|Area :||23,701 km²|
• Density :
• 123. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Sari (/Sārī/ ساری ساری is the provincial capital of Mazandaran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 2/km²
|No. of Counties:||16|
|Main language(s):||Tapurian (Gileki/Mazenderani)|
It is one of the most densly populated provinces in Iran and wealthy regarding diverse natural resources also gross reservoir of caspian oil & natural gas. The province's four largest counties are Sari, Babol, Amol, and Qaemshahr (All situated on the Mid-East). Sari County ( Persian: شهرستان ساری is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Babol County (شهرستان بابل is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Amol County (شهرستان آمل is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Qa'em Shahr (قائمشهر also spelt Qâemŝahr or Ghaemshahr, is a City in the Mazandaran Province of Iran. Found as province in 1937. Mazanderan was the 2nd modern province just after Gilan.
Its diverse nature and climate including plains, prairies, forests and jungles  ranges from the sandy beaches to the rugged and snowcapped Elburz sierra  with the highest peak & volcano throughout Middle-East and Western Asia, Mount Damavand  which at the narrowest point (Nowshahr County) has no longer distance of 5 miles culminating more than 2 thousand meters from the coast. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. Mount Damāvand ( also known as Donbavand, is a Dormant volcano and the highest peak in Iran with a special place in the Persian mythology Noshahr County (شهرستان نوشهر is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran.
A major producer of farm fish allaround of Iran and the neighbor regions, Mazandaran is the leading economic base of agriculture & dish productions, Moreover, Tourism industry, with millions of tourists a year enjoy visiting it . For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Not only chief in biotechnology, but also special in civil engineering.
With the rich history , its human habitation of the area dates back to at least 75,000 years ago, Moreover recent excavations in Goher Tippe, gives the evidence to the existence of more than 5 millennium years urbanized phase of civilization, it is one of the most important historical sites of Iran  and has played an important role in cultural flourishing and urban development of the region.
The region is known to have been populated from early antiquity, and Mazandaran has changed hands among various dynasties from early in its history. There are several fortresses remaining from Parthian and Sassanid times, and many older cemeteries scattered throughout the province. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire During this era, Mazandaran was part of Hyrcania Province which was one of important provinces.
With the advent of the Sassanid dynasty, the King of Mazandaran (Tabaristan and Padashkhwargar) was Gushnasp , whose ancestors had reigned in the area (under the Parthian empire) since the time of Alexandar. Padishkhwargar or Patishkhwagar (پديشخوارگر which later orthographically morphed into Farshwardgar (فرشواردگر is the Middle Persian In 529-536 Mazandarn was ruled by Sassanid prince Kawus son of Kawadh. Anushirawan, the Sassanid king, put in his place Zarmihr, who claimed his ancestry from the legendary blacksmith Kaveh. This dynasty ruled till 645 A. D. , when Gil Gawbara (a descendant of the Sassanid king Jamasp and a son of Piruz) joined Mazandaran to Gilan. These families had descendants who ruled during the Islamic period.
During the post-Islamic period the local dynasties fall into three classes: 1. local families of pre-Islamic origin, 2. the ʿAlid sayyid s, and 3. local families of secondary importance.
The Bawandids who claimed descent from Kawus provided three dynasties. The first dynasty (665-1007) was overthrown on the conquest of Tabaristan by the Ziyarid Kabus b. Wushmgir. The second dynasty reigned from 466/1073 to 606/1210 when Mazandaran was conquered by 'Ala al-Din Muhammad Khwarzamshah. The third ruled from 635/1237 to 750/1349 as vassals of the Mongols. The last representative of the Bawandids was killed by Afrasiyab Chulawi.
The Paduspanids claimed descent from the Dabyuids of Gilan (their eponym was the son of Gīl Gawbāra). They came to the front about 40/660 and during the rule of the ʿAlids were their vassals. Later, they were vassals of the Buyids and Bawandids, who deposed them in 586/1190. The dynasty, restored in 606/1209-10, survived till the time of Timur; one of its branches (that of Kawus the son of Kayumarth) reigned till 975/1567 and the other (that of Iskandar the son of Kayumarth) till 984/1574.
