|Mac OS X|
Screenshot of Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard"
|Website||Apple - Mac OS X|
|Source model||Closed source (with open source components)|
|Latest stable release||10.5.3 / May 28, 2008|
|Supported platforms||x86, x86-64, PowerPC (32-bit & 64-bit)|
|Default user interface||Aqua (GUI)|
Mac OS X (pronounced /mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn/) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. Mac OS X version 105 “Leopard” is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages The software industry comprises businesses involved in the development, maintenance and publication of Computer software. A software developer is a person or organization concerned with facets of the software development process wider than design and coding a somewhat broader scope of Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer Proprietary software is Computer software on which the producer has set restrictions on use private modification copying, or republishing. Open source software (OSS began as a marketing campaign for Free software. Mac OS X version 105 “Leopard” is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common See also X86 assembly language The generic term x86 refers to the most commercially successful Instruction set architecture in the history of Personal x86-64 is a Superset of the x86 instruction set architecture. PowerPC is a RISC Instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple – IBM – Motorola alliance known as AIM In Computer science, the kernel is the central component of most computer Operating systems (OS Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of Microkernel and Monolithic kernel architectures used in Computer The user interface (or Human Computer Interface) is the aggregate of means by which people&mdash the users '&mdash interact with the System Aqua is the Graphical user interface and primary visual theme of Apple Inc A software license (or software licence in commonwealth usage is a Legal instrument governing the usage or redistribution of copyright protected software Proprietary software is Computer software on which the producer has set restrictions on use private modification copying, or republishing. An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc Mac OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of Graphical user interface -based Operating systems developed by Apple Inc Unlike its predecessors, Mac OS X is a Unix-based operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the 1980s until Apple purchased the company in early 1997. Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer NeXT Computer Inc (later NeXT Software Inc) was an American Computer company headquartered in Redwood City, California that
The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, and a desktop-oriented version, Mac OS X version 10.0 followed in March 2001. Mac OS X Server 10, released on March 16 1999, is the first Operating system released by Apple Computer based on their acquisition of NeXT Mac OS X version 100, Code named “Cheetah”, was the first major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating Since then, five more distinct "end-user" and "server" versions have been released, most recently Mac OS X v10.5 in October 2007. Mac OS X version 105 “Leopard” is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats, for example Mac OS X v10. The term big cat is used to distinguish the larger cat species from smaller ones 5 is usually referred to by Apple and users as "Leopard".
The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally very similar to its desktop counterpart but includes workgroup management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to common network services, including a mail transfer agent, a Samba server, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. A server is a Computer dedicated to providing one or more services over a computer network typically through a request-response routine Mac OS X Server is the server-oriented version of Apple 's Operating system, Mac OS X. The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components the externally visible properties Network services are the foundation of a networked computing environment A mail transfer agent (MTA (also called a mail transport agent, message transfer agent, or smtpd (short for SMTP daemon) is a Samba is a Free software re-implementation of SMB/CIFS networking protocol, originally developed by Australian Andrew Tridgell The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP (ˈɛl dæp is an Application protocol for querying and modifying Directory services running over The Domain Name System (DNS is a hierarchical naming system for computers services or any resource participating in the Internet. It is included with Apple's Xserve server hardware, but is designed to run on most of Apple's computer models. Xserve is the name of Apple Inc 's 1U rackmount line of server computers
Apple also produces specialized versions of OS X for use on three of its consumer devices, the Apple TV, the iPhone and the iPod touch. The iPhone is an internet-connected Multimedia Smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc The iPod Touch (trademarked and marketed as the iPod touch and sometimes colloquially referred to as the iTouch) is a Portable media player and 
Mac OS X is based on the Mach kernel and is derived from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) implementation of Unix in Nextstep. Mac OS X is the newest of Apple Inc 's Mac OS line of operating systems Mach is an Operating system Microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research primarily distributed and parallel Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer Nextstep was the original object-oriented, multitasking Operating system that NeXT Computer developed to run on its range of proprietary computers Nextstep was the object-oriented operating system developed by Steve Jobs' company "NeXT" after he left Apple in 1985. An object-oriented operating system is an Operating system which internally uses object-oriented methodologies. Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24 1955 is the Co-founder, Chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc and former CEO of Pixar Animation NeXT Computer Inc (later NeXT Software Inc) was an American Computer company headquartered in Redwood City, California that  While Jobs was away from Apple, Apple tried to create a "next-generation" OS through the Taligent and Copland projects, with little success. Taligent ( Tal ent and Intell' igent') was the name of an object-oriented Operating system and the company dedicated to producing it Copland was a project at Apple Computer to create an updated version of the Macintosh operating system.
