Lysergic acid diethylamide
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Mol. mass||323. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs It is controlled by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug PubChem is a Database of chemical Molecules The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI a component A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The molecular mass (abbreviated m of a substance, more commonly referred to as molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the Mass of one 431 g/mol|
|Synonyms||LSD, LSD-25, lysergide, D-lysergic acid diethylamide, N,N-diethyl-D-lysergamide|
|Melt. point||80 °C (176 °F)|
|Half life||3 hours|
|Routes||Oral, Intravenous, Transdermal|
Lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD, LSD-25, or acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family. This article deals with the general meaning of the term "synonym" The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. In Pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered Dose of unchanged drug that reaches the Systemic circulation, one of Drug metabolism is the Metabolism of drugs, their Biochemical modification or degradation usually through specialized enzymatic systems The biological half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (drug radioactive nuclide or other to lose half of its pharmacologic physiologic or radiologic activity Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of Metabolism and other non-useful materials The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical if it is used as directed by the mother during For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canada 's federal drug control statute Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c38 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In Pharmacology and Toxicology, a route " Semisynthesis " or partial chemical synthesis is a type of Chemical synthesis that uses compounds isolated from Natural sources (e Psychedelic drugs are Psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain and perception of the mind Ergoline is a Chemical compound whose structural skeleton is contained in a diverse range of Alkaloids and a few Psychedelic drugs Probably the most widely known psychedelic, it has been used mainly as a recreational drug, an entheogen, and a tool to supplement various practices for transcendence, including in meditation, psychonautics, art projects, and illicit, formerly legal psychedelic therapy, whether self-administered or not. Recreational drug use is the use of Psychoactive drugs for Recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes An entheogen, in the strictest sense is a Psychoactive substance used in a religious or shamanic (or entheogenic) context A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other In Philosophy, the adjective transcendental and the noun transcendence convey three different but related primary meanings all of them derived from the word's literal Meditation is a mental discipline by which one attempts to get beyond the conditioned "thinking" mind into a deeper state of relaxation or awareness A psychonaut (from the Greek ψυχοναύτης meaning literally a sailor of the mind/soul is a person who uses Altered states of consciousness, intentionally Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of Psychedelic drugs particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, Psilocin It is synthesized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye and was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann. In Chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of Chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products Submit to get this template or go to TemplateChembox_simple_organic. Ergot is the common name of a Fungus in the Genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. Albert Hofmann ( January 11 1906 – April 29 2008) was a Swiss scientist best known for having been the first to synthesize The short form LSD comes from its early codename LSD-25, which is an abbreviation for the German "Lysergsäure-diethylamid" followed by a sequential number. 
LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, especially in solution, though its potency may last for years if it is stored away from light and moisture at low temperature. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and In Chemistry, a solution is a Homogeneous Mixture composed of two or more substances In pure form it is colorless, odorless, and mildly bitter.  LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin. Blotting paper is a Type of Paper or other Material which is used to absorb an excess of substance (such as Ink or Oil) from Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent colourless brittle nearly tasteless solid substance, extracted from the In its liquid form, it can be administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection. The threshold dosage level needed to cause a psychoactive effect on humans is of the order of 20 to 30 µg (micrograms).
Introduced by Sandoz Laboratories as a drug with various psychiatric uses, LSD quickly became a therapeutic agent that appeared to show great promise. Novartis International AG is a multinational Pharmaceutical company based in Basel Switzerland that manufactures drugs such as Clozapine Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of Psychedelic drugs particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, Psilocin However, the extra-medicinal use of the drug in Western society during the mid-twentieth century led to a political firestorm that resulted in the banning of the substance. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories Psychedelics, Dissociatives  A number of organizations—including the Beckley Foundation, MAPS, Heffter Research Institute and the Albert Hofmann Foundation—exist to fund, encourage and coordinate research into its medicinal uses. The Beckley Foundation is a charitable trust that promotes the investigation of consciousness and its modulation from a multidisciplinary perspective The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies ( MAPS) is a U The Heffter Research Institute was founded in 1993 to support and promote investigation into the medical uses of Psychedelic Hallucinogens. Albert Hofmann ( January 11 1906 – April 29 2008) was a Swiss scientist best known for having been the first to synthesize 
LSD was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by a Swiss chemist named Dr. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland, as part of a large research program searching for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives. Albert Hofmann ( January 11 1906 – April 29 2008) was a Swiss scientist best known for having been the first to synthesize Novartis International AG is a multinational Pharmaceutical company based in Basel Switzerland that manufactures drugs such as Clozapine "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Ergoline is a Chemical compound whose structural skeleton is contained in a diverse range of Alkaloids and a few Psychedelic drugs  Ergot is a fungus that, by infecting cereal grains used for making rye breads, causes ergotism. Ergot is the common name of a Fungus in the Genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses Ergotism is the effect of long-term Ergot Poisoning traditionally due to the Ingestion of the Alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea After Dr. Hofmann succeeded in synthesizing ergobasine (which became the preeminent uterotonic), he began working on other amide derivatives of lysergic acid. Ergonovine, also known as ergometrine or d- Lysergic acid beta-propanolamide is an Ergoline (and Lysergamide) derivative, and one In Chemistry, an amide is one of three kinds of Compounds (sometimes called acid amide the organic Functional group characterized Submit to get this template or go to TemplateChembox_simple_organic. LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is one of the major drugs making up the hallucinogen class of drugs.  Lysergic acid diethylamide, the 25th lysergic acid derivative Hofmann synthesised (hence the name LSD-25) was developed initially as a probable analeptic, a circulatory and respiratory stimulant, based on its structural similarity to another known analeptic, nikethamide (nicotinic acid diethylamide). An analeptic, in Medicine, is a restorative or remedies proper to restore the body when wasted or emaciated by disease or hunger This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange. Nikethamide is a Stimulant which mainly affects the respiratory cycle However, no extraordinary benefits of the compound were identified during animal tests (though laboratory notes briefly mention that the animals became "restless" under its effects), and its study was discontinued.  Its psychedelic properties were unknown until 5 years later, when Hofmann, acting on what he has called a "peculiar presentiment," returned to work on the chemical. Modern psychedelia For "psychedelics" see Psychedelic drug.  While re-synthesizing LSD-25 for further study on April 16, 1943, Hofmann became dizzy and was forced to stop work. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In his journal, Hofmann wrote that after becoming dizzy he proceeded home and was affected by a "remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness". Hofmann stated that as he lay in his bed he sank into a not unpleasant "intoxicated like condition" which was characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. He stated that he was in a dreamlike state, and with his eyes closed he could see uninterrupted streams of "fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. A kaleidoscope is a tube of Mirrors containing loose colored Beads Pebbles or other small colored objects " The condition lasted about two hours after which it faded away.  Hofmann had attributed the psychoactive effects he experienced to accidentally absorbing a tiny amount of LSD-25 into his skin. Three days later he would take a much larger dose in order to test its effects further; this day would later be referred to as the "Bicycle Day". 