In 662 CE, ten years after the death of Yazdegerd III the last Sassanian Emperor, a large Muslim army under the command of Hassan ibn Ali (Imam Hassan, the second Shi'a Imam) invaded Tabarestan (Mazandaran as it was then called) only to be severely beaten, suffering heavy losses to the forces of the Zoroastrian princes of the Dabboyid house. Events The regent Grimuald usurps the kingship of the Lombards, driving Perctarit into exile and killing Godepert. Yazdgerd III (also spelled Yazdegerd or Yazdiger, Persian: یزدگرد سوم "made by God") was the twenty-ninth and last king of For the next two hundred years, Tabaristan maintained an existence independent of the Umayyad Caliphate which supplanted the Persian Empire in the early seventh century, with independent Zoroastrian houses like the Bavand and Karen fighting an effective guerilla warfare against Islam. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Bavandi Dynasty (also spelled Bavend) was an Iranian dynasty that started in the early Seventh century, as an independent group of rulers reigning over Tabaristan A short-lived Alid Shiite state collapsed before the subsequent take-over by the Ziyarid princes. The Ziyarids, also spelled Zeyarids (زیاریان or آل زیار were an Iranian dynasty that ruled in the Caspian sea provinces of Gorgan Mazandaran, unlike much of the rest of the Iranian Plateau maintained a Zoroastrian majority until the 12th century, thanks to its isolation and hardy population which fought against the Caliph's armies for centuries. Image:Mahmoodabad. jpg|thumb|left|The resort of National Iranian Oil Company, near Mahmoodabad. Mahmood Abad (محمود آباد also transliterated as Mahmoud Abad, is a city in Mazandaran Province of Iran.
During the Abbasid caliphate of Abou Jafar Al-Mansur, Tabaristan witnessed a wave of popular revolt. Mazandaran is a Caspian The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The initial Arab Muslim conquests (632–732 (فتح Fatah, literally opening, also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab Al-Mansur Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712&ndash775 Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله ابن محمد المنصور was the second Ultimately, Vandad Hormoz established an independent dynasty in Tabaristan in 783. Events Births Deaths April 30 — Hildegard, wife of Charlemagne July 12 — Bertrada In 1034, Soltan Mahmoud Ghaznavi entered Tabarestan via Gorgan followed by the invasion of Soltan Mohammad Kharazmshah in 1209. The Ghaznavid Empire was a Khorāṣānian Sunni Muslim state founded by a dynasty of Turkic Mamluk. Gorgan ( Persian: گرگان Caspian: Vergen is the capital of the Golestan Province, Iran. The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs ( Khwārezmšhāḥīān, "Kings of Khwarezmia " Thereafter, the Mongols governed the region and finally were overthrown by the Timurid Dynasty. The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī ( were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty After the dissolution of the feudal government of Tabaristan, Mazandaran was incorporated into modern Persian Empire by Shah Abbas I in 1596. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās the Great ( (born January 27, 1571; died January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran and the most eminent In the Safavid era Mazandaran was settled by Georgian migrants, whose descendants still live across Mazandaran. The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the Still many towns, villages and neighbourhoods in Mazandaran bear the name "Gorji" (i. e. Georgian) in them, although most of the Georgians are already assimilated into the mainstream Mazandaranis. The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the The history of Georgian settlement is described by Eskandar Beyg Monshi, the author of the 17th century Tarikh-e Alam-Ara-ye Abbasi, in addition many foreigners e. g. Chardin, and Della Valle, have written about their encounters with the Georgian Mazandaranis.
Before the reign of Nadir Shah, the province was briefly occupied by Russians in the aftermath of the Russo-Persian War, 1722-1723 and peacefully returned to Persia in 1735. Nāder Shāh Afshār ( also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
Mir Heydar Amoli (Seyyed Se Tan) shrine in Amol, 15th century
Mazandaran is located on the Southern coast of Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Golestan, Semnan and Tehran provinces ). The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Golestān ( گلستان) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Semnan (Native NameSeman,) is a city in Semnan Province, northern Iran with a population estimated at 119778 inhabitants (2005 It is the provincial capital Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Province also lies Qazvin and Gilan to the west. Qazvin ( also spelled as Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran with an estimated population of 331409 in 2005 Mazandaran province is geographically divided into two parts: the coastal plains, and the mountainous areas. The Alborz Mountain Range surrounds the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea like a huge barrier. For the Iranian Frigate Alborz see Iranian frigate Alborz. For Alborz High School (in Persianدبیرستان البرز see Alborz High
There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in the Alborz regions, which run parallel to the Caspian Sea's southern coast, dividing the province into many isolated valleys. For the Iranian Frigate Alborz see Iranian frigate Alborz. For Alborz High School (in Persianدبیرستان البرز see Alborz High The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. The province enjoys a moderate, semitropical climate with an average temperature of 25 °C in summer and about 8 °C in winter. Although snow may fall heavily in the mountains in winter, it rarely falls around sea lines.
