A machine gun is a fully-automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire rifle cartridges in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute. An automatic firearm is a Firearm that automatically extracts and ejects the fired cartridge case and loads a new case usually through the energy of the fired A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion List of Rifle cartridges, by category and then by name Rimfire. A belt is a device that holds cartridges adjacent to each other in a single row for feeding into a Firearm, typically a Machine gun. A magazine is an Ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating Firearm. The first machine guns were manually operated, for example, by turning a hand crank.
In United States law, machine gun is a term of art for any fully-automatic firearm, and also for any component or part that will modify an existing firearm into a fully-automatic firearm. In the United States of America, the protection against infringement of the right to keep and bear arms is addressed in the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution Technical terminology is the specialized Vocabulary of a field 
There have been two main machine gun eras: the era of manual machine guns and the era of mason machine guns. The technical development itself is marked by a series of developments of specific automatic features, as well as technical developments (such as linked ammunition). The era of manual multi-shot devices extends back hundreds of years (such as manual volley guns), but the development of manual and automatic machine guns takes place almost entirely in the latter half of the 1800s. Manual machine guns are manually-powered, e. g. , a crank must be turned to power reloading and firing, as opposed to simply holding down a trigger, as with automatic machine guns. A crank is an arm at right angles to a shaft (an Axle or spindle by which motion is imparted to or received from the shaft it is also used to change circular into Reciprocating A trigger is a Mechanism that actuates the firing sequence of Firearms Triggers almost universally consist of Levers or buttons actuated by the Index There are many other notable features, but this is one of the most significant to allowing higher rates of fire common to machine guns.
Manual machine guns, as well as manual volley guns, saw their first major use in the American Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Gatling gun and "coffee gun" both used manually-powered automatic loading, fed via a hopper filled with cartridges. The Gatling gun is considered by some to have been the first Machine gun: although it did not automatically reload under its own power it was capable of firing continuously A cartridge (also known as a "round" packages the Bullet, Gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case precisely made to fit the The Gatling gun would be the major type of the late 19th century, though there were many other manual designs with varying degrees of use (e. g. the Nordenfelt gun). The Nordenfelt Gun was a multiple barrel Machine gun that had a row from one to twelve barrels The first automatic machine gun was the recoil-operated Maxim gun, which used linked (belt) ammunition, as well as a single barrel and automatic loading. Recoil operation is an operating mechanism used in locked-breech autoloading Firearms As the name implies these actions use the force of Recoil to provide energy The Maxim gun was the first self-powered Machine gun, invented by the American-born Briton Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884 This concept of using bullet energy would also drive the development of nearly all other semi and fully automatic firearms of 20th century. A semi-automatic, or self-loading Firearm is a gun that requires only a trigger pull for each round that is fired unlike a single-action
The two major operation systems of modern automatic machine guns are gas operation and recoil operation. Gas-operation is a system of operation used to provide energy to operate Autoloading firearms As the name implies, the gas operated system uses the gas generated from the burning powder to cycle the action, whereas the recoil operated uses the recoil generated from the ejecting bullet. The first gas-operated machine gun was the Colt-Browning M1895. "Potato digger" redirects here For information on the cultivation of the Tubers see potato cultivation. 
Another (minor) type is the externally-powered machine gun. Rather than human manual power or energy generated by the cartridge, an external source such as an electric motor is used. These types are now called by more specific names such as Minigun and Chain gun. The minigun is a multi-barrel Machine gun with a high rate of fire (several thousand Rounds per minute) employing Gatling -style rotating barrels and an A chain gun is a type of Machine gun or Automatic cannon that uses an external source of power rather than diverting energy from the cartridge to cycle the They are common on fighting aircraft and ground vehicles, where the externally powered mechanism allows for automatic clearing of many failure conditions that would otherwise disable the firearm.