On April 19, 1943 Dr. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Albert Hofmann intentionally ingested 250 µg of LSD, which he hypothesized would be at most a threshold level dose, based on his research on other ergot alkaloids. Albert Hofmann ( January 11 1906 – April 29 2008) was a Swiss scientist best known for having been the first to synthesize Surprisingly, the substance showed a potency orders of magnitude above almost any other substance known at the time, amounting to a much heavier dose than typically given in modern therapeutic use. After ingesting the substance Hofmann found himself struggling to speak intelligibly and asked his laboratory assistant, who knew of the self-experiment, to escort him home on his bicycle, since wartime restrictions made automobiles unavailable. On the bicycle ride home, Hofmann's condition became more severe and in his journal he stated that everything in his field of vision wavered and was distorted, as if seen in a curved mirror. Hofmann also stated that while riding on the bicycle, he had the sensation of being stationary, unable to move from where he was, despite the fact that he was moving very rapidly. Once Hofmann arrived home, he summoned a doctor and asked his neighbor for milk, believing it might help relieve the symptoms. Hofmann wrote that despite his delirious and bewildered condition, he was able to choose milk as a nonspecific antidote for poisoning.  Upon arriving the attending doctor could find no abnormal physical symptoms other than extremely dilated pupils. After spending several hours terrified that his body had been possessed by a demon, that his next door neighbor was a witch, and that his furniture was threatening him, Dr. Hofmann feared he had become completely insane. In his journal Hofmann said that the doctor saw no reason to prescribe medication and instead sent him to his bed. At this time Hofmann said that the feelings of fear had started to give way to feelings of good fortune and gratitude, and that he was now enjoying the colors and plays of shapes that persisted behind his closed eyes. Hofmann mentions seeing "fantastic images" surging past him, alternating and opening and closing themselves into circles and spirals and finally exploding into colored fountains and then rearranging themselves in a constant flux. Hofmann mentions that during the condition every acoustic perception, such as the sound of a passing automobile, was transformed into optical perceptions. Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human Perception of Sounds Alternatively it can be described as the study of the Psychological correlates Eventually Hofmann slept and upon awakening the next morning felt refreshed and clearheaded, though somewhat physically tired. He also stated that he had a sensation of well being and renewed life and that his breakfast tasted unusually delicious. Upon walking in his garden he remarked that all of his senses were "vibrating in a condition of highest sensitivity, which then persisted for the entire day". 
Early researchers on LSD saw its potency and noticed that even in extremely small quantities it could significantly alter the mental functioning of healthy volunteers. Since LSD could produce changes in perceptions and emotions, early researchers hypothesized that the cause of some mental illnesses, particularly schizophrenia, were caused by endogenous compounds with a similar activity to LSD.  Much of the research during the late 1940s dealt with this hypothesis and many LSD sessions conducted for scientific study were often termed "experimental psychoses", and this is where the terms "psychoactive" , "psychotomimetic" and "hallucinogenic" were coined to refer to such drugs. Generally these studies revolved around the attempt to block the effects of LSD with premedication, which was thought to be able to lead to medical treatments for schizophrenia. The studies showed that there was no such connection (the effects of LSD and those of schizophrenia are drastically different and have different causes and functions). Some early researchers also started to suggest that LSD could have positive effects and could be used as a treatment for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Some reports suggested that even small doses of LSD could have dramatic effects on the personalities and attitudes and even lifestyles of test subjects. Early LSD research also found evidence of the drug's ability to facilitate relief of various emotional episodes related to traumatic memories from childhood of patients. 
During the Cold War, intelligence agencies were keenly interested in the possibilities of using LSD for interrogation and mind control, as well as for large-scale social engineering. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Interrogation or questioning is Interviewing as commonly employed by officers of the Police and Military. Mind control is a broad range of psychological tactics able to subvert an individual's control of his own thinking, behavior emotions or decisions Social engineering is a concept in Political science that refers to efforts to influence popular Attitudes and Social behavior on a large scale whether The CIA research on LSD, most of which was done under Project MKULTRA, the code name for a CIA mind-control research program, began in the 1950s and continued until the late 1960s. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all 
Tests were also conducted by the U. S. Army Biomedical Laboratory (now known as the U. S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense) located in the Edgewood Arsenal at Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG is a United States Army facility located near Aberdeen Maryland (in Harford County) Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG is a United States Army facility located near Aberdeen Maryland (in Harford County) The government would administer LSD to subjects (without consent) and then perform a battery of tests to investigate the effects of the drug on soldiers. A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. Based on remaining publicly available records, the projects seem to have concluded that LSD was of little practical use as a mind control drug and moved on to other drugs. 
Both the CIA and the Army experiments became highly controversial when they became public knowledge in the 1970s, as the test subjects were not normally informed of the nature of the experiments, or even that they were subjects in experiments at all.  In 1961, Paul Robeson attempted suicide in a Moscow hotel room. Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson ( April 9, 1898 &ndash January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American Actor, athlete His son claimed this was precipitated by a CIA agent who placed some synthetic hallucinogen in his drink.  At least one person, an Army scientist named Frank Olson is thought by some to have committed suicide by leaping from a tall building as a result of his being unknowingly given LSD. Frank Olson ( July 17 1910 &ndash November 28 1953) was a US Army scientist who died under mysterious circumstances while undertaking  Frank Olson's son, Eric Olson, believes that his father was murdered by government officials and a 1994 exhumation and examination by forensic pathologists at George Washington University of the body suggested that Olson had suffered blunt trauma to the back of his head prior to falling from the building.  Most of the MKULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973. The controversy contributed to President Ford's creation of the Rockefeller Commission and new regulations on informed consent. Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President The US President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given Consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts implications The British government also engaged in LSD testing; in 1953 and 1954, scientists working for MI6 dosed servicemen in an effort to find a "truth drug". The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Secret Intelligence Service ( SIS) colloquially known as MI6 is the United Kingdom 's external Intelligence agency. The test subjects were not informed that they were being given LSD, and had in fact been told that they were participating in a medical project to find a cure for the common cold. Acute viral nasopharyngitis or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious viral Infectious disease of the One subject, aged 19 at the time, reported seeing "walls melting, cracks appearing in people's faces … eyes would run down cheeks, Salvador Dalí-type faces … a flower would turn into a slug". Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11 1904 &ndash January 23 1989 was a Spanish Catalan Surrealist After keeping the trials secret for many years, MI6 agreed in 2006 to pay the former test subjects financial compensation. Like the CIA, MI6 decided that LSD was not a practical drug for mind control purposes. 
Today, most research with LSD involves animals or cells. However, a few groups are exploring LSD effects in humans. The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies has an eight-person study in Switzerland to see if a large dose of LSD (200 ug) is more helpful as part of psychotherapy for cancer patients than a lower dose (20 ug). The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies ( MAPS) is a U The Beckley Foundation is studying the effects of LSD on mental activity and consciousness in LSD-experienced volunteers, in order to gain insight into its reported effects on creativity and insight. The Beckley Foundation is a charitable trust that promotes the investigation of consciousness and its modulation from a multidisciplinary perspective  There has been additional interest in studying the effects of LSD on cluster headaches, although the current status of this research is uncertain. While these studies could be criticized for being too small to lead to strong conclusions, they may represent the beginnings of renewed scientific interest into LSD.
Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), or millionths of a gram. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. By comparison, dosages of almost all other drugs, both recreational and medicinal, are measured in milligrams (mg), or thousandths of a gram. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. Hofmann determined that an active dose of mescaline, roughly 0. Albert Hofmann ( January 11 1906 – April 29 2008) was a Swiss scientist best known for having been the first to synthesize Mescaline or 345-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally-occurring Psychedelic Alkaloid of the Phenethylamine class 2 to 0. 5g, has effects comparable to 100µg or less of LSD; put another way, LSD is between five to ten thousand times more active than mescaline. 
While a single dose of LSD may be between 100 and 500 micrograms — an amount roughly equal to one-tenth the mass of a grain of sand — threshold effects can be felt with as little as 25 micrograms. 
Generally, the dosage that will produce a threshold psychotropic effect in humans is considered to be 20 to 30µg.  According to Glass and Henderson's review, black-market LSD is largely iterated though sometimes contaminated by manufacturing by-products. Typical doses in the 1960s ranged from 200 to 1000µg while street samples of the 1970s contained 30 to 300µg. By the 1980s, the amount had reduced to between 100 to 125 µg, lowering more in the 1990s to the 20–80 µg range. (Lower doses, Glass and Henderson found, generally produce fewer bad trips. Bad trip is a slang term for a psychedelic crisis, a disturbing experience sometimes associated with use of a psychedelic drug such as LSD, salvinorin )
Estimates for the lethal dosage (LD50) of LSD range from between 200 µg/kg to more than 1 mg/kg of human body mass, though most sources report that there are no known human cases of such an overdose. In Toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for “Lethal Dose 50%” or LCt50 (Lethal Concentration & Time of a Other sources note one report of a suspected fatal overdose of LSD occurring in November 1975 in Kentucky in which there were indications that ~1/3 of a gram (320 mg or 320,000 µg) had been injected intravenously, i. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. e. , over 3,000 more typical oral doses of ~100 µg had been injected. 
Tusko the elephant died shortly after being injected with 297 mg in 1962, but whether the LSD was the cause of his death is controversial. Tusko is a popular name given to elephants in captivity Several notable elephants have been given this moniker
LSD is not considered addictive, in that its users do not exhibit the medical community's commonly accepted definitions of addiction and physical dependence. The term " addiction " is used in many contexts to describe an obsession compulsion or excessive Physical dependence or psychological dependence such as Rapid tolerance build-up prevents regular use, and there is cross-tolerance shown between LSD, mescaline and psilocybin. Mescaline or 345-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally-occurring Psychedelic Alkaloid of the Phenethylamine class Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin  This tolerance diminishes after a few days without use and is probably caused by downregulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the brain. The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor which belongs to the Serotonin receptor family and is a G protein coupled receptor
Adverse effects of psychotropics are often treated with fast acting benzodiazepines like diazepam or triazolam that have calming and antianxiety effects but do not directly affect the specific actions of psychotropics. The benzodiazepines (pronounced, often abbreviated to "benzos") are a class of Psychoactive drugs with varying Hypnotic Diazepam (daɪˈæzɨpæm first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a Benzodiazepine derivative Drug. Triazolam (marketed under brand names Halcion, Novodorm, Songar) is a Benzodiazepine derivative drug Many rumors about home remedies to counteract psychedelic effects are circulated, including sugar, calcium, orange juice, milk, or niacin, but none of them have been shown to be effective and they make no sense from a pharmacological standpoint. A rumour or rumor (see spelling differences) is often viewed as "an unverified account or explanation of events circulating from person to person and A home remedy is a treatment to cure a Disease or ailment that employs certain spices vegetables or other common items Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin which prevents the deficiency disease Pellagra. Pharmacology (from Greek grc φάρμακον pharmakon, "drug" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of how Drugs Theoretically, specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, such as Seroquel, would be direct antidotes, although some anecdotal reports claim otherwise. The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor which belongs to the Serotonin receptor family and is a G protein coupled receptor An antagonist (from Greek ανταγωνιστής - antagonistes, "opponent competitor rival" is a character or Quetiapine ( kwe-TYE-a-peen marketed by AstraZeneca as Seroquel and by Orion Pharma as Ketipinor, is an Atypical antipsychotic An antidote or counterdose is a substance which can counteract a form of Poisoning.  Also, some people have reported that taking a SSRI such as Prozac or drugs that are 5-HT2 receptor antagonists such as Trazodone will counteract the effects of LSD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs) are a class of Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, Anxiety disorders 5-HT2 receptors are a family of 5-HT receptors, with the following members 5-HT2A receptors * 5-HT2B receptors * 5-HT2C Trazodone (trade names Desyrel, Molipaxin, Trittico, Thombran, Trialodine, Trazorel) is a Psychoactive compound
LSD's effects normally last from 6-12 hours depending on dosage, tolerance, body weight and age - Sandoz's prospectus for "Delysid" warned: "intermittent disturbances of effect may occasionally persist for several days. " Contrary to early reports and common belief, LSD effects do not last longer than significant levels of the drug in the blood. Aghajanian and Bing found LSD had an elimination half-life of 175 minutes, while, more recently, Papac and Foltz reported that 1 µg/kg oral LSD given to a single male volunteer had an apparent plasma half-life of 5. 1 hours, with a peak plasma concentration of 5 ng/mL at 3 hours post-dose.  Notably, Aghajanian and Bing found that blood concentrations of LSD matched the time course of volunteers' difficulties with simple arithmetic problems.
LSD affects a large number of the G protein coupled receptors, including all dopamine receptor subtypes, all adrenoreceptor subtypes as well as many others. G protein-coupled receptors ( GPCRs) also known as seven transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, and In Biochemistry, a receptor is a Protein molecule embedded in either the Plasma membrane or Cytoplasm of a cell to which a mobile signaling Dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the Vertebrate Central nervous system (CNS The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the Catecholamines Adrenergic receptors LSD binds to most serotonin receptor subtypes except for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4. In the field of Neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the Neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator Serotonin, also However, most of these receptors are affected at too low affinity to be activated by the brain concentration of approximate 10–20 nM.  Recreational doses of LSD can affect 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT5A, 5-HT5B, and 5-HT6 receptors. The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor which belongs to the Serotonin receptor family and is a G protein coupled receptor The psychotropic effects of LSD are attributed to its strong partial agonist effects at 5-HT2A receptors as specific 5-HT2A agonist drugs are psychotropics and largely 5-HT2A specific antagonists block the psychotropic activity of LSD. An agonist is a term used to describe a type of ligand or drug that binds and alters the activity of a receptor. An antagonist (from Greek ανταγωνιστής - antagonistes, "opponent competitor rival" is a character or  Exactly how this produces the drug's effects is unknown, but it is thought that it works by increasing glutamate release and hence excitation in the cerebral cortex, specifically in layers IV and V. Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20 Alpha Amino acids It is not among the human Essential amino acids Its The cerebral cortex is a structure within the Brain that plays a key role in Memory, Attention, perceptual Awareness, Thought,  In the later stages, LSD might act through DARPP-32-related pathways that are likely the same for multiple drugs including cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and morphine. See PPP1R1B for full information on this gene DARPP-32 stands for dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with molecular weight 32 
One experiment studying the actions of LSD was performed by Barry Jacobs recording from electrodes implanted into Raphe nuclei. The raphe nuclei (Latin raphe = 'seam' nuclei = cell 'clusters' pronounced RAY-fee are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the Brain stem.  Behaviorally relevant doses of LSD result in a complete blockade of action potential activity in the dorsal raphe, effectively shutting off the principal endogenous source of serotonin to the telencephalon.