The population of the province has been steadily growing during the last 50 years. The following table shows the approximate province population, excluding the Golestan province, which has separated as an independent province in 1998 . Golestān ( گلستان) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran.
The province covers an area of 46,656 km². According to the census of 1996, the population of the province was 2,602,008 of which 45. 89% were registered as urban dwellers, 54. 1% villagers, and remaining were non-residents. Sari is the capital city of the province. Sari (/Sārī/ ساری ساری is the provincial capital of Mazandaran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains
Mazandaran is divided into 15 shahrestans (approximately equal to counties). Shahrestan may refer to Counties of Iran Shahrestan Afghanistan All the shahrestans are named after their administrative center, except Savadkooh. Savadkuh County (also Savadkooh ( Persian: شهرستان سوادکوه is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. The following map shows the respective positions of the shahrestans.
Mazandaran is connected to the capital of Iran, Tehran, through three transit roads of Haraz (Amol-Rudehen), Kandovan (Chalus-Karaj), and Firouzkouh (Qaem Shahr-Firouzkouh), while Sari, Nowshahr and Ramsar airports connect it to the other parts of the country. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Ramsar County (شهرستان رامسر is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Tonekabon County (شهرستان تنکابن is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Chalus County (شهرستان چالوس is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Noshahr County (شهرستان نوشهر is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Noor County (شهرستان نور is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Mahmudabad County (شهرستان محمودآباد is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Amol County (شهرستان آمل is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Babolsar County (شهرستان بابلسر is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Babol County (شهرستان بابل is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Shahi (شاهی is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. The center of the county is Shahi. Juybar County (شهرستان جویبار is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Savadkuh County (also Savadkooh ( Persian: شهرستان سوادکوه is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Sari County ( Persian: شهرستان ساری is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Neka County (شهرستان نکا is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Behshahr County ( Persian: شهرستان بهشهر is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Semnān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the north of the country and its center is Semnan. Tehran Province (استان تهران transliterated ostān-e Tehrān; is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Golestān ( گلستان) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Zanjan (زنجان زنجان is a province located in the North-West Iran with the Zanjan city being its center Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Amol (ɒmol Persian: آمل) is a city in Mazandaran province, Iran, located on the Haraz river bank Roudehen ( is a town located on the east of Tehran province on Tehran-Mazandaran road Karaj is a city in Iran, located in Tehran province. It is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of Alborz mountains Qa'em Shahr (قائمشهر also spelt Qâemŝahr or Ghaemshahr, is a City in the Mazandaran Province of Iran. Firuzkuh (also spelt Firouzkouh, Tabarian: Pirezcow) is a city and the capital of Firuzkuh County in north-eastern region of Tehran Province Sari (/Sārī/ ساری ساری is the provincial capital of Mazandaran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains Noshahr (also written Nowshahr, Noushahr and) is a port city in the province of Mazandaran in northern Iran. Ramsar (in Persian: رامسر is a town in the Mazandaran province of Iran, on the coast of the Caspian Sea.
The culture of Mazandaran is closely related to that of neighboring Gilan (or Guilan) and similarities between the two are abundant. The peoples of the two provinces are largely secular or irreligious, and consequently women have had greater social freedom and independence than their Persian cousins. (Reference: "The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran, 1920-1921: Birth of the Trauma" by Cosroe Chaqueri. )
The cuisine of the province is very rich in seafood due to its location by the Caspian Sea, and rice is present in virtually every meal. Indeed, the rest of Iran was introduced to rice through Gilan and Mazandaran. Before the 1800s, Persians, Kurds, and other Iranian ethnic groups used bread rather than rice as an accompaniment to their meals, though bread remains a prominent staple among them. While bread remains very popular among those groups, in Gilan and Mazandaran, rice remains the choice staple of the indigenous inhabitants.
