|History of Vietnam|
The Mạc Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Mạc; Hán Việt: 莫朝), ruled the northern provinces of Vietnam from 1527 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Hanoi for the last time. The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Hồng Bàng Dynasty, also known as the Lạc Dynasty, is a Dynasty that supposedly ruled in Vietnam (then known as Văn Lang) for over 2000 An Dương Vương ( Hán Việt: 安[[wikt 陽|陽]] 王; literally "Peaceful Sun King" is the ruling title of Thục Phán ( 蜀[[wikt Nanyue ( was an ancient kingdom that consisted of parts of the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan and much of modern northern The Triệu Dynasty (Nhà Triệu is the name given in Vietnam to the lineage of kings of the kingdom of Nam Việt (Nanyue which ruled over parts of The Second Chinese domination of Vietnam saw China strengthen its control over the region Triệu Thị Trinh ( Hán Việt: 趙[[wikt 氏|氏]] 貞) also known as Triệu Ẩu ( 趙[[wikt 嫗|嫗]] or Bà Triệu Lý Nam Đế ( 李[[wikt 南|南]] 帝, Lý The Southern Emperor) was originally Lý Bí or Lý Bôn ( 李[[wikt 賁|賁]] Triệu Việt Vương ( Hán tự: 趙[[wikt 越|越]] 王; ? The Third Chinese domination of Vietnam saw two Chinese imperial dynasties rule over the Chinese controlled region of Chiaozhou ( 交州, Vietnamese Giao Châu an Phùng Hưng ( Hán tự: 馮[[wikt 興|興]] 761-802 was a military leader who briefly reigned over Vietnam during the 8th century The Khúc family (Họ Khúc was a session of leaders who challenged Tang rule over Vietnam. Dương Đình Nghệ ( Hán tự: 楊廷藝 ?-937 some sources record Dương Diên Nghệ, 楊延藝 was the administrator of Giao Chỉ in around 931 The Ngô Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Ngô Hán tự: 吳[[wikt 朝|朝]] 939-967 was a dynasty in Vietnam. The 12 Lords Rebellion (Loạn 12 Sứ Quân was a period of chaos and civil war in the History of Vietnam, from 966 to 968 AD during the Ngô Dynasty, due to a conflict The Đinh Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Đinh; Han-Viet: Đinh Triều, 丁[[wikt 朝|朝]] was the imperial dynasty of Vietnam The Anterior Lê Dynasty or Prior Lê Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Tiền Lê; IPA: /ɲa˨˩ tiən˨˩ le/ was a dynasty that ruled Vietnam The Lý Dynasty ( Vietnamese: nhà Lý, IPA: /ɲa˨˩ li˦˥/ pronounced like Lee) sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty ( The Trần Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: Trần Triều, 陳朝 was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that The Hồ Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Hồ; Hán Việt: Hồ Triều) in Vietnam was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the History of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427, upon which the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty The Posterior Trần Dynasty (Nhà Hậu Trần period of 1407 till 1413 in the history of Vietnam is characterized by two revolts centered around Trần Quỹ ( The Later Lê Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝 sometimes referred to as the Lê Dynasty (the earlier Lê Dynasty The Trịnh Lords (Chúa Trịnh Chu nom: 主[[wikt 鄭|鄭]] 1545-1787 were a series of rulers of Vietnam who controlled the powers of government while leaving The Nguyễn Lords ( Vietnamese: Chúa Nguyễn; 1558 - 1775 were a series of rulers of Southern Vietnam (then called Đàng Trong) The name of Tây Sơn ( 西[[wikt 山|山]] is used in many ways referring back to the period of Peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between The Nguyễn Dynasty (Nhà Nguyễn Hán Việt: Nguyễn triều 阮朝 was the last ruling family of Vietnam. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit The Empire of Vietnam ( Vietnamese: Đế quốc Việt Nam, or (Việt Nam Đế quốc) was a short-lived Puppet state of Imperial Japan The Indochina Wars ( Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Đông Dương) refers to Wars of national liberation and attempts of the Vietnamese communists to assert regional The Partition of Vietnam was the establishment of the 17th parallel as the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone in 1954 splitting Vietnam into halves after the The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam The State of Vietnam ( Vietnamese: Quốc gia Việt Nam) was a former state in Vietnam replacing the former Republic of Cochinchina (1946-1949 "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia The Republic of South Vietnam (Cộng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam was the provisional government of South Vietnam following the final military defeat of the Army of the Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The kingdom of Champa ( Chăm Pa in Vietnamese or Chiêm Thành in Hán Việt records was an Indianized kingdom and controlled what Below is a list of Vietnamese monarchs. Some declared themselves kings ( vua / vương) or emperors ( hoàng đế) Until French colonization in the mid-19th century Vietnam's economy was uniformly agrarian subsistence and village-oriented Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam) Sino-Vietnamese ( Hán Việt; 漢越) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bằng (with the direct support of the Qing) until 1677. Cao Bằng is a province of northeastern Vietnam. Geography Cao Bằng Province is centered on the town of Cao Bằng
The founder of the Mạc Dynasty was a man who was related to a famous Trần Dynasty Confucian scholar named Mạc Đĩnh Chi. The Trần Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: Trần Triều, 陳朝 was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Unlike his ancestor, Mạc Đăng Dung choose to enter the military and ascended the ranks to become the senior general in the Vietnamese army. Later he seized power in a coup d'état and ruled Vietnam from 1527 till his death in 1541. Officially he resigned his position as Emperor in favor of his son but the reality was, he continued to rule. (Vietnam: The Revolutionary Path by Thomas Hodgkin, 1981).