Eventually, NeXT's OS—then called OPENSTEP—was selected to be the basis for Apple's next OS, and Apple purchased NeXT outright. OpenStep is an Object-oriented Application programming interface (API specification for an Object-oriented operating system that uses any modern Operating  Steve Jobs returned to Apple as interim CEO, and later became CEO again, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly Openstep into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals. The project was first known as Rhapsody and was later renamed to Mac OS X. Rhapsody is the code name given to Apple Computer 's next-generation Operating system during the period of its development between Apple's purchase of NeXT 
With each new version, Mac OS X evolved away from a focus on backward compatibility with the earlier versions of Mac OS, toward an emphasis on "digital lifestyle" applications such as the iLife suite, enhanced business applications (iWork), and integrated home entertainment (the Front Row media center). In Technology, especially Computing (irrespective of platform a product is said to be backward compatible when it is able to take the place of an older product iLife is a suite of Multimedia Software applications created by Apple Inc iWork is a suite of applications created by Apple Inc, containing Pages, a Word processing and Desktop publishing application Keynote Each version also included modifications to the general interface, such as the brushed metal appearance added in version 10. Brushed metal was a Graphical user interface design used in Apple Computer 's Mac OS X Operating system for Macintosh Computers 2, the non-pinstriped titlebar appearance in version 10. 4, and in 10. 5 the removal of the previous aqua and brushed metal styles in favor of the Unified interface.
Mac OS X's core is a Unix operating system (OS) built on top of the XNU kernel, with standard Unix facilities available from the command line interface (Apple released this core as a free and open source operating system named Darwin). Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer XNU is the computer Operating system kernel that Apple Inc acquired and developed for use in the Mac OS X Operating system and released In Computer science, the kernel is the central component of most computer Operating systems (OS Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified Open source software (OSS began as a marketing campaign for Free software. Darwin is an open source UNIX -based computer Operating system released by Apple Inc Over this core, Apple layered a number of components, including the Aqua interface and the Finder, to complete the GUI-based operating system which is Mac OS X. Aqua is the Graphical user interface and primary visual theme of Apple Inc The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X Operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management
Mac OS X introduced a number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor, Mac OS 9. Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's "Classic" Mac OS. For example, pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other. Pre-emption or preemption in Computing is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring Memory protection is a way to control memory usage on a computer and is core to virtually every Operating system.  Many aspects of Mac OS X's architecture are derived from Openstep, which was designed to be portable—to ease the transition from one platform to another. For example, Nextstep was ported from the original 68k-based NeXT workstations to x86 and other architectures before NeXT was purchased by Apple, and OpenStep was later ported to the PowerPC architecture as part of the Rhapsody project. The Motorola 680x0 / m68k / 68k / 68K is a family of 32-bit CISC Microprocessor CPU chips and was the primary See also X86 assembly language The generic term x86 refers to the most commercially successful Instruction set architecture in the history of Personal PowerPC is a RISC Instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple – IBM – Motorola alliance known as AIM Rhapsody is the code name given to Apple Computer 's next-generation Operating system during the period of its development between Apple's purchase of NeXT
The most visible change was the Aqua theme. Aqua is the Graphical user interface and primary visual theme of Apple Inc The use of soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes—similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs—brought more texture and color to the user interface compared to OS 9's "Platinum" appearance had offered. The iMac is a desktop Macintosh computer designed and built by Apple Inc In the pre- Mac OS X version of the Macintosh operating system, the Appearance Manager controlled the overall look of the Mac GUI widgets and supported several Many users of the older versions of the operating system decried the new look as lacking professional polish.  But, others found Aqua to be a bold and innovative step forward in a time when user interfaces were seen as "dull and boring".  Despite the controversy, the look was different, third-party developers started producing skins for customizable applications for Mac and other operating systems which mimicked the Aqua appearance. In Computing, skins may be associated with themes as custom graphical appearances ( GUIs) that can be applied to certain software and To some extent, Apple has used the successful transition to this new design as leverage, at various times threatening legal action against people who make or distribute software with an interface the company claims is derived from its copyrighted design. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for 
Mac OS X includes its own software development tools, most prominently an integrated development environment called Xcode. Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a Software product In Computing, an integrated development environment ( IDE) is a Software application that provides comprehensive facilities to Computer programmers Xcode is a suite of tools for developing software on Mac OS X, developed by Apple. Xcode provides interfaces to compilers that support several programming languages including C, C++, Objective-C, and Java. A compiler is a Computer program (or set of programs that translates text written in a computer language (the source language) into another A programming language is an Artificial language that can be used to write programs which control the behavior of a machine particularly a Computer. tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured C++ (" C Plus Plus " ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs is a general-purpose Programming language. Objective-C is a reflective, object-oriented Programming language which adds Smalltalk -style messaging to C. For the Apple Intel Transition, it was modified so that developers could build their applications as a universal binary, which provides compatibility with both the Intel-based and PowerPC-based Macintosh lines. The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh Computers from PowerPC processors to Intel X86 A universal binary is in Apple parlance an Executable file or application bundle that runs natively on
The APIs that Mac OS X inherited from Openstep are not backward compatible with earlier versions of Mac OS. OpenStep is an Object-oriented Application programming interface (API specification for an Object-oriented operating system that uses any modern Operating These APIs are now referred to by Apple as Cocoa. Cocoa is Apple Inc 's native Object-oriented application program environment for the Mac OS X Operating system This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers, since most Cocoa class names begin with the "NS" prefix, standing variously for Nextstep, NeXT/Sun. Apple's Rhapsody project would have required all new development to use these APIs, causing much outcry among existing Mac developers. All Mac software that did not receive a complete rewrite to the new framework would run in the equivalent of the Classic environment. To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, the Carbon Application Programming Interface (API) was created. Carbon is Apple Inc 's procedural API for the Macintosh Operating system, which permits a good degree of forward and backward compatibility Applications written with Carbon can be executed natively on both systems.
Mac OS X used to support the Java Platform as a "preferred software package"—in practice this means that applications written in Java fit as neatly into the operating system as possible while still being cross-platform compatible, and that graphical user interfaces written in Swing look almost exactly like native Cocoa interfaces. Java refers to a number of Computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems that together provide a system for developing Application software In computing cross-platform (also known as multi-platform) is a term used to refer to Computer software or computing methods and concepts that are implemented Swing is a Widget toolkit for Java. It is part of Sun Microsystems ' Java Foundation Classes (JFC &mdash an API for providing Traditionally, Cocoa programs have been mostly written in Objective-C, with Java as an alternative. Objective-C is a reflective, object-oriented Programming language which adds Smalltalk -style messaging to C. However, on July 11, 2005, Apple announced that "features added to Cocoa in Mac OS X versions later than 10. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 4 will not be added to the Cocoa-Java programming interface. "
