima ( January 23, 1928, Palermo - March 12, 1992, Palermo) was an Italian Politician Giulio Andreotti (born 14 January 1919 in Rome) is an Italian Politician of the centrist Christian Democratic party Corrado Carnevale (born May 9, 1930) is an Italian judge currently member of the Italian
By the late 1990s, the weakened Cosa Nostra had to yield most of the illegal drug trade to the 'Ndrangheta crime organization from Calabria. The Calabrian 'Ndrangheta (from the Greek word andragathía for " Heroism " and " Virtue "—"The Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of In 2006, the latter was estimated to control 80% of the cocaine import to Europe. Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant  The mafia also have a strong business in extortion big companies as well as smaller ones. It estimates that 7% of Italy's output is filtered off by organised crime. The Mafia has turned into one of Italy's biggest business enterprises with a turnover of more than US$120bn a year. 
In November 2007 Sicilian police reported to have found a list of "Ten Commandments" in the hideout of mafia boss Salvatore Lo Piccolo. Salvatore Lo Piccolo (born in Palermo July 20, 1942) also known as the Baron ( il Barone) is a Sicilian Mafioso and one of the most powerful Similar to the Biblical Ten Commandments, they are thought to be a guideline on how to be a good, respectful honorable mafioso. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that according to Judeo-Christian tradition were authored by God and given The commandments are as follows:
Known as the Honored Society among Mafiosi, the chain of command is organized in a pyramid similar to a modern corporate structure.
The American Mafia (also known as La Cosa Nostra) is an offshoot of the Sicilian Mafia that emerged on the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration (see also Italian diaspora). Capo di tutti i capi or capo dei capi is Italian for "boss of all bosses" or "boss of bosses" Matteo Messina Denaro (born April 26, 1962) also known as Diabolik, is a Sicilian mafioso. Emeritus (ɨˈmɛrɨtəs is an Adjective that is used in the title of a retired Professor, Bishop or other professional Capo Bastone or " Sotto Capo " known as the " Underboss " is second in command to the Capo Crimini. Consigliere (konsiʎˈʎɛːɾe is the Italian term for an adviser or counsellor A caporegime (or Capodecina) (sometimes shortened to capo) is a term used in the Mafia for a high ranking member of a crime family who heads A Made Man, also known as a Wiseguy, Made member or Man of Honor, is someone who has been inducted into the Mafia (La Cosa Nostra The American Mafia (also known as American Cosa Nostra or Italian-American Mafia) is an Italian-American criminal society and offshoot of the Sicilian The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern The United States of America —commonly referred to as the "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of In North America, the Mafia often refers to Italian organized crime in general, rather than just traditional Sicilian organized crime.
The Australian Mafia is another offshoot of the Sicilian Mafia that emerged in Australia during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. Unlike the American Mafia the Australian offshoot remained rural like it's Sicilian counterpart, and the organization has only started urbanizing itself in recent decades. The American Mafia (also known as American Cosa Nostra or Italian-American Mafia) is an Italian-American criminal society and offshoot of the Sicilian