Mạc Đăng Dung, famed for his strength and cunning, got his start as a bodyguard for the cruel and reviled Lê Emperor - Lê Uy Mục (around 1506). Mạc Đăng Dung （ Hán tự: 莫[[wikt 登|登]] 庸 posthumous name Mạc Thái Tổ Hán tự: 莫太祖 1483？－1541 was a Over time, despite the deaths of several Emperors, Mạc Đăng Dung increased his power and gained many supporters. However, he also gained the enmity of other rivals for power.
Around 1520, a civil war started. This war would last, with occasional breaks, for the next 150 years. Apparently fearing the growing ambition of Mạc Đăng Dung, the young Emperor, Lê Chiêu Tông, fled to the south. Lê Chiêu Tông (r 1516-1526 was a king of the Lê Dynasty of Vietnam. A revolt started with the Trịnh and the Nguyễn families claiming to support the Emperor against the power of Mạc Đăng Dung. The Trịnh Lords (Chúa Trịnh Chu nom: 主[[wikt 鄭|鄭]] 1545-1787 were a series of rulers of Vietnam who controlled the powers of government while leaving The Nguyễn Lords ( Vietnamese: Chúa Nguyễn; 1558 - 1775 were a series of rulers of Southern Vietnam (then called Đàng Trong) Mạc Đăng Dung responded by proclaimed the Emperor's younger brother, Prince Xuan, was now the true Emperor and installed as Emperor under the name Lê Cung Hoàng. The revolt was ended, temporarily, when Mạc Đăng Dung's forces captured and executed Lê Chiêu Tông along with the leaders of the revolt.
In 1527 Mạc Đăng Dung removed the figurehead Emperor he had installed earlier and proclaimed himself as the new Emperor under the title Minh Đức. This usurpation of the throne from the rightful Lê Emperors was not well received by the officials in the government. Some were killed, some committed suicide, some fled to the south to join a new revolt by the Trịnh and the Nguyễn against the Mac Emperors.
A new revolt began, and both sides tried to pull in allies, mainly the Ming Dynasty but also from King Phothisarat I of Lan Xang (modern-day Laos). Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma Mạc Đăng Dung, through submissive diplomacy and massive bribes, convinced the Ming not to attack in 1528. He then abdicated his position as Emperor in favor of his son, Mạc Đăng Doanh a year later. However, this was done purely to solidify his son's claim to rule after he was gone. In reality Mạc Đăng Dung continued to rule with the title of Senior Emperor (Viet: Thái thượng hoàng).
The revolt in the south gathered strength and over the next three years all the provinces south of the Red River were captured by the Nguyễn and Trịnh armies. There are also other rivers named Red River. The Red River, also known as the Hong - Red Song Cai, Song Ca In 1533 the figurehead Lê Emperor, Lê Trang Tong, was officially crowned at the newly recaptured western capital.
A few years later the situation for Mạc Đăng Doanh turned desperate as an official Ming delegation reported that the Mạc rule was illegitimate and that the Lê should be restored to power. As a result, in 1537 a huge Ming army came down from the north with orders to defeat the Mạc.
At this point, Mạc Đăng Doanh died and his father reclaimed the throne. Once again, Mạc Đăng Dung managed to send the Ming away by means of diplomacy (and bribes). The Ming official position was that the Mạc should rule over the northern half of Vietnam, while the Lê should rule over the southern half (in other words, below the Red River). Then the Ming returned home. The Nguyễn and the Trịnh refused to accept this division of the country and the war continued.
In 1541 Mạc Đăng Dung died and was succeeded by his grandson Mạc Phúc Hải.
Mạc Phúc Hải ruled only for six years, during which he was defeated by the Trịnh army and lost more territories. He was succeeded by Mạc Phúc Nguyên (1545-1561) who had to fight a war with his brother Trung.
Mạc Mậu Hợp ruled from 1561 to 1592. He was the last significant Mạc ruler. In 1572 the capital was captured by the Trịnh army but then he recaptured it a year later. Then, in 1592, Trịnh Tùng unleashed a massive invasion of the north and conquered Hanoi along with the rest of the northern provinces. Trịnh Tùng (died c1623 ruled Vietnam from 1570 to 1623 (he is also known as Trịnh Tòng and also given the title Bình An Vương) Mạc Mậu Hợp was captured during the retreat and was cut to pieces over three days.
The Mạc now lost all of Vietnam except for the areas around Cao Bằng province which was under the formal protection of the Ming army. Cao Bằng is a province of northeastern Vietnam. Geography Cao Bằng Province is centered on the town of Cao Bằng The new Mạc leader was Mạc Kinh Chi, he managed to assemble a large army which defeated the army of Trịnh Tùng but a year later, he and his army were wiped out by a new Trịnh army under Trịnh Tùng.
Mạc Kinh Cung ruled for more than twenty years (1593-1616). Based out of Van Ninh (Quang Ninh Province?) the Mạc army staged many attacks against the Trịnh. There is a district in Quang Binh Province called Quang Ninh. The Trịnh requested and received aid from the Nguyễn and the joint army (with Nguyễn Hoàng) defeated the Mạc. Nguyễn Hoàng 1525 - 1613; ruled the southern provinces of Vietnam from 1558 - 1613.
In 1598 yet another official Ming commission declared the Mạc to be rulers over Cao Bằng province and so the Mạc rulers stayed in this protected area, occasionally launching raids into Trịnh controlled Vietnam.
During his time in power, the aggressive Trịnh Lord Trịnh Tráng conquered more territory from the Mạc. Trịnh Tráng ruled Vietnam from 1623 &ndash 1654 Trinh Tung one of the famous Trinh Lords who ruled Vietnam He also began the Trịnh-Nguyễn War which started to go badly for him after the disaster at the battle of Truong Duc in 1548.
The next Trịnh Lord, Trịnh Tạc was more successful than his father. Trịnh Tạc ( Hán tự: 鄭[[wikt 柞|柞]] ruled Vietnam from 1654 - 1682 Trinh Tac one of the most successful of the Trinh Lords who He pushed the Nguyễn back to their original lands and then spent the next 15 years rebuilding the country and his army.
Up until this point the Trịnh had been prevented from completing the final destruction of the Mạc because the Mạc were protected by the Ming Dynasty. But now the Ming had fallen (in 1644) and had been replaced by the Manchu. As a result, the Mạc no longer enjoyed the same relationship with the Chinese government. In the early 1660s, the Mạc made the mistake of siding with a disloyal governor and so the Kangxi Emperor withdrew his protection of the Mạc. Learning of this change, in 1667, Trịnh Tạc invaded Cao Bằng, defeated the Mạc army and drove them out of the province and into China.
The last mention of the Mạc comes in 1677 when a Mạc army invaded northern Vietnam from their refuge in southern China. This invasion was defeated by the Royal (Trịnh) army, still under the command of Trịnh Tac.
So ended the long but ineffective dynasty founded by Mạc Đăng Dung. The civil war he started continued after his descendants lost control of Hanoi and turned into a war between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn. The Vietnamese civil war finally came to an end with the peace of 1673.
Coins of Vietnam - short history with the coins.
Later Lê Dynasty
|Ruler of Vietnam|
Later Lê Dynasty
|Ruler of North Vietnam|
|Ruler of Cao Bằng|