Machine guns are generally categorized as submachine guns, machine guns, or autocannons. A submachine gun (SMG is a Firearm that combines the automatic fire of a Machine gun with the cartridge of a Pistol, and is An autocannon is a rapid fire projectile Weapon. Autocannon often have a larger Caliber (calibre than a Machine gun (i The distinction between submachine guns and machine guns is subtle, hinging upon whether the ammunition used is intended for use in side arms (chiefly semi-automatic pistols) or rifles; the difference between machine guns and autocannons is based on caliber, with autocannons using calibers equal to and larger than about 20 mm. A side arm is a Firearm, usually a Pistol, which is worn on the body in a Holster to permit immediate access and use A semi-automatic pistol is a type of Handgun that can be fired in semi-automatic mode firing one cartridge for each pull of the trigger The term caliber or calibre designates the interior Diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod
Another factor is whether the gun fires conventional rounds or explosive rounds. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Guns firing large-caliber explosive rounds are generally considered either autocannons or automatic grenade launchers ("grenade machine guns"). An autocannon is a rapid fire projectile Weapon. Autocannon often have a larger Caliber (calibre than a Machine gun (i A grenade launcher is a Weapon that launches a Grenade with more accuracy higher velocity and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand By contrast to the other two categories (submachine guns and autocannons), machine guns (like rifles) tend to share a very high ratio of barrel length to caliber (a long barrel for a small caliber); indeed, a true machine gun is essentially a fully-automatic rifle, and the boundaries between the two are often blurred. Often, the criterion for a machine gun as opposed to an automatic rifle is considered to be the presence of a quick change barrel or other cooling system (see below).
Unlike semi-automatic firearms, which require one trigger pull per bullet fired, a machine gun is designed to fire bullets as long as the trigger is held down and ammunition is fed into the weapon. A semi-automatic, or self-loading Firearm is a gun that requires only a trigger pull for each round that is fired unlike a single-action Although the term "machine gun" is often used by civilians to describe all fully automatic weapons, in military usage the term is restricted to relatively heavy weapons fired from some sort of support rather than hand-held, able to provide continuous or frequent bursts of automatic fire for as long as ammunition lasts. Machine guns are normally used against unprotected or lightly-protected personnel, or to provide suppressive fire. Suppressive fire (also known as covering fire) is a term used in Military science for firing Weapons at or in the direction of enemy forces with the
Some machine guns have in practice maintained suppressive fire almost continuously for hours; other automatic weapons overheat after less than a minute of use. Because they become very hot, practically all machine guns fire from an open bolt, to permit air cooling from the breech between bursts. A semi or fully automatic Firearm is said to fire from an open bolt if when ready to fire the bolt and working parts are held to the rear A breech-loading weapon is a Firearm (a Rifle, a Gun etc in which the Bullet or shell is inserted or loaded at the rear of the They also have either a barrel cooling system, or removable barrels which allow a hot barrel to be replaced.
Although subdivided into "light", "medium", "heavy" or "general purpose", even the lightest machine guns tend to be substantially larger and heavier than other automatic weapons. A light machine gun or LMG is a Machine gun that is generally lighter than other machine guns of the same period and is usually designed to be carried A medium machine gun or MMG, in modern terms usually refers to a belt-fed Automatic firearm firing a full-power Rifle cartridge and A heavy machine gun refers to either a larger-caliber high-power Machine gun or one of the smaller medium-caliber (rifle caliber machine guns meant for prolonged firing from A general purpose machine gun ( GPMG) in concept is a multi-purpose weapon a Machine gun intended to fill the role of either a Light machine gun or Squad automatic weapons (SAWs) are a variation of light machine gun and only require one operator (sometimes with an assistant to carry ammunition). For the weapon known in British Forces service as the LSW see SA80 For the weapon known in American service as the SAW see M249 A squad automatic A light machine gun or LMG is a Machine gun that is generally lighter than other machine guns of the same period and is usually designed to be carried Medium and heavy machine guns are either mounted on a tripod or on a vehicle; when carried on foot, the machine gun and associated equipment (tripod, ammunition, spare barrels) require additional crew members.
The majority of machine guns are belt-fed, although some light machine guns are fed from drum or box magazines, and some vehicle-mounted machine guns are hopper-fed. A belt is a device that holds cartridges adjacent to each other in a single row for feeding into a Firearm, typically a Machine gun. A drum magazine is a type of magazine that is cylindrical in shape similar to a Drum. A magazine is an Ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating Firearm.
Other automatic weapons are subdivided into several categories based on the size of the bullet used, and whether the cartridge is fired from a positively locked closed bolt, or a non-positively locked open bolt. A cartridge (also known as a "round" packages the Bullet, Gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case precisely made to fit the A semi or Fully-automatic Firearm which is said to fire from a closed bolt is one where when ready to fire a round is in the chamber and the A semi or fully automatic Firearm is said to fire from an open bolt if when ready to fire the bolt and working parts are held to the rear Fully automatic firearms using pistol-caliber ammunition are called machine pistols or submachine guns largely on the basis of size. A machine pistol is a Handgun -style magazine -fed and self-loading Firearm, capable of fully automatic or burst fire and normally chambered Selective fire rifles firing a full-power rifle cartridge from a closed bolt are called automatic rifles, while those of lighter weight and that are more easily carried are called assault rifles. A selective fire Firearm can be fired in both semi-automatic and any number of automatic modes by means of a selector Automatic rifle is a term generally used to describe a Self-loading rifle chambered for a rifle cartridge capable of delivering both semi An assault rifle is a Selective fire Rifle or Carbine (not to be confused with a semi-automatic only replica firing Ammunition with muzzle The difference in construction was driven by the difference in intended deployment. Automatic rifles (such as the Browning Automatic Rifle were designed to be a high duty cycle arm for support of other troops, and were often made and deployed with quick change barrel assemblies to allow quick replacement of over heated barrels to allow for continued fire, and may have been operated by both the person actually firing the weapon as well as an additional crewman to assist in providing and caring for ammunition and the barrels, similar to a reduced version of a squad weapon (above). The BAR (short for Browning Automatic Rifle is a family of American 7 The assault rifle generally was made for a more intermittent duty cycle, and was designed to be easily carried and used by a single person.
Assault rifles are a compromise between the size and weight of pistol-caliber submachine gun and a full size traditional automatic rifle firing the same cartridges as the full size automatic rifles and allowing semi-automatic, burst and full-automatic fire options (selective fire). An assault rifle is a Selective fire Rifle or Carbine (not to be confused with a semi-automatic only replica firing Ammunition with muzzle The modern legal definition of "assault rifle" is of significance in states like California, where according to state law, certain weapons that resemble true assault rifles, but are only capable of semi-automatic (or autoloading), are categorized as "assault weapons" and are illegal to purchase or own by civilian residents of the state, even after a less restrictive ban by the federal government was allowed to lapse after having no impact on these weapons use in crime. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The term Assault weapon is derived from the term Assault rifle, itself a translation of the German word Sturmgewehr, literally "storm-rifle" Therefore, supporters of gun rights generally consider the use of the phrase "assault weapon" to be pejorative when used to describe these civilian firearms, and this term is seldom used outside of the United States in this context.
The machine gun's primary role in modern ground combat is to provide suppressive fire on an opposing force's position, forcing the enemy to take cover and reducing the effectiveness of his fire. Suppressive fire (also known as covering fire) is a term used in Military science for firing Weapons at or in the direction of enemy forces with the This either halts an enemy attack or allows friendly forces to attack enemy positions with less risk.
Light machine guns usually have simple iron sights. A common aiming system is to alternate solid ("ball") rounds and tracer ammunition rounds (usually one tracer round for every four ball rounds), so shooters can see the trajectory and "walk" the fire into the target, and direct the fire of other soldiers. Tracer ammunition ( tracers) are special Bullets that are modified to accept a small Pyrotechnic charge in their base A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces.