Some reports indicate that although administration of chlorpromazine (Thorazine) or similar typical antipsychotic tranquilizers will not end an LSD trip, it will either lessen the intensity or immobilize and numb the patient, a side effect of the medication. The Ki Database (or Ki DB) is a Public domain Database of published binding affinities ( K i of Chlorpromazine (as chlorpromazine Hydrochloride, abbreviated CPZ, marketed in the US as Thorazine) is a Phenothiazine Antipsychotic Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as first generation antipsychotics, conventional antipsychotics, classical neuroleptics, or major tranquilizers  While it also may not end an LSD trip, the best chemical treatment for a "bad trip" is an anxiolytic agent such as diazepam (Valium) or another benzodiazepine. An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of Symptoms of Anxiety. Diazepam (daɪˈæzɨpæm first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a Benzodiazepine derivative Drug. The benzodiazepines (pronounced, often abbreviated to "benzos") are a class of Psychoactive drugs with varying Hypnotic Some have suggested that administration of niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) could be useful to end the LSD user's experience of a "bad trip". Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin which prevents the deficiency disease Pellagra. Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin which prevents the deficiency disease Pellagra.  The nicotinic acid in niacin as opposed to nicotinamide, will produce a full body heat rash, which is caused by widening of peripheral blood vessels. Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin which prevents the deficiency disease Pellagra. Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide and nicotinic acid amide, is the Amide of Nicotinic acid (vitamin B3 The effect is somewhat akin to a poison ivy rash. Although it is not clear to what extent the effects of LSD are reduced by this intervention, the physical effect of an itchy skin rash may itself tend to distract the user from feelings of anxiety. Indeed, nicotinic acid was experienced as a stressor by all tested persons. The rash itself is temporary and disappears within a few hours. It is questionable if this method could be effective for people having serious adverse psychological reactions.
Physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and may include the following: uterine contractions, hypothermia, fever, elevated levels of blood sugar, goose bumps, increase of heart rate, jaw clenching, perspiration, pupil-dilation, saliva production, mucus production, sleeplessness, paresthesia, euphoria, hyperreflexia, tremors and synesthesia. The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the Hypothermia is a condition in which an organism's temperature drops below that required for normal Metabolism and bodily functions Blood sugar, used in a physiological context is a misnomer and misleading Goose bumps, also called goose flesh, chill bumps, chicken skin, people bumps, or the medical term cutis anserina, "Dilated pupil" redirects here An Eye examination sometimes requires the dilation of the pupil For the band see Saliva (band; for the village in Azerbaijan see Səliva. In vertebrates mucus is a slippery secretion produced by and covering Mucous membranes It is a viscous Colloid containing Antiseptic enzymes (such as Sleep is a Natural state of bodily rest observed throughout the animal kingdom Paresthesia (pron /ˌpɛɹɪsˈθiʒə/ paraesthesia in British English, pron Euphoria is a medically recognized emotional state related to Pleasure and Happiness. Hyperreflexia is defined as overactive or overresponsive Reflexes. Tremor is an unintentional somewhat rhythmic muscle movement involving to-and-from movements (oscillations of one or more parts of the body Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiae or synaesthesiae)—from the Ancient Greek (syn meaning "with" LSD users report numbness, weakness, trembling, and nausea.  LSD was studied in the 1960s by Eric Kast as an analgesic for serious and chronic pain caused by cancer or other major trauma. Pain, in the sense of physical pain, is a typical sensory experience that may be described as the unpleasant awareness of a noxious stimulus or bodily harm Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled  Even at low (sub-psychedelic) dosages, it was found to be at least as effective as traditional opiates while being much longer lasting (pain reduction lasting as long as a week after peak effects had subsided). For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation, or for the class of drugs see Opioid. Kast attributed this effect to a decrease in anxiety. This reported effect is being tested (though not using LSD) in an ongoing (as of 2006) study of the effects of the psychedelic tryptamine psilocybin on anxiety in terminal cancer patients. Psychedelic drugs are Psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain and perception of the mind Tryptamine is a Monoamine Alkaloid found in Plants and Animals. Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin Anxiety is a physiological and psychological state characterized by Cognitive, Somatic, Emotional and Behavioral components
Furthermore, LSD has been used as a treatment for cluster headaches, an uncommon but extremely painful disorder. Cluster headache is a neurological disease that involves as its most prominent feature an immense degree of pain Researcher Peter Goadsby describes the headaches as "worse than natural childbirth or even amputation without anesthetic. " Although the phenomenon has not been formally investigated, case reports indicate that LSD and psilocybin can reduce cluster pain and also interrupt the cluster-headache cycle, preventing future headaches from occurring. Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin Currently existing treatments include various ergolines, among other chemicals, so LSD's efficacy may not be surprising. Ergoline is a Chemical compound whose structural skeleton is contained in a diverse range of Alkaloids and a few Psychedelic drugs A dose-response study, testing the effectiveness of both LSD and psilocybin was planned at McLean Hospital, although the current status of this project is unclear. McLean Hospital (pronounced 'Mc-Lane' is a Psychiatric hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts. A 2006 study by McLean researchers interviewed 53 cluster-headache sufferers who treated themselves with either LSD or psilocybin, finding that a majority of the users of either drug reported beneficial effects.  Unlike attempts to use LSD or MDMA in psychotherapy, this research involves non-psychological effects and often sub-psychedelic dosages; therefore, it is plausible that a respected medical use of LSD will arise. MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, Psychotherapy is an Interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living 
LSD's psychological effects (colloquially called a "trip") vary greatly from person to person, depending on factors such as previous experiences, state of mind and environment, as well as dose strength. They also vary from one trip to another, and even as time passes during a single trip. An LSD trip can have long term psychoemotional effects; some users cite the LSD experience as causing significant changes in their personality and life perspective. Widely different effects emerge based on what has been called set and setting; the "set" being the general mindset of the user, and the "setting" being the physical and social environment in which the drug's effects are experienced. Set and setting describes the context for psychoactive and particularly Psychedelic drug experiences one's mindset and the setting in which the user has the experience
Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert considered the chemical to be of potentially beneficial application in psychotherapy. Timothy Francis Leary ( October 22, 1920 &ndash May 31, 1996) was an American Writer, Psychologist, Futurist If the user is in a hostile or otherwise unsettling environment, or is not mentally prepared for the powerful distortions in perception and thought that the drug causes, effects are more likely to be unpleasant than if he or she is in a comfortable environment and has a relaxed, balanced and open mindset.
Some psychological effects may include an experience of radiant colors, objects and surfaces appearing to ripple or "breathe," colored patterns behind the eyes, a sense of time distorting (time seems to be stretching, repeating itself, changing speed or stopping), crawling geometric patterns overlaying walls and other objects, morphing objects, a sense that one's thoughts are spiraling into themselves, loss of a sense of identity or the ego (known as "ego death"), and powerful, and sometimes brutal, psycho-physical reactions interpreted by some users as reliving their own birth. Ego death is an experience sometimes undergone by Psychonauts Mystics Shamans Monks Psychologists and others interested in exploring 
Many users experience a dissolution between themselves and the "outside world".  This unitive quality may play a role in the spiritual and religious aspects of LSD. The drug sometimes leads to disintegration or restructuring of the user's historical personality and creates a mental state that some users report allows them to have more choice regarding the nature of their own personality.