Mazanderani or Tabarian (Avestan:Vernan, Pahlavi:Tapari]]) is Northwestern Iranian language. Mazandaran is a Caspian Mazandarani or Tabari ( Also known as Mazeniki Taperki) is an Iranian language of the northwestern branch Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. Various Mazandarani's dialects exist which are spoken in Mazandaran province and the neighbour province Golestan such as Mazanderani, and Gorgani. Golestān ( گلستان) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Also, Qadikolahi (Ghadikolahi) and Palani may be dialects. Mazandarani mostly resemble Gilaki. Gilaki can refer to Gilaki language Gilaki people Today, Mazandaranis also use Persian (Western Persian). The educated can communicate and read Persian well.
A region called Mazandaran is mentioned frequently in Persian epic Shahnameh, it is an area in north of Iran which is mostly inhabited by Div (demons). Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma ((alternative spellings are Shahnama Shahnameh Shahname Shah-Nama, etc Daeva ( daēuua, daāua, daēva) is the Avestan language term for a particular sort of supernatural entity with disagreeable characteristics The legendary Iranian Shah Kaykavoos as well as the Iranian hero Rostam each take turn to go to Mazandaran in order to battle the demons. Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages For the historical general who fought at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah for the Sassanid Empire, also mentioned in the Shahnameh, see Rostam Farrokhzād
شنیدم یکی نو سخن بس گران . Zāl (زال in Persian) is a legendary Persian warrior from the old Persian "The Book of Kings" or . . . . . . . . . که شه دارد آهنگ مازندران
"I heard troubling news that the king is planning to go to Mazandaran"
However, this Mazandaran is not considered identical to the modern province of Mazandaran, and is instead a land to the west of Iran. The current province was simply considered a part of Tabaristan; the name Mazandaran is a later development, perhaps based upon local terminology.
Mazandaran has been home to many significant Iranian figures. These range from scholars and poets to politicians and actors. Of the most notable Mazandaranian figure is Reza Shah Pahlavi who was born in Alasht, Savad Kooh, Mazandaran in 1877. For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. Elasht, also known as Alasht ( Caspian: Elaşt meaning Eagle Sanctuary) is a small rural village in Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province Savadkuh County (also Savadkooh ( Persian: شهرستان سوادکوه is a County in Mazandaran Province in Iran. Reza Pahlavi became the Iranian Shah from 1925 until 1941, when he was forced to relinquish his throne to his son.
Notable Mazandaranian poets include the modernist poet Nima Yooshij, the great late contemporary poet of Iran who was born in Yush, Mazandaran. Nimā Yushij (نیما یوشیج in Persian) ( November 12, 1896 - January 6, 1960) also called Nimā, born Ali Esfandiāri Yoush is a village in the Alborz Mountains, in Noor County, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Mazandaran is a Caspian
Mírzá `Abbás Núrí, father of Mirzá Husayan-Alí Núrí, known as Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, is a native of Núr (Noor) in Mazandaran. Mírzá `Abbás-i-Núrí ( more commonly known as Mírzá Buzurg was the father of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh ( ba-haa-ol-laa "Glory of God" ( November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892) born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Noor is a city in northern Iran in the Caspian sea coast It was previously called Sooldeh.
Interesting note: Being formerly part of the kingdom of Taparia or Tabaristan, two famous 9th-century Mazandarani scholars are from Mazandaran, both commonly called "al-Tabari" (An Arabic term meaning simply "from Taparia"). The Mazandarani people are an Iranian people living primarily in south-eastern Caspian Sea coast
Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, tobacco, sugarcane, and silk are produced in the lowland strip along the Caspian shore. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Oil wealth has stimulated industries in food processing, cement, textiles, cotton, and fishing (caviar). Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Caviar is the processed, Salted Roe of certain species of Fish, most notably the Sturgeon ( black caviar) and the
Suitable environmental conditions, pleasant and moderate climate, beautiful natural landscapes, and proximity to Tehran, have led the province to be one of the main recreational and tourism areas of Iran. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists close to 630 sites of historical and cultural significance, hence a wealth of tourist attractions. Iran Cultural Heritage Handcrafts and Tourism Organization ( is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran.