|Mädchen in Uniform|
Video cover for Mädchen in Uniform
|Directed by||Leontine Sagan|
|Produced by||Carl Froelich|
|Written by||Christa Winsloe (novel)|
|Music by||Hansom Milde-Meißner|
|Editing by||Oswald Hafenrichter|
|Running time||89 min|
Mädchen in Uniform (1931, 89 minutes, 16 mm), is a German feature-length film based on a novel by Christa Winsloe and directed by Leontine Sagan with significant artistic direction from Carl Froelich, who funded the film. Leontine Sagan (b Leontine Schlesinger, February 13, 1889 &ndash May 20, 1974) was an Austrian actress and theatre director Carl Froelich ( 5 September 1875 in Berlin – 12 February 1953, also in Berlin) was a German film pioneer and Christa Winsloe (1888-1944 was a 20th century German Novelist, Playwright and sculptor best known for her play Gestern und heute, filmed in Hertha Thiele (born 1908 in Leipzig - died 5 August 1984 was a German actor Events Top grossing films Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff Ingagi, starring Sir Hubert The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Events Top grossing films Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff Ingagi, starring Sir Hubert Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Christa Winsloe (1888-1944 was a 20th century German Novelist, Playwright and sculptor best known for her play Gestern und heute, filmed in Leontine Sagan (b Leontine Schlesinger, February 13, 1889 &ndash May 20, 1974) was an Austrian actress and theatre director Carl Froelich ( 5 September 1875 in Berlin – 12 February 1953, also in Berlin) was a German film pioneer and Winsloe also wrote the screenplay and was on the set during filming.
It is noted as the first feature film to be produced with an openly pro-lesbian storyline and remains a cult film among lesbians. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women
Winsloe's novel had previously appeared as a stage play in Leipzig with Hertha Thiele and Claire Harden in the lead roles. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong Hertha Thiele (born 1908 in Leipzig - died 5 August 1984 was a German actor After Leipzig the play was produced on the stage in Berlin as Krankheit der Jugend with a different cast and a more prominent lesbian theme, which was again toned down somewhat for the film. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany.
Having mostly played the same roles on stage, the cast was able to produce the film at speed and on a low budget of 55,000 marks. It was largely shot at the Potsdam military orphanage, now a teacher training college for women. Also see Potsdam New York (in the USA For the Potsdam Conference see Potsdam Conference. Carl Froelich's studio in the Tempelhof was also used. Tempelhof is an area in Berlin within the borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg. The film's original working title was Yesterday and Today but this was thought too insipid and changed to increase the chances of box-office success. Although sound had only been used for two years in cinema, it was used artfully.
The film was groundbreaking in a number of ways: firstly for its all-female cast; secondly for its sympathetic portrayal of lesbian pedagogical eros and homoeroticism revolving around the passionate love of a fourteen-year-old (Thiele) for her teacher (Dorothea Wieck); and thirdly for its co-operative and profit-sharing financial arrangements (although in practice these ultimately failed). Gustav Wyneken ( March 19, 1875 &ndash December 8, 1964) German Educational reformer free thinker and charismatic Homoeroticism refers to the representation of same-sex love and desire most especially as it is depicted or manifested in the Visual arts and Literature.
During an interview about the film decades later, Thiele said:
The whole of Mädchen In Uniform was set in the Empress Augusta boarding school, where Winsloe was educated. Christa Winsloe (1888-1944 was a 20th century German Novelist, Playwright and sculptor best known for her play Gestern und heute, filmed in Actually there really was a Manuela, who remained lame all of her life after she threw herself down the stairs. She came to the premiere of the film. I saw her from a distance, and at the time Winsloe told me, "The experience is one which I had to write from my heart. " Winsloe was a lesbian.
Thiele also said, "However, I really don't want to make a great deal of. . . or account for a film about lesbianism here. That's far from my mind, because the whole thing of course is also a revolt against the cruel Prussian education system. "
After many screen tests, Winsloe had insisted that her friend Thiele play the lead role. Director Sagan would have preferred Gina Falkenberg who had done the role on stage in Berlin, but along with having played Manuela in Leipzig, Thiele had already played a young lesbian in Bruckner's stage play Kreatur and although twenty-three years old when filming began, she was considered to be more capable of portraying a fourteen-year-old.
The film had some impact in the Berlin lesbian clubs around Budapester Straße and Rankenstraße, but was largely eclipsed by the ongoing cult success of The Blue Angel (1930). The Blue Angel ( Der blaue Engel) is a film directed by Josef von Sternberg in 1930, based on Heinrich Mann 's novel Professor The film did however generate large amounts of fan-mail to the stars from all over Germany and was considered a success throughout much of Europe. The goodnight kiss Thiele received from Wieck was especially popular: one distributor even asked for more footage of other kisses like it to splice into prints of the film.
From its premiere at the Capitol cinema in Berlin until 1934 the film is said to have grossed some 6,000,000 marks. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For a detailed discussion of the English translation of Reich, see Reich. Despite the collective nature of the filming for which cast and crew received only a quarter of the normal wage, none saw a share of the 6,000,000 marks and Thiele later hinted that the profits had been mostly retained by the producers.
The film was distributed by Weissenbach outside Germany and was a huge success in Romania. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania During a 1980 interview Thiele said the school play scene caused a "longstockings and kissing" cult when the film was first shown there. It was also distributed in Japan, the USA (where it was first banned, then released in a heavily cut version), England and France. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Mädchen in Uniform won the audience referendum for Best Technical Perfection at the Venice Film Festival in 1932 and received the Japanese Kinema Junpo Award for Best Foreign Language Film (Tokyo, 1934). The Venice Film Festival is the oldest Film festival in the world
Later, an alternate ending which subtly pandered to pro-Nazi ideals enabled continued screening in German cinemas but eventually even this version of the film was banned as 'decadent' by the Nazi regime, which reportedly attempted to burn all of the existing prints but by then several had been dispersed around the world. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Sagan and many others associated with the film fled Germany soon after the banning. Many of the cast and crew were Jewish and those who could not escape from Germany died in the camps. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ "You were only first aware that they were Jewish when fascism was there and you lost your friends," said Thiele, who left Germany in 1937. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Assistant director Walter Supper killed himself when it became clear his Jewish wife would be arrested.
Despite its later banning, Mädchen was followed by several German films about intimate relationships among women, such as Acht Mädels im Boot (1932) and Anna and Elisabeth (1933), which also starred Wieck and Thiele but was banned by the Nazis soon after its opening night, along with Me for You, You for Me (1934).
The film is said to have inspired the 1949 novel Olivia by Dorothy Bussy, which treats very similar themes. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Dorothy Bussy (née Strachey) (24 July 1865 – 1 May 1960 English novelist and translator There was a German remake in 1958, directed by Géza von Radványi and starring a young Romy Schneider. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Romy Schneider (September 23 1938–May 29 1982 was an Austrian actress.
The film survived the war but was heavily censored until the 1970s and was not shown again in Germany until 1977 when it was screened on TV there. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic It was later released in its surviving form as a video-tape (with English subtitles) in the US (1994) and the UK (2000) by the British Film Institute. Subtitles are textual versions of the dialog in films and television programs usually displayed at the bottom of the screen Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The British Film Institute ( BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film television Even this version likely lacks some scenes and for a full understanding of what may have been censored, a viewing of the film might be followed with a reading of the original novel by Christa Winsloe (The Child Manuela. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Virago Press, 1994)
"What you call sin, I call the great spirit of love, which takes a thousand forms. "