Some experts hypothesize that drugs such as LSD may be useful in psychotherapy, especially when the patient is unable to "unblock" repressed subconscious material through other psychotherapeutic methods, and also for treating alcoholism. One study concluded, "The root of the therapeutic value of the LSD experience is its potential for producing self-acceptance and self-surrender," presumably by forcing the user to face issues and problems in that individual's psyche. Many believe that, in contrast, other drugs (such as alcohol, heroin, and cocaine) which are used to escape from reality, LSD is seen as more of an introspective experience. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant Escapism is mental diversion by means of Entertainment or Recreation, as an "escape" from the perceived unpleasant aspects of daily stress. Studies in the 1950s that used LSD to treat alcoholism professed a 50% success rate, five times higher than estimates near 10% for Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA) is an informal meeting society for recovering and recovered alcoholics, with the stated purpose to help its members "to stay sober and 
Some LSD studies were criticized for methodological flaws, and different groups had inconsistent results. Mangini's 1998 paper reviewed this history. He concluded that the efficacy of LSD in treating alcoholism remains an open question.  Dr Abram Hoffer referred to Mangini's paper as "a good review of the literature" but said that, in common with many other scientists, the author has failed to grasp the important point that psychedelic therapy is a therapeutic experience.
The critics of psychedelic therapy have not taken this into account. Thus the Toronto studies studied the drug. They made no attempt whatever to induce a psychedelic experience. I saw at least two of the patients many years after they had been treated in Toronto and they told me that it was the most horrible experience they had ever had. It was in fact a true psychotomimetic experience and probably reproduced delirium tremens more than anything else. Not surprisingly their patients did not do well. They gave them 800 micrograms which is too heavy, gave them a barbiturate in advance to prevent convulsions, tied them to the bed so that they could not run away, and had sitting with them a psychologist who wrote notes all the time and did not interact with the patients.
– Abram Hoffer M. D, Ph. D, FRCP, 'Comments on the article Treatment of Alcoholism Using Psychedelic Drugs'
Many notable individuals have commented publicly on their experiences with LSD. Some of these comments date from the era when it was legally available in the US and Europe for non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychiatric treatment in the 1950s and 60s. Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric Still others describe experiences with illegal LSD, obtained for philosophic, artistic, therapeutic, spiritual, or recreational purposes.
LSD causes expansion and altered experience of senses, emotions, memories, time, and awareness for 6 to 14 hours, depending on dosage and tolerance. Senses are the physiological methods of Perception. The senses and their operation classification and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields An emotion is a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings thoughts and behaviours In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information For other uses see Time (disambiguation Time is a component of a measuring system used to sequence events to compare the durations of In Biological psychology, awareness comprises a human's or an animal's perception and Cognitive reaction to a condition or event LSD does typically not produce real hallucinations as the deliriants do. A hallucination, in the broadest sense is a Perception in the absence of a stimulus. The deliriants (or Anticholinergics are a special class of acetylcholine -inhibitor Dissociatives The name comes from their primary effect of inducing Generally beginning within thirty to ninety minutes after ingestion, the user may experience anything from subtle changes in perception to overwhelming cognitive shifts. A cognitive shift (not to be confused with Cognitive-shifting, a general therapy/meditation term is a psychological phenomenon most often experienced by individuals using Changes in auditory and visual perception are typical.  Visual effects include the illusion of movement of static surfaces ("walls breathing"), after image-like trails of moving objects ("tracers"), the appearance of moving colored geometric patterns (especially with closed eyes), an intensification of colors and brightness ("sparkling"), new textures on objects, blurred vision, and shape suggestibility. The motion after-effect (MAE is a Visual illusion experienced after viewing a moving visual stimulus for a time (milliseconds to minutes with stationary eyes and An afterimage or ghost image is an Optical illusion that refers to an image continuing to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased Users commonly report that the inanimate world appears to animate in an unexplained way; for instance, objects that are static in three dimensions can seem to be moving relative to one or more additional spatial dimensions.  Many of the basic visual effects resemble the phosphenes seen after applying pressure to the eye and have also been studied under the name "form constants". "Phosphene" is also a common alternative spelling of Phosphine, PH3 a toxic and explosive gas A form constant is one of several geometric patterns which are recurringly observed during Hallucinations and Altered states of consciousness. The auditory effects of LSD include echo-like distortions of sounds, a mixing of all sounds which makes it harder to discern distinct sounds, the feeling that what you're hearing is your thought, a general intensification of the experience of music, and an increased discrimination of instruments and sounds. In Audio signal processing and Acoustics, an echo (plural echoes) is a reflection of sound arriving at the listener some time after the direct Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental distortions of sensory perception such as synaesthesia, the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions, and temporary dissociation. Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiae or synaesthesiae)—from the Ancient Greek (syn meaning "with"
LSD is considered an entheogen because it can catalyze intense spiritual experiences where users feel they have come into contact with a greater spiritual or cosmic order. An entheogen, in the strictest sense is a Psychoactive substance used in a religious or shamanic (or entheogenic) context Some users report insights into the way the mind works, and some experience long-lasting changes in their life perspective. Some users consider LSD a religious sacrament, or a powerful tool for access to the divine. Dr. Stanislav Grof has written that religious and mystical experiences observed during LSD sessions appear to be phenomenologically indistinguishable from similar descriptions in the sacred scriptures of the great religions of the world and the secret mystical texts of ancient civilizations. Stanislav Grof (born July 1, 1931 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is one of the founders of the field of Transpersonal psychology 
Such experiences under the influence of LSD have been observed and documented by researchers such as Alan Watts, Timothy Leary and Stanislav Grof. Alan Wilson Watts ( January 6, 1915 &ndash November 16, 1973) was a British Philosopher, Writer, speaker and Timothy Francis Leary ( October 22, 1920 &ndash May 31, 1996) was an American Writer, Psychologist, Futurist For example, Walter Pahnke conducted the Good Friday Marsh Chapel Experiment in 1962 under Leary's supervision, performing a double blind experiment on the administration of psilocybin to volunteers who were students in religious graduate programs, e. The Marsh Chapel Experiment (aka " the Good Drug Experiment " was run by Walter N The blind method is a part of the Scientific method, used to prevent research outcomes from being influenced by either the Placebo effect or the Observer g. , divinity or theology.  That study provided evidence that psychotropics may induce mystical religious states. 
LSD is generally considered nontoxic; it may temporarily impair the ability to make sensible judgments and understand common dangers, thus making the user more susceptible to accidents and personal injury.
There is also some indication that LSD may trigger a dissociative fugue state in individuals who are taking certain classes of antidepressants such as lithium salts and tricyclics. A fugue state is a state of mind characterized by abandonment of personal Identity, along with the Memories, Personality and other identifying An antidepressant is a Psychiatric medication used for alleviating major depression or Dysthymia ('milder' depression Lithium in pharmacology refers to use of the Lithium Ion, Li+ as a drug Tricyclic antidepressants (abbreviation TCAs) are a class of Antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s In such a state, the user has an impulse to wander, and may not be aware of his or her actions, which can lead to physical injury.  SSRIs are believed to interact more benignly, with a tendency to noticeably reduce LSD's subjective effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs) are a class of Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, Anxiety disorders  Similar and perhaps greater reductions have also been reported with MAOIs. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( MAOIs) are a class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. 