Since Mac OS X is based on UNIX, most software packages written for BSD or Linux can be recompiled to run on it. Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks Projects such as Fink, MacPorts and pkgsrc provide pre-compiled or pre-formatted packages. In Computing, the Fink project is an effort to port Unix programs to Mac OS X. MacPorts, formerly called DarwinPorts, is a free / Open source software project to simplify installation of other free/open source software on the pkgsrc ( package source) is a Package management system for Unix-like Operating systems It was forked from the FreeBSD Ports collection Since version 10. 3, Mac OS X has included X11.app, Apple's version of the X Window System graphical interface for Unix applications, as an optional component during installation. X11app is Apple Computer 's implementation of the X Window System for Mac OS X.  Up to and including Mac OS X v10.4 (Tiger), Apple's implementation was based on the X11 Licensed XFree86 4. Mac OS X version 104 “Tiger” was the fifth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh The MIT License is a Free software license originating at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT used by the MIT X Consortium. XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System. It was originally written for Unix-like Operating systems on IBM PC compatibles and is now 3 and X11R6. 6. All bundled versions of X11 feature a window manager which is similar to the Mac OS X look-and-feel and has fairly good integration with Mac OS X, also using the native Quartz rendering system. Quartz specifically refers to a pair of Mac OS X technologies each part of the Core Graphics framework Quartz 2D and Quartz Compositor. Earlier versions of Mac OS X (in which X11 has not been bundled) can also run X11 applications using XDarwin. XDarwin is a port of the X Window System to run on the Mac OS X and Darwin Operating systems It permits the use of programs written for
For the early releases of Mac OS X, the standard hardware platform supported was the full line of Macintosh computers (laptop, desktop, or server) based on PowerPC G3, G4, and G5 processors. PowerPC is a RISC Instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple – IBM – Motorola alliance known as AIM Later versions discontinued support for some older hardware; for example, Panther does not support "beige" G3s, and Tiger does not support systems that pre-date Apple's introduction of FireWire ports. The IEEE 1394 interface is a serial bus Interface standard for high-speed communications and Isochronous real-time data transfer frequently  The latest version of Mac OS X, Leopard, has dropped support for all PowerPC G3 processors and for PowerPC G4 processors with clockspeeds below 867 MHz. With the introduction of the MacBook Air, which lacks any FireWire ports, Leopard does not require a FireWire port. The MacBook Air is a thin lightweight Macintosh Notebook computer designed by Apple. However, tools such as XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation disc have been developed by third parties to enable installation of newer versions of Mac OS X on systems not officially supported by Apple, including some pre-G3 systems. XPostFacto is an Open source utility that enables the installation of PowerPC versions of Mac OS X up to 10 Except for features requiring specific hardware (e. g. graphics acceleration, DVD writing), the operating system offers the same functionality on all supported hardware.
PowerPC versions of Mac OS X prior to Leopard retain compatibility with older Mac OS applications by providing an emulation environment called Classic, which allows users to run Mac OS 9 as a process within Mac OS X, so that most older applications run as they would under the older operating system. Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's "Classic" Mac OS. Classic is not supported on Intel-based Macs or in Mac OS X v10. 5 "Leopard".
A few early adopters experienced a surprise: Mac OS X was supported on Mac OS machines that came with a G3 or later processor from the factory—not machines with third-party processor cards. For example, a Power Mac 7300 whose CPU chip failed could be easily upgraded with a G3 processor on a "daughter card," which often cost nearly the same as an exact replacement of the original chip. The user could then go to the same store and buy the Mac OS X upgrade on CD-ROM. This is not guaranteed to work, however.
In April 2002, eWeek reported a rumor that Apple had a version of Mac OS X code-named Marklar which ran on Intel x86 processors. The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh Computers from PowerPC processors to Intel X86 Towelie (South Park episode Aliens in The Biggest Douche in the Universe See also X86 assembly language The generic term x86 refers to the most commercially successful Instruction set architecture in the history of Personal The idea behind Marklar was to keep Mac OS X running on an alternative platform should Apple become dissatisfied with the progress of the PowerPC platform.  These rumors subsided until late in May 2005, when various media outlets, such as the Wall Street Journal and CNET, reported that Apple would unveil Marklar in the coming months. CNET Networks Inc is a media company based in San Francisco California, United States, and is part of CBS Interactive, owned
On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs confirmed these rumors when he announced in his keynote address at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference that Apple would be making the transition from PowerPC to Intel processors over the following two years, and that Mac OS X would support both platforms during the transition. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jobs also confirmed rumors that Apple has had versions of Mac OS X running on Intel processors for most of its developmental life. The last time that Apple switched CPU families—from the Motorola 68K CPU to the IBM/Motorola PowerPC—Apple included a Motorola 68K emulator in the new OS that made almost all 68K software work automatically on the new hardware. Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology Apple has supported the 68K emulator for 11 years, but stopped supporting it during the transition to Intel CPUs. Included in the new OS for the Intel-based Macs is Rosetta, a binary translation layer which enables software compiled for PowerPC Mac OS X to run on Intel Mac OS X machines. Rosetta is a lightweight dynamic translator for Mac OS X distributed by Apple. However, Apple dropped support for Classic mode on the new Intel Macs. Third party emulation software such as Mini vMac, Basilisk II and SheepShaver provides support for some early versions of Mac OS. vMac is an open source Emulator for Mac OS, Windows, MS-DOS, OS/2, NeXTSTEP, Linux / Unix, and other Basilisk II is an Open source Software Emulator which emulates the 680x0 -based Apple Macintosh computer on a variety of Operating SheepShaver is an Open source PowerPC Apple Macintosh Emulator originally designed for BeOS and Linux. A new version of Xcode and the underlying command-line compilers support building universal binaries that will run on either architecture. A universal binary is in Apple parlance an Executable file or application bundle that runs natively on 
Software that is available only for PowerPC is supported with Rosetta, though applications may have to be rewritten to run properly on the newer OS X for Intel. Apple encourages developers to produce universal binaries with support for both PowerPC and x86.  There is a performance penalty when PowerPC binaries run on Intel Macs through Rosetta. Moreover, some PowerPC software, such as kernel extensions and System Preferences plugins, are not supported on Intel Macs. Some PowerPC applications would not run on Intel OS X at all. Further, in order to continue booting from a PowerPC drive, it had to be reformatted. Plugins for Safari need to be compiled for the same platform as Safari, so when Safari is running on Intel it requires plug-ins that have been compiled as Intel-only or Universal binaries, so PowerPC-only plug-ins will not work.  While Intel Macs will be able to run PowerPC, x86, and universal binaries, PowerPC Macs will support only universal and PowerPC builds.
Support for the PowerPC platform remains in Mac OS X version 10. 5. Such cross-platform capability already existed in Mac OS X's lineage, as said earlier; Openstep was ported to many architectures, including x86, and Darwin included support for both PowerPC and x86. Although Apple stated that Mac OS X would not run on Intel-based personal computers aside from its own, a hacked version of the OS compatible with conventional x86 hardware has been developed by the OSx86 community. OSx86 (a Portmanteau of OS X and x86) is a collaborative hacking project to run the Mac OS X computer Operating system
The character X is the number ten (a Roman numeral), so it is always pronounced as such (IPA: /tɛn/). Roman numerals are a Numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals.  It is the next release following the numbering of previous Macintosh operating systems such as Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. Mac OS 8 is an Operating system released by Apple Computer on July 26 1997. Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's "Classic" Mac OS.
Mac OS X versions are named after big cats. The term big cat is used to distinguish the larger cat species from smaller ones Prior to its release, version 10.0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and version 10.1 was code named internally as "Puma". Mac OS X version 100, Code named “Cheetah”, was the first major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word The cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus) is an atypical member of the cat family ( Felidae) that is unique in its speed while lacking climbing abilities Mac OS X version 101, Code named “Puma”, was the second major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family After the immense buzz surrounding version 10.2, codenamed "Jaguar", Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. Mac OS X version 102 “Jaguar” was the third major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system. The jaguar (Panthera onca,, or—especially in British English — is a New World Mammal of the Felidae family and one of 10.3 was marketed as "Panther", and 10.4 as "Tiger". Mac OS X version 103 “Panther” was the fourth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system. A black panther is a black ( melanistic) color variant of one of several Species of larger cat which are often known by the term panther. Mac OS X version 104 “Tiger” was the fifth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh The tiger ( Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family the largest and the most powerful of the four " Big cats quot in the Genus "Leopard" is the name for the current release, version 10.5. The leopard (lɛpɚd Panthera pardus) is an Old World Mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four roaring Mac OS X version 105 “Leopard” is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh The forthcoming version 10.6 is named "Snow Leopard". Mac OS X version 106 “Snow Leopard” is an Apple Operating system currently in development that is planned to succeed version 10 The snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) sometimes known as the ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia from Afghanistan Northern "Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple, but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks. A lynx is any of four medium-sized wild cats. All are members of the Genus Lynx, but there is considerable confusion about the best way to classify The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family 
Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger". TigerDirect (also known as TigerDirectcom) is a Systemax subsidiary On May 16, 2005 a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use does not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the 
Apple released a "preview" version of its new operating system to the public on September 13, 2000 in order to gain feedback from users. The Mac OS X Public Beta is an early beta version of Apple Computer 's Mac OS X Operating system. Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It cost $29. 95 and came with a t-shirt. The "PB" as it was known marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.
On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X v10. Mac OS X version 100, Code named “Cheetah”, was the first major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. 0 (internally codenamed Cheetah).  The initial version was slow, not feature complete, and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent. A kernel panic is an action taken by an Operating system upon detecting an internal Fatal error from which it cannot safely recover the term is largely specific
Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X v10. Mac OS X version 101, Code named “Puma”, was the second major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. 1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released.  It had better performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10. 1 as a free upgrade CD for 10. 0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running only Mac OS 9. Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of Graphical user interface -based Operating systems developed by Apple Inc It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were actually full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems. Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of Graphical user interface -based Operating systems developed by Apple Inc
On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. 
On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up with Mac OS X version 10. Mac OS X version 102 “Jaguar” was the third major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system. Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. 2 "Jaguar", the first release to use its code name as part of the branding.  It brought great performance enhancements, a sleeker look, and many powerful enhancements (over 150, according to Apple), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat. Quartz Compositor is the window server in Mac OS X It is responsible for presenting and maintaining rasterized rendered graphics from the rest of the Core Graphics ATI Radeon is a brand of Graphics processing units (GPU that since 2000 has been manufactured by ATI Technologies and subsequently AMD and is The multinational NVIDIA Corporation ( (ɪnˈvɪdiə specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for Workstations The GeForce2 ( codenamed NV15) was the second generation of GeForce Graphics cards by Nvidia Corporation. iChat AV is an AOL Instant Messenger (AIM.Mac, ICQ and XMPP client by Apple Inc 
The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10. A Happy Mac is the normal bootup (startup icon of an Apple Macintosh computer running older versions of the Mac OS Operating system. 2.
Mac OS X version 10. Mac OS X version 103 “Panther” was the fourth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system. 3 "Panther" was released on October 24, 2003. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast User Switching, Exposé (Window manager), FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added video-conferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability. Fast user switching is a feature on some modern Multi-user Operating systems such as Windows XP, Exposé is a feature of the Mac OS X Operating system. First previewed on 23 June 2003 at the Worldwide Developers Conference FileVault is a system that protects files on a Macintosh Computer. Safari is a Web browser developed by Apple Inc and included in Mac OS X. A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive Telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft.  But, support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued.
Mac OS X version 10. Mac OS X version 104 “Tiger” was the fifth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh 4 "Tiger" was released on April 29, 2005. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features.  As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with a built-in FireWire port. The IEEE 1394 interface is a serial bus Interface standard for high-speed communications and Isochronous real-time data transfer frequently  Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. Spotlight is a system-wide Desktop search feature of Apple's Mac OS X Operating system introduced in version 10 Dashboard is an application for Apple 's Mac OS X operating systems used for hosting mini-applications known as widgets. In computing a virtual folder generally denotes an organizing principle for files that is not dependent on their physical location in a folder. QuickTime is a Multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc, capable of handling various formats of Digital video, Media clips sound text Safari is a Web browser developed by Apple Inc and included in Mac OS X. Automator is an application developed by Apple for Mac OS X that implements point-and-click (or drag-and-drop creation of Workflows for automating repetitive tasks VoiceOver is a feature built into Apple Inc 's Mac OS X operating system since version 10 Core Image is a pixel-accurate non-destructive image processing and rendering framework for Mac OS X Core Video is the video processing model used by QuickTime 7 on Mac OS X to interface with the rendering and compositing layers in its graphics model The initial releases of iPhone and Apple TV use a modified version of Tiger with different graphical interfaces and fewer applications and services. The iPhone is an internet-connected Multimedia Smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc
On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 4. 4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release dropping support for the Classic environment.  Because the implementation of the OS is built separately for the two processors, in implementation the PowerPC version and Intel versions are two separate installers (one cannot use the PowerPC installer to install the OS onto an Intel-based Mac).
Mac OS X version 10. Mac OS X version 105 “Leopard” is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh 5 "Leopard" was released on October 26, 2007. The leopard (lɛpɚd Panthera pardus) is an Old World Mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four roaring Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. It was called by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300 new features.  Leopard supports both PowerPC- and Intel x86-based Macintosh computers, however support for the G3 processor was dropped. PowerPC is a RISC Instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple – IBM – Motorola alliance known as AIM See also X86 assembly language The generic term x86 refers to the most commercially successful Instruction set architecture in the history of Personal The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp pre-installed, full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Time Machine is a backup utility developed by Apple which is included with Mac OS X v10 Spaces is a Virtual desktop feature developed by Apple Inc and is an integral part of Mac OS X v10 Boot Camp is a utility included with Apple Inc 's Mac OS X v10 '64-bit' CPUs have existed in Supercomputers since the 1960s and in RISC -based workstations and servers since the early 1990s. Mail (aka Mailapp or Apple Mail) is an e-mail program included with Apple Inc iChat AV is an AOL Instant Messenger (AIM.Mac, ICQ and XMPP client by Apple Inc
Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. The Single UNIX Specification ( SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for Computer Operating systems to qualify for the name " Unix It is also the first BSD-based OS to receive the UNIX 03 certification. 
Mac OS X Snow Leopard was announced on June 9, 2008 at WWDC. Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Rather than focusing on new features, Snow Leopard will focus on stability and performance. It is expected to be released "about a year" from the announcement.  It will feature Microsoft Exchange Server support, new 64-bit technology capable of vast amounts of RAM, QuickTime X, advanced GPU performance with OpenCL, and unparalleled multi-core processing power through Grand Central. Microsoft Exchange Server is a Messaging and Collaborative software product developed by Microsoft. '64-bit' CPUs have existed in Supercomputers since the 1960s and in RISC -based workstations and servers since the early 1990s. OpenCL ( Open C omputing L anguage is a language for programming heterogeneous data and task parallel computing across GPUs and CPUs 
Mac OS X is available in the following languages:
Mac OS X does not include a Catalan localization and a Catalonian Mac user group have campaigned for Apple to include one. Czech (ˈʧɛk čeština ˈʧɛʃcɪna in Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers it is the majority language in the Danish ( d̥ænsɡ̊ is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Canadian French is an Umbrella term for the varieties of the French language used in Canada. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Icelandic ( is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system Norwegian ( norsk) is a North Germanic Language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the 
In 2003, MacWorld's Ted Landau called misconfigured permissions "the most common frustration" in Mac OS X. The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X Operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management The Dock is a prominent feature of the Graphical user interface of Apple Inc  This can happen after installing a program. In 2005, MacWorld's Rob Griffiths suggested that users may even have to reset permissions for files and folders every day, depending on the amount of application installations and modifications take place. Repairing disk permissions is a Troubleshooting activity commonly associated with the Mac OS X Operating system. The result of misconfigured permissions is often being unable to change preferences in a program or open a document. Disk Utility can be used to repair permissions, a process which can take up to 15 minutes. 
Mac OS X introduced significant changes to the user interface from that of its predecessor, Mac OS 9, and some users (including Bruce Tognazzini, founder of the original Apple Human Interface Group) have claimed that Mac OS X represented a step backwards in usability. Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's "Classic" Mac OS. Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini is a Usability Consultant in partnership with Donald Norman and Jakob Nielsen in the Nielsen Norman Group which