Many heavy machine guns, such as the Browning M2 . A heavy machine gun refers to either a larger-caliber high-power Machine gun or one of the smaller medium-caliber (rifle caliber machine guns meant for prolonged firing from This article is about the.50 caliber M2 machine gun For the.30-06 M2 machine gun see M1919 Browning machine gun. 50 caliber machine gun, are accurate enough to engage targets at great distances. During the Vietnam War, Carlos Hathcock set the record for a long-distance shot at 7382 ft (2250 m) with a . The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Norman Hathcock II ( May 20, 1942 &ndash February 23, 1999) was a United States Marine Corps 50 caliber heavy machine gun he had equipped with a telescopic sight. A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is a device used to give additional accuracy using a point of aim for Firearms Airguns and Crossbows This led to the introduction of . 50 caliber anti-material sniper rifles, such as the Barrett M82. In Military and Law enforcement terminology a sniper rifle is a Rifle used to ensure Accurate placement of Bullets at longer The M82 (also more recently known as the M107) is a heavy SASR (Special Application Scoped Rifle developed by the American Barrett Firearms Company
All machine guns require the following components:
These components form a mechanism which must be powered. If powered by absorbing the recoil of a cartridge, it is called recoil-operated. This article is about backward Momentum produced in firearms when fired If powered by the expanding gases of a fired cartridge, it is called gas actuated. Gas-operation is a system of operation used to provide energy to operate Autoloading firearms If powered by an external force, such as a motor, it is usually called a chain gun. A chain gun is a type of Machine gun or Automatic cannon that uses an external source of power rather than diverting energy from the cartridge to cycle the
All machine guns follow a cycle:
Cycle is repeated as long as trigger is activated by operator Releasing the trigger resets the trigger mechanism by engaging a sear so the weapon stops firing with bolt carrier fully at the rear.
The operation is basically the same for all semi automatic or automatic weapons, regardless of the means of activating these mechanisms. Some examples:
Heavy machine guns were often water cooled but air cooled MG have interchangeable barrels, which must be changed periodically to avoid overheating. Water cooling is a method of Heat removal from components As opposed to Air cooling, Water is used as the heat transmitter The higher the rate of fire, the more often barrels must be changed and allowed to cool. To minimize this, most air-cooled guns are fired only in short bursts or at a reduced rate of fire.
In weapons where the round seats and fires at the same time, mechanical timing is essential for operator safety, to prevent the round from firing before it is seated properly.
Machine guns are controlled by one or more mechanical sears. When a sear is in place, it effectively stops the bolt at some point in its range of motion. Some sears stop the bolt when it is locked to the rear. Other sears stop the firing pin from going forward after the round is locked into the chamber.
Almost all weapons have a "safety" sear, which simply keeps the trigger from engaging.
The Chinese had much success with creating a repeating crossbow; the most common model, the Zhuge Nu, better known in the West as the Chu-ko-nu, is typically attributed to 2nd and 3rd century strategist Zhuge Liang, who developed it for the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms period. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A repeating crossbow ( Chinese: 連弩 or Chu-ko-nu) is a Crossbow where the separate actions of stringing the bow placing the bolt and shooting Zhuge Liang (181–234 was Chancellor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China Shu Han ( Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢 Pinyin: Shǔ Hàn sometimes known as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ was one of the Three Kingdoms competing The Three Kingdoms period ( is a period in the History of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties following immediately the loss of However, a buried library in the ancient state of Chu indicates that some sort of repeating crossbow had at the very least been designed in the 3rd century BC. Chǔ ( 楚) was a kingdom in what is now central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn period ( 722 - 481 BC) and Other multi-shot weapons have a long development, going back to the 1st century in the West, with some claiming there were plans for a multi-shot arrow by Hero of Alexandria. Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria ( Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c Leonardo Da Vinci devised plans for one in the 15th century. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Some of the earliest firearms and attempts at higher rates of fire and some machine-gun-like traits existed as early as the 16th century, when Fathullah Shirazi (c. A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion 1582), a Persian-Indian engineer and polymath who worked for Akbar the Great in the Mughal Empire, invented a multi-barrel gun, which had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox This article is about the history of South Asia prior to the Partition of British India in 1947 A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Akbar redirects here For other uses see Akbar (disambiguation Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most For the fictional characters see Gunbarrel (Transformers. A gun barrel is the tube usually Metal, through which a controlled Explosion The hand cannon ( Arabic: midfa; Chinese: 手[[wikt 銃|銃]] as it was called was the first handheld portable Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes 
However, it would not be until the mid-19th century that successful machine-gun designs came into existence. The key characteristic of modern machine guns, their relatively high rate of fire and more importantly machine (automatic) loading, came with the Model 1862 Gatling gun, which was adopted by the United States Navy. The Gatling gun is considered by some to have been the first Machine gun: although it did not automatically reload under its own power it was capable of firing continuously These weapons were still powered by hand; however, this changed with Hiram Maxim's idea of harnessing recoil energy to power reloading in his Maxim machine gun. Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim ( February 5, 1840 &ndash November 24, 1916) was an American born Inventor who emigrated to The Maxim gun was the first self-powered Machine gun, invented by the American-born Briton Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884 Dr. Gatling also experimented with electric-motor-powered models; this externally powered machine reloading has seen use in modern weapons as well. The Vandenburg and Miltrailleuse volley (organ) gun concepts have been revived partially in the early 21st century in the form of electronically controlled, multibarreled volley guns. A volley gun is a Gun with several barrels for firing a number of shots simultaneously or fires their barrels in sequence It is important to note that what exactly constitutes a machine gun, and whether volley guns are a type of machine gun, and to what extent some earlier types of devices are considered to be like machine guns, is a matter of debate in many cases and can vary depending which language and exact definition is used.
Among first known ancestor of multi-shot weapons was created by James Puckle, a London lawyer, who patented what he called "The Puckle Gun" on May 15, 1718. James Puckle (1667–1724 was an English Inventor, Lawyer and Writer from London chiefly remembered for his invention of the London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. James Puckle (1667–1724 was an English Inventor, Lawyer and Writer from London chiefly remembered for his invention of the Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1718 ( MDCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a It was a design for a 1 in. (25. 4 mm) caliber, flintlock revolver cannon able to fire 9 rounds before reloading, intended for use on ships. Flintlock is the general term for any Firearm based on the flintlock mechanism A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size According to Puckle, it was able to fire round bullets at Christians and square bullets at Turks. While ahead of its time, foreshadowing the designs of revolvers, it was not adopted or produced.
In the early and mid-19th century, a number of rapid-firing weapons appeared which offered multi-shot fire, and a number of semi-automatic weapons as well as volley guns. A volley gun is a Gun with several barrels for firing a number of shots simultaneously or fires their barrels in sequence Volley guns (such as the Mitrailleuse) and double barreled pistols relied on duplicating all parts of the gun. The mitrailleuse was a manually-fired Volley gun originally developed in Belgium in the 1850s by Fafschamps and improved during the early 1860s by Christophe and Pepperbox pistols did away with needing multiple hammers but used multiple barrels. Revolvers further reduced this to only needing a pre-prepared magazine using the same barrel and ignitions. However, like the Puckle gun, they were still only semiautomatic.
The coffee-mill gun of the Civil War featured both automatic loading and single barrel, only separated functionally from the modern machine gun by being hand-powered rather than using cartridges.
The Gatling gun, patented in 1861 by Richard Jordan Gatling, was the first to offer controlled, sequential automatic fire with automatic loading. The Gatling gun is considered by some to have been the first Machine gun: although it did not automatically reload under its own power it was capable of firing continuously Dr Richard Jordan Gatling ( September 12, 1818 &ndash February 26, 1903) was an American inventor best known for his invention of the The design's key features were machine loading of prepared cartridges and a hand-operated crank for sequential high-speed firing. It first saw very limited action in the American Civil War and was subsequently improved. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Many were sold to other armies in the late 1800s and continued to be used into the early 1900s, until they were gradually supplanted by Maxim guns. The Gatlings were the first widely used rapid-fire guns and, due to their multiple barrels, could offer more sustained fire than the first generation of air-cooled, recoil-operated machine guns. The weight, complexity, and resulting cost of the multibarrel design meant recoil-operated weapons, which could be made lighter and cheaper, would supplant them. It would be another 50 years before the concept was again used to allow extremely high rates of fire, such as in miniguns, and automatic aircraft cannons. The minigun is a multi-barrel Machine gun with a high rate of fire (several thousand Rounds per minute) employing Gatling -style rotating barrels and an
The first machine gun was invented in 1881 by Sir Hiram Maxim. Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim ( February 5, 1840 &ndash November 24, 1916) was an American born Inventor who emigrated to The "Maxim gun" used the recoil power of the previously fired bullet to reload rather than being hand-powered, enabling a much higher rate of fire than was possible using earlier designs such as the Nordenfelt and Gatling weapons. The Maxim gun was the first self-powered Machine gun, invented by the American-born Briton Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884 Maxim's other great innovation was the use of water cooling (via a water jacket around the barrel) to reduce overheating. Maxim's gun was widely adopted and derivative designs were used on all sides during the First World War, most famously - during stalemate at The Battle of the Somme. The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from July to November 1916 was among the largest battles of the First World War The design required fewer crew, was lighter, and more usable than earlier Nordenfelt guns and Gatling guns. The Nordenfelt Gun was a multiple barrel Machine gun that had a row from one to twelve barrels The Gatling gun is considered by some to have been the first Machine gun: although it did not automatically reload under its own power it was capable of firing continuously
Heavy guns based on the Maxim such as the Vickers machine gun were joined by many other machine weapons, which mostly had their start in the early 20th century such as the Hotchkiss machine gun. The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled. Submachine guns (e. A submachine gun (SMG is a Firearm that combines the automatic fire of a Machine gun with the cartridge of a Pistol, and is g. , the German MP18) as well as lighter machine guns (the Chauchat, for example) saw their first major use in World War I, along with heavy use of large-caliber machine guns. The MP181 manufactured by Theodor Bergmann Waffenbau Abteilung was the first practical Submachine gun used in combat The Chauchat (pronounced 'show-shah' was a Light machine gun used mainly by the French Army but also by seven other nations including the USA during and after World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The biggest single cause of casualties in World War I was actually artillery, but combined with wire entanglements, machine guns earned a fearsome reputation. A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident injury or trauma. In the Military science of Fortification, wire obstacles are defensive obstacles made from Barbed wire, Barbed tape or Concertina wire The automatic mechanisms of machine guns were applied to handguns, giving rise to automatic pistols (and eventually machine pistols) such as the Borchardt (1890s) and later submachine guns (such as the Beretta 1918). A machine pistol is a Handgun -style magazine -fed and self-loading Firearm, capable of fully automatic or burst fire and normally chambered The Beretta Model 1918 was a Submachine gun adopted in 1918 by the Italian army Machine guns were mounted in aircraft for the first time in World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Firing through a moving propeller was solved in a variety of ways, including the interrupter gear, metal reinforcement of the propeller, or simply avoiding the problem with wing-mounted guns or having a pusher propeller. Interrupter gear is a term that covers two related technologies An Aircraft constructed with a pusher configuration has the engine mounted forward of the Propeller - which faces in a rearwards direction - giving an appearance
During the interwar years, many new designs were developed, such as the Browning M2 . This article is about the.50 caliber M2 machine gun For the.30-06 M2 machine gun see M1919 Browning machine gun. 50 caliber (12. 7 mm) in 1933, which, along with others, were used in World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The trend toward automatic rifles, lighter machine guns, and more powerful submachine guns resulted in a wide variety of firearms that combined characteristics of ordinary rifles and machine guns. The Cei-Rigotti (1900s), Fedorov Avtomat (1910s), AVS-36 Simonov (1930s), MP44, M2 Carbine, AK-47, and AR-15 have come to be known as assault rifles (after the German term sturmgewehr). Originally created by Amerigo Cei-Rigotti an officer in the Italian Army, in 1890 the Cei-Rigotti Rifle was extensively modified until its final The Fedorov Avtomat was an early self-loading Battle rifle designed by Vladimir Grigoryevich Fedorov and made in Russia. The AVS-36 (from A vtomaticheskaya V intovka S imonova 1936 model; Russian: Автоматическая винтовка Симонова The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine Caliber.30 M1) is a lightweight semi-automatic Carbine that became a standard firearm in the The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's AR-15 (for Ar malite model 15, often mistaken for A utomatic R ifle is the common name for the widely-owned semi-automatic An assault rifle is a Selective fire Rifle or Carbine (not to be confused with a semi-automatic only replica firing Ammunition with muzzle Many aircraft were equipped with machine cannons, and similar cannon (nicknamed "Pom-pom guns") were used as antiaircraft weapons. The designs of Bofors of Sweden were widely used by both sides and have greatly influenced similar weapons developed since then. The name Bofors has been associated with the Iron industry for more than 350 years "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
Germany developed during the interwar years the first widely-used and successful general-purpose machine gun, the Maschinengewehr 34, which inspired many modern machine gun developments. A general purpose machine gun ( GPMG) in concept is a multi-purpose weapon a Machine gun intended to fill the role of either a Light machine gun or The Maschinengewehr 34, or MG34, was a German Machine gun that was first produced and accepted for service in 1934, and first issued to units The later Maschinengewehr 42 was feared during WWII by Allied forces as it was capable of firing at a rate of 1200-1800 rpm with pauses of only a few seconds to replace the quick-change barrel when operated by experienced soldiers. The MG42 (shortened from German: Maschinengewehr 42, or "Machine Gun 42" is a Machine gun that was developed for and entered The successor of the MG42, the MG3, is still today in use in the German army. The MG42 (shortened from German: Maschinengewehr 42, or "Machine Gun 42" is a Machine gun that was developed for and entered The MG3 is a German air-cooled belt-fed General purpose machine gun chambered in the 7 Many modern machine guns are derived from the MG42.
The Cold War era saw mostly a refinement of weapon types in the form of lower weight and higher reliability. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The semi-automatic rifles of World War II vintage were almost totally replaced by lighter assault rifles such as the M16 and Soviet AK-47. M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's Infantry adopted general-purpose machine guns like the American M60 for squad use, using air cooling for lighter weight. A general purpose machine gun ( GPMG) in concept is a multi-purpose weapon a Machine gun intended to fill the role of either a Light machine gun or The M60 (formally the United States Machine Gun Caliber 762 mm M60) is a family of American General purpose machine guns firing 7 Heavy machine guns were retained for ground vehicles and fortifications. For aircraft use, even heavy machine guns proved to lack killing power in the air-to-air role, and by the late 1950s fighter aircraft armament had almost totally switched to automatic cannons. A fighter aircraft is a Military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other Aircraft, as opposed to a Bomber, which is designed An autocannon is a rapid fire projectile Weapon. Autocannon often have a larger Caliber (calibre than a Machine gun (i Machine guns, with lower recoil, remained popular for helicopters and for ground attack aircraft, supplemented by new Gatling-style, electric multibarrel weapons like the American Minigun. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. The minigun is a multi-barrel Machine gun with a high rate of fire (several thousand Rounds per minute) employing Gatling -style rotating barrels and an In police, special operations, and other paramilitary roles, smaller automatic weapons, including light submachine guns and machine pistols, proliferated, many relying on ubiquitous pistol rounds. A machine pistol is a Handgun -style magazine -fed and self-loading Firearm, capable of fully automatic or burst fire and normally chambered
The last major use of a manual machine gun, was a manual grenade machine gun during the 1970s used on river boats in the Vietnam Conflict. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The manual type, the Mk 18 Mod 0 was replaced by fully automatic ones such as the Mk 19 grenade launcher. The Mk 19 Grenade Launcher is a belt-fed automatic 40 mm Grenade launcher or grenade machine gun that entered U
Conventional machine-gun development has been slowed by the fact that existing machine-gun designs are adequate for most purposes, although significant developments are taking place with regard to antiarmor and antimissile weapons.
Electronically controlled machine guns with ultrahigh rates of fire, like Metal Storm's weapons may see use in some applications, although current small-caliber weapons of this type have found little use: they are too light for anti-vehicle use, but too heavy (especially with the need to carry a tactically useful amount of ammunition) for individual soldiers. Metal Storm Limited (ASX: MST is a Research and development company that specializes in electronically initiated Superposed load weapons technology The trend towards higher reliability and lower mass for a given power will likely continue. Another example is the six barreled, 4000 round per minute, XM214 minigun "six pack" developed by General Electric. The XM214 was a Prototype 556x45mm NATO rotary barreled machine gun designed to be man-portable It has a complex power train and weighs 85 pounds, factors which may, in some circumstances, mitigate against its deployment.
The most common interface on machine guns is a pistol grip and trigger. On a Firearm or other tool the pistol grip is that portion of the mechanism that is held by the hand and orients the hand in a manner similar to the position one would A trigger is a Mechanism that actuates the firing sequence of Firearms Triggers almost universally consist of Levers or buttons actuated by the Index On earlier manual machine guns, the most common type was a hand crank. On externally powered machine guns, such as miniguns, an electronic button or trigger on a joystick is commonly used. Light machine guns often have a butt stock attached, while vehicle and tripod mounted machine guns usually have spade grips. In the late 20th century, scopes and other complex optics became more common as opposed to the more basic iron sights. The term iron sights refers to the open unmagnified system used to assist the aiming of a variety of devices usually those intended to launch Projectiles such as Firearms
Loading systems in early manual machine guns were often from a hopper of loose (un-linked) cartridges. Manual-operated volley guns usually had to be reloaded manually all at once (each barrel reloaded by hand). With hoppers, the rounds could often be added while the weapon was firing. This gradually changed to belt-fed types. Belts were either held in the open by the person, or in a bag or box. Some modern vehicle machine guns used linkless feed systems however.
Modern machine guns are usually mounted in one of four ways. The first is a bipod - often these are integrated with the weapon. This is common on light machine guns and also medium machine guns. A light machine gun or LMG is a Machine gun that is generally lighter than other machine guns of the same period and is usually designed to be carried A medium machine gun or MMG, in modern terms usually refers to a belt-fed Automatic firearm firing a full-power Rifle cartridge and Another major way is with a larger tripod, where the person holding it does not form a 'leg' of support. Medium and heavy machine guns usually use tripods. On ships and aircraft machine guns are usually mounted on a pintle mount - basically a steel post that is connected to the frame. A pintle is a pin or bolt usually inserted into a Gudgeon, which is used as part of a pivot or hinge Tripod and pintle mounts are usually used with spade grips. The last major mounting type is one that is disconnected from humans, as part of an armament system, such as a tank coaxial or part of aircraft's armament. These are usually electrically-fired and have complex sighting systems. (For examples see US Helicopter Armament Subsystems). The United States military has developed a number of Helicopter Armament Subsystems since the early 1960s