As Albert Hofmann reports in LSD – My Problem Child, the early pharmacological testing Sandoz performed on the compound (before he ever discovered its psychoactive properties) indicated that LSD has a pronounced effect upon the mammalian uterus. The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the Sandoz's testing showed that LSD can stimulate uterine contractions with efficacy comparable to ergobasine, the active uterotonic component of the ergot fungus (Hofmann's work on ergot derivatives also produced a modified form of ergobasine which became a widely accepted medication used in obstetrics, under the trade name Methergine). Ergoline is a Chemical compound whose structural skeleton is contained in a diverse range of Alkaloids and a few Psychedelic drugs Ergot is the common name of a Fungus in the Genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, "to stand by" is the surgical speciality dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during Pregnancy Ergoline is a Chemical compound whose structural skeleton is contained in a diverse range of Alkaloids and a few Psychedelic drugs Therefore, LSD use by pregnant women could be dangerous and is contraindicated. In Medicine, a contraindication (pronounced as contra-indication is a condition or factor that increases the Risks involved in using a particular drug, 
Initial studies in the 1960s and 70s raised concerns that LSD might produce genetic damage or developmental abnormalities in fetuses. However, these initial reports were based on in vitro studies or were poorly controlled and have not been substantiated. In studies of chromosomal changes in human users and in monkeys, the balance of evidence suggests no significant increase in chromosomal damage. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells. For example, studies were conducted with people who had been given LSD in a clinical setting.  White blood cells from these people were examined for visible chromosomal abnormalities. Overall, there appeared to be no lasting changes. Several studies have been conducted using illicit LSD users and provide a less clear picture. Interpretation of these data is generally complicated by factors such as the unknown chemical composition of street LSD, concurrent use of other psychoactive drugs, and diseases such as hepatitis in the sampled populations. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to the Liver characterized by the presence of Inflammatory cells in the tissue of It seems possible that the small number of genetic abnormalities reported in users of street LSD is either coincidental or related to factors other than a toxic effect of pure LSD. 
"Flashbacks" are a reported psychological phenomenon in which an individual experiences an episode of some of LSD's subjective effects long after the drug has worn off — sometimes weeks, months, or even years afterward. A flashback is a psychological Phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden usually vivid recollection of a past Experience. Flashbacks can incorporate both positive and negative aspects of LSD trips. Flashbacks have proven difficult to study and are no longer officially recognized as a psychiatric syndrome. However, colloquial usage of the term persists and usually refers to any drug-free experience reminiscent of psychedelic drug effects, with the typical connotation that the episodes are of short duration.
No definitive explanation is currently available for these experiences. Any attempt at explanation must reflect several observations: first, over 70 percent of LSD users claim never to have "flashed back"; second, the phenomenon does appear linked with LSD use, though a causal connection has not been established; and third, a higher proportion of psychiatric patients report flashbacks than other users.  Several studies have tried to determine how likely a user of LSD, not suffering from known psychiatric conditions, is to experience flashbacks. The larger studies include Blumenfeld's in 1971 and Naditch and Fenwick's in 1977, which arrived at figures of 20% and 28%, respectively.
Although flashbacks are not recognized as a medical syndrome, there is a potentially related syndrome in which LSD-like visual changes are persistent and cause clinically significant impairment or distress. This syndrome is called Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD), though not truly hallucinogenic, a DSM-IV diagnosis. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder or HPPD is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of visual disturbances that are reminiscent of those generated The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association Several scientific journal articles have described the disorder.  HPPD differs from flashbacks in that it is persistent and apparently entirely visual (although mood and anxiety disorders are sometimes diagnosed in the same individuals).
A recent review suggests that HPPD (as defined in the DSM-IV) is rare and affects only a distinctly vulnerable subpopulation of users. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder or HPPD is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of visual disturbances that are reminiscent of those generated  However, it is possible that the prevalence of HPPD is underestimated because it can only be diagnosed in a person who admits to their health care practitioner that they have used psychotropics. 
There is no consensus regarding the nature and causes of HPPD (or flashbacks). Given that some symptoms have environmental triggers, it may represent a failure to adjust visual processing to changing environmental conditions. There are no explanations for why only some individuals develop HPPD. Explanations in terms of LSD physically remaining in the body for months or years after consumption have been discounted by experimental evidence.  Some say HPPD is a manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder, not related to the direct action of LSD on brain chemistry, and varies according to the susceptibility of the individual to the disorder. Post traumatic stress disorder It is a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to Many emotionally intense experiences can lead to flashbacks when a person is reminded acutely of the original experience. However, not all published case reports of HPPD appear to describe an anxious hyper-vigilant state reminiscent of post-traumatic stress disorder. Instead, some cases appear to involve only visual symptoms. 
There are some cases of LSD inducing a psychosis in people who appeared to be healthy prior to taking LSD. Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή "psyche" for mind or soul and -οσις "-osis" for abnormal condition with adjective psychotic This issue was reviewed extensively in a 1984 publication by Rick Strassman. Dr Rick Strassman (born 1952 in Los Angeles California, United States) is a Medical doctor specialized in Psychiatry  In most cases, the psychosis-like reaction is of short duration, but in other cases it may be chronic. It is difficult to determine if LSD itself induces these reactions or if it triggers latent conditions that would have manifested themselves otherwise. The similarities of time course and outcomes between putatively LSD-precipitated and other psychoses suggests that the two types of syndromes are not different and that LSD may have been a nonspecific trigger. Several studies have tried to estimate the prevalence of LSD-induced prolonged psychosis arriving at numbers of around 4 in 1,000 individuals (0. 8 in 1,000 volunteers and 1. 8 in 1,000 psychotherapy patients in Cohen 1960; 9 per 1,000 psychotherapy patients in Melleson 1971). 
LSD is an ergoline derivative. Ergoline is a Chemical compound whose structural skeleton is contained in a diverse range of Alkaloids and a few Psychedelic drugs It is commonly produced from reacting diethylamine with an activated form of lysergic acid. Diethylamine is a Secondary amine with the molecular structure CH3CH2NHCH2CH3 Submit to get this template or go to TemplateChembox_simple_organic. Activating reagents include phosphoryl chloride and peptide coupling reagents. Submit to get this template --> Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula 3 In Organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of Peptides which are Organic compounds in which multiple Amino acids are linked via  Lysergic acid is made by alkaline hydrolysis of lysergamides like ergotamine, a substance derived from the ergot fungus on rye, or, theoretically, from ergine (lysergic acid amide, LSA), a compound that is found in morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor) and hawaiian baby woodrose (Argyreia nervosa) seeds. Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions Ergotamine is an Ergopeptine and part of the Ergot family of Alkaloids it is structurally and biochemically closely related to Ergoline. Ergot is the common name of a Fungus in the Genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop LSA, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111, is an Alkaloid of the Ergoline family Morning glory is a common name for over 1000 Species of Flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, belonging to the following genera Hawaiian Baby Woodrose ( Argyreia nervosa) not to be confused with the Hawaiian woodrose ( Merremia tuberosa) is a perennial climbing LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist. The term chiral (pronounced /ˈkaɪɹ(əl̩/ is used to describe an object that is non- superimposable on its mirror image A stereocenter, or stereogenic centre, is any Atom in a Molecule bearing groups such that an interchanging of any two groups leads to a Stereoisomer Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 The term chiral (pronounced /ˈkaɪɹ(əl̩/ is used to describe an object that is non- superimposable on its mirror image LSD, also called (+)-D-LSD, has the absolute configuration (5R,8R). An absolute configuration in Stereochemistry is the spatial arrangement of the Atoms of a chiral Molecular entity (or group and its stereochemical The C-5 isomers of lysergamides do not exist in nature and are not formed during the synthesis from D-lysergic acid. This article is about the chemical concept For "isomerism" of atomic nuclei see Nuclear isomer. However, LSD and iso-LSD, the two C-8 isomers, rapidly interconvert in the presence of base. In Chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept Protons This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be removed by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD. Chromatography (from Greek χρώμα chroma, color and γραφειν"graphein" to write is the collective term for a family of Laboratory A totally pure salt of LSD will emit small flashes of white light when shaken in the dark.  LSD is strongly fluorescent and will glow bluish-white under UV light. Fluorescence is a Luminescence that is mostly found as an Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays
"LSD," writes the chemist Alexander Shulgin, "is an unusually fragile molecule. Alexander "Sasha" Shulgin (born June 17 1925 in Berkeley, California) is a Russian-American Pharmacologist, Chemist and " It is stable for indefinite amounts of time if stored, as a solid salt or dissolved in water, at low temperature and protected from air and light exposure. Two portions of its molecular structure are particularly sensitive, the carboxamide attachment at the 8-position and the double bond between the 8-position and the aromatic ring. The former is affected by high pH, and if perturbed will produce isolysergic acid diethylamide (iso-LSD), which is biologically inactive. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. If water or alcohol adds to the double bond (especially in the presence of light), LSD converts to "lumi-LSD", which is totally inactive in human beings, to the best of current knowledge. Furthermore, chlorine destroys LSD molecules on contact; even though chlorinated tap water typically contains only a slight amount of chlorine, because a typical LSD solution only contains a small amount of LSD, dissolving LSD in tap water is likely to completely eliminate the substance. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and 
A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of LSD in pooled urine samples.  The concentrations of LSD in urine samples were followed over time at various temperatures, in different types of storage containers, at various exposures to different wavelengths of light, and at varying pH values. These studies demonstrated no significant loss in LSD concentration at 25 °C for up to 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of incubation, a 30% loss in LSD concentration at 37 °C and up to a 40% at 45 °C were observed. Urine fortified with LSD and stored in amber glass or nontransparent polyethylene containers showed no change in concentration under any light conditions. Stability of LSD in transparent containers under light was dependent on the distance between the light source and the samples, the wavelength of light, exposure time, and the intensity of light. After prolonged exposure to heat in alkaline pH conditions, 10 to 15% of the parent LSD epimerized to iso-LSD. Under acidic conditions, less than 5% of the LSD was converted to iso-LSD. It was also demonstrated that trace amounts of metal ions in buffer or urine could catalyze the decomposition of LSD and that this process can be avoided by the addition of EDTA. EDTA is a widely used abbreviation for the Chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (and many other names see table
Because an active dose of LSD is astonishingly minute, a large number of doses can be synthesized from a comparatively small amount of raw material. Beginning with ergotamine tartrate, for example, one can manufacture roughly one kilogram of pure, crystalline LSD from five kilograms of the ergotamine salt. Ergotamine is an Ergopeptine and part of the Ergot family of Alkaloids it is structurally and biochemically closely related to Ergoline. A tartrate is a Salt or Ester of the Organic compound Tartaric acid, a Dicarboxylic acid. Five kilograms of LSD — 25 kilograms of ergotamine tartrate — could provide 100 million doses, sufficient for supplying the entire illicit demand of the United States. Since the masses involved are so small, concealing and transporting illicit LSD is much easier than smuggling other illegal drugs like cocaine or cannabis in equal dosage quantities. Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a 
Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry. Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation It takes two or three days to produce 30 to 100 grams of pure compound. It is believed that LSD usually is not produced in large quantities, but rather in a series of small batches. This technique minimizes the loss of precursor chemicals in case a synthesis step does not work as expected. 
LSD is produced in crystalline form and then mixed with excipients or redissolved for production in ingestible forms. An excipient is an inactive substance used as a carrier for the Active ingredients of a Medication. Liquid solution is either distributed as-is in small vials or, more commonly, sprayed onto or soaked into a distribution medium. Historically, LSD solutions were first sold on sugar cubes, but practical considerations forced a change to tablet form. A tablet is a mixture of active substances and Excipients usually in powder form pressed or compacted into a solid Early pills or tabs were flattened on both ends and identified by color: "gray flat", "blue flat", and so forth. Next came "domes", which were rounded on one end, then "double domes" rounded on both ends, and finally small tablets known as "microdots". Later still, LSD began to be distributed in thin squares of gelatin ("window panes", "gel tabs") and, most commonly, as blotter paper: sheets of paper which are soaked into an LSD solution, dried, and perforated into small squares of individual dosage units. Blotting paper is a Type of Paper or other Material which is used to absorb an excess of substance (such as Ink or Oil) from The paper is then cut into small square pieces called "tabs" or "hits". The user can then absorb the LSD out of the paper using his/her tongue, or simply swallow it. Individual producers often print designs onto the paper serving to identify different makers, batches or strengths, and such "blotter art" often emphasizes psychedelic themes. Modern psychedelia For "psychedelics" see Psychedelic drug.
LSD has been sold under a wide variety of often short-lived and regionally restricted street names including Acid, Trips, Blotter, and Lucy as well as names that reflect the designs on the sheets of blotter paper. Disambiguation Lucy in the Sky redirects here For the heroine of this name see Karolina Dean.  On occasion, authorities have encountered the drug in other forms — including powder or crystal, and capsule. More than 200 types of LSD tablets have been encountered since 1969 and more than 350 paper designs have been observed since 1975. Designs range from simple geometric in black and white patterns to exotic artwork in full four-color print.
The United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances (adopted in 1971) requires its parties to prohibit LSD. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations Treaty designed to control Psychoactive drugs such as Amphetamines Barbiturates Hence, it is illegal in all parties to the convention, which includes the United States, Australia, and most of Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. However, enforcement of extant laws varies from country to country.
LSD is Schedule I in the United States.  This means it is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, process or distribute LSD without a DEA license. There can also be substantial discrepancies between the amount of chemical LSD that one possesses and the amount of possession with which one can be charged in the U. S. This is because LSD is almost always present in a medium (e. g. blotter or neutral liquid), and the amount that can be considered with respect to sentencing is the total mass of the drug and its medium. This discrepancy was the subject of 1995 United States Supreme Court case, Neal v. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. U. S. 
In Canada, LSD is a controlled substance under Schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canada 's federal drug control statute  Every person who seeks to obtain the substance, without disclosing authorization to obtain such substances 30 days prior to obtaining another prescription from a practitioner, is guilty of an indictable offense and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years. Possession for purpose of trafficking is guilty of an indictable offense and liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
In Hong Kong, Lysergide and derivatives are regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance, and can be used legally only by health professionals and for university research purposes. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders The substance can be given by pharmacists under a prescription. Anyone who supplies the substance without prescription can be fined HK$10,000. The maximum penalty for trafficking or illegally manufacturing the substance is a HK$5,000,000 fine and life imprisonment. Possession of the substance for consumption without license from the Department of Health is illegal with a HK$1,000,000 fine and/or 7 years' imprisonment.
In the United Kingdom, LSD is classed as a class A drug. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This means that, without a license, possession of the drug is punishable with 7 years imprisonment and/or an unlimited fine, and trafficking is punishable with life imprisonment and an unlimited fine (see main article on drug punishments Misuse of Drugs Act 1971). The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c38 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs
Beginning in the 1950s the Central Intelligence Agency began a research program code named Project MKULTRA. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions, usually without the subject's knowledge. The project was revealed in the US congressional Rockefeller Commission report. The US President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the
Prior to October 6th, 1966, LSD was available legally in the United States as an experimental psychiatric drug. Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric (LSD "apostle" Al Hubbard actively promoted the drug between the 1950s and the 1970s and introduced thousands of people to it. Alfred Matthew Hubbard (1901&ndash August 31, 1982) became a ' Freelance ' apostle for the drug LSD in the early 1950s ) The US Federal Government classified it as a Schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control As such, the Drug Enforcement Administration holds that LSD meets the following three criteria: it is deemed to have a high potential for abuse; it has no legitimate medical use in treatment; and there is a lack of accepted safety for its use under medical supervision. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and (LSD prohibition does not make an exception for religious use. ) Lysergic acid and lysergic acid amide, LSD precursors, are both classified in Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act. The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Ergotamine tartrate, a precursor to lysergic acid, is regulated under the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act. The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 was an amendment to the Controlled Substances Act to regulate precursor chemicals essential chemicals
LSD has been manufactured illegally since the 1960s. Historically, LSD was distributed not for profit, but because those who made and distributed it truly believed that the psychedelic experience could do good for humanity, that it expanded the mind and could bring understanding and love. A limited number of chemists, probably fewer than a dozen, are believed to have manufactured nearly all of the illicit LSD available in the United States. The best known of these is undoubtedly Augustus Owsley Stanley III, usually known simply as Owsley. Owsley Stanley (born Augustus Owsley Stanley IIII, January 19, 1935) also known as The Bear, was an underground LSD chemist the first The former chemistry student set up a private LSD lab in the mid-Sixties in San Francisco and supplied the LSD consumed at the famous Merry Pranksters parties held by Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters, and other major events such as the Gathering of the tribes in San Francisco in January 1967. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The Acid Tests were a series of Psychedelic parties held by Ken Kesey in the San Francisco Bay Area during the early 1960's centered entirely around the Kenneth Elton Kesey ( September 17, 1935 &ndash November 10, 2001) was an American Author, best known for his major novels The Merry Pranksters are a group of people who originally formed around American Author Ken Kesey in 1964 and sometimes lived communally at his Rainbow Gatherings are temporary Intentional communities, typically held in outdoor settings and espousing and practicing ideals of Peace, Love, harmony He also had close social connections to leading San Francisco bands the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane and Big Brother and The Holding Company, regularly supplied them with his LSD and also worked as their live sound engineer and made many tapes of these groups in concert. The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the Psychedelic rock movement Big Brother and the Holding Company is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco in 1965 as part of the psychedelic music scene Owsley's LSD activities — immortalized by Steely Dan in their song "Kid Charlemagne" — ended with his arrest at the end of 1967, but some other manufacturers probably operated continuously for 30 years or more. Steely Dan is a American rock band centered on core members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. " Kid Charlemagne " is a song by the Rock group Steely Dan, which was released as a single from their 1976 album The Royal Scam Announcing Owsley's first bust in 1966, The San Francisco Chronicle's headline "LSD Millionaire Arrested" inspired the rare Grateful Dead song "Alice D. The San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H Millionaire. "
American LSD usage declined in the 1970s and 1980s, then experienced a mild resurgence in popularity in the 1990s. Although there were many distribution channels during this decade, the U. S. DEA identified continued tours by the psychedelic rock band The Grateful Dead and the then-burgeoning rave scene as primary venues for LSD trafficking and consumption. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and Psychedelic rock is a style of Rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. A rave (or rave party) is a term in use since the 1980s to describe Dance Parties (often all-night events American LSD usage fell sharply circa 2000, following a single major DEA operation. Because of the huge drop in LSD availability, combined with the simultaneous increased availability of Research Chemicals, much of what has been, and is currently sold as LSD since 2000, is in fact, not LSD but other hallucinogens like DOI, DOB, or 5-MeO-AMT. DOI or 25-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine is a Psychedelic drug and a Substituted amphetamine of the Phenethylamine family DOB, also known as Brolamfetamine and Bromo-DMA, is a Psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and a Substituted amphetamine of the 5-MeO-AMT or 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine is a potent psychedelic tryptamine.  These other drugs are sold by unscrupulous dealers because they are hallucinogenic and are potent enough that a single dose can fit on one or more blotter tabs and thus achieving the same appearance as typical blotter acid would. The duration of action of DOI and especially DOB is typically longer than LSD, but all of these drugs can last 12 hours or more. Importantly, the toxicity of 5-MeO-AMT and all of the hallucinogenic amphetamines such as DOI, are either unknown, or much higher than LSD, and thus the consumption of large quantities of these other drugs, under the guise of being LSD, can be potentially dangerous.
The decline in prevalence of LSD is correlated with the arrest of two chemists, William Leonard Pickard, a Harvard-educated organic chemist, and Clyde Apperson. William Leonard Pickard (born 1945 is a Harvard graduate from Mill Valley, California and a former deputy director of a University of California Clyde Apperson (born 1955 was arrested in 2000 for allegedly running the largest illicit LSD manufacturing operation in the history of the United States with According to DEA reports, black market LSD availability dropped by 95% after the two were arrested in 2000. These arrests were a result of one of the largest LSD manufacturing raids in DEA history.  Pickard was an alleged member of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love group that produced and sold LSD in California during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The Brotherhood of Eternal Love was an informal organization of psychedelic drug enthusiasts and dealers that operated in the late 1960s It is believed he had links to other "cooks" associated with this group — an original source of the drug back in the 1960s — and his arrest may have forced other operations to cease production, leading to the large decline in street availability.
The DEA claims that these two individuals were responsible for supplying a third of the LSD in the United States and maybe the world, however, the government quoted seizure amounts in connection with this case have been seriously questioned. 
In November of 2003, Pickard was sentenced to life imprisonment without parole, and Apperson was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment without parole, after being convicted in Federal Court of running a large scale LSD manufacturing operation out of several clandestine laboratories, including a former missile silo near Wamego, Kansas. The United States federal courts are the system of Courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the Federal government of the United States A missile silo is an underground vertical cylindrical container for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles ( ICBMs. Wamego (wɔˈmiɡo is a city in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, United States. 
LSD manufacturers and traffickers can be categorized into two groups: A few large-scale producers, such as the aforementioned Pickard and Apperson, and an equally limited number of small, clandestine chemists, consisting of independent producers who, operating on a comparatively limited scale, can be found throughout the country. As a group, independent producers are of less concern to the Drug Enforcement Administration than the larger groups, as their product reaches only local